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HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 
JUL 1 1914 

«HARLES ELLIOTT PER.CINS 
KIEMORIAL COLLECTIOU 



.1 ^- - 



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Improvcncnt Era, 



oacmti or 



Young Men's Mutual Improvement 
associations. 



VOLUME II. 



PUBLISHED BY THE GENCRSL BOARD. 



JOS. F. SMITH, 
^Sdltors. 



JOS. F. SMITH, ) 

B. H. ROBERTS. > 1 

BDW. H..ANDHRSON. 1 

THolVuf^^^^' I ^"^^ Manager.. 



SRLT L\KC CITY, UTAH: 
1695-9. 



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IMPROVEMENT ERA, VOLUME U. 

INDEX TO SUBJECTS. 



PAGB. 

Abdallah and Sabat 260 

Across the Pacific 46 

Acts of Special Providence in 
Missionary Experience 229, 

263,361,45a. 534 

Agnosticism, What A. is 100 

Agnostics, Inconsistency of... ^ 301 

"America" 926 

Anecdotes of St. John, Legend- 
ary 459 

Animal Life and Pishing, Cur- 
ious 887 

Answers to Interesting Ques- 
tions 275, 467 

Articles of Faith, The 623 

Aspirations of Youth 613 

Association Officers, To 957 

As to Music 155 

Attitude of the Church towards 

Reform-Political Parties 310 

Autumn Days 317 

A Word about the Bra 394 

A Word to Missionaries 156 

A Word to Young Latter-day 

Saints 614 

A Word with Young Men 601 

Aziola, The 418 

Battle of Trafidgar 659 

Beautiful Thing, A 547 

Bible as a Factor in Bducation, 

The 370 

Bible, Modem Value of the 230 

Bible, What Version to Buy of 

the 620 

Bigotry Opposed to Progress... 368 

Book- Companions 138 

Book Review 549 

Boy's Faith, A 454 

Brahmo-Somaj 401 

Buddhism 81 

Building of a Man, The 21 

Case of Miraculous Healing, A 815 
Change of Heart, The Neces- 
sity of a 527 

Character of our Assailants 817 

Church of Jesus Christ of Lat- 
ter-day Saints at the Parlia- 
ment of Religions, The 584, 

673.750.831, 893 

Civilization vs. Barbarism 854 

Clyde, Scenery of the 3^4 

Comfort to the Afaicted 690 



PAGE. 
Conference, Annual Y. M. and 

Y. L. M. I. A 707. 789 

Conference, The Recent Im- 
provement 701 

Conference, Y. M. M. I. A. 620 

Confucianism 338 

Continuity in Character 927 

Conversation 54i 

Cottage, a Highland 920 

Course of Study, Our 157 

Cowdery, Oliver 90 

Creation 18 

Curious Animal Life and Fish« 
ing 887 

Daybreak.^ 866 

Death of Col. Ingersoll 862 

Dream Fulfilled, A 686 

Dream of Youth, A 258 

Dre3rfus and the Administra- 
tion of Law in France 321 

Drink and Tobacco, Evils oL... 881 
Duty 166 

Early Scenes and Incidents in 
the Church 187, 267, 347.419. 

529. 590. 652, 729, 8oi 
Edison, A Story of the Inventor 373 

Editor's Table: 
Acts of Special Providence in 

MissMMiary Experience, 229 
Answers to Interestmg Ques- 
tions 467 

Articles of Faith, The 623 

Attitude of the Church To- 
wards Reiorm-Political 

Parties , 3W 

Beautiful Thing, A 547 

Book-Companions 138 

Book Review 549 

Icarian Community, The New 135 

Improvement Era 69 

L^fe-Influencing Maxims..... 227 

Long Live the Prophet 67 

Modem Value of the Bible... 230 

Official Announcement 467 

Philippine Problem, The 381 

Place ofMan in the Universe, 

The 785 

Power of Religion, The 545 

Prompter, The 382 

Rebate on Subscriptions to 
Stakes i43 



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INDEX TO SUBJECTS, 



ttt. 



PAG9. 

Recent Imwovement Confer- 
ence, The 701 

Reformation by Religion 624 

Return of the Volunteers..... 870 
Talks to the Young Men: 

Fruits of the Spirit 699 

I/eam A Trade 867 

Tendency to Deify Evil, 

The 944 

Tithing, Some Words on... 781 
What Version of the Bible to 

Buy 620 

Where Virtue is 384 

Y. M. M. I. A. Conference... 620 
Education, The Bible as a Fac- 
tor in 370 

» Education, The Mormon Point 

oi View in 119 

Emperor William's Visitto Pal- 
estine 302 

Evening Star, The 597 

Events of the Month, 79, 159, 
236, 318. 398. 477> 556» 638. 

716, 7?9» 878. 959 
Evils of Drink and Tobacco, 
and Some Remedies There- 
for 881 

Expansion, Territorial 425 

Faith, The Justification of 194 

Finish the Course of Study 393 

France, Two Claimants to the 

Throne of. 513 

Free Agency Philosophy of.... 38 
Friendship, Love and Truth... 27 

From Faith to Faith 332 

From the Arabic 107 

Fruits of the Spirit 699 

Fulfillment of Dreams 263 

Garcia, A Message to 909 

General Improvement Fund... 315 

Get More Manuals 232 

Gift of Healiiig, The 819 

Giits of the Gospel 97>324, 447 

God Knoweth Best 829 

God, The Personality of. 15 

Gospel, Gifts of the 97, 224, 447 

Gospel Studies: 
Inward Kingdom of God Ne- 
cessary to Salvation, An 217 
Outward Kingdom of God 
Necessary to Salvation, 

An 291 

Reality and Significance of 
Heaven and Hell, The 

443, 518, 606, 841 . 



PAGB. 

Gospel, The Leaven ofthe 504 

Government and Leadership, 

Groundwork for 486, 617, 693 

Groundwork for Government 

and Leadership 486, 617, 693 

Habits 280 

Hail Columbia 485 

Hearts of Oak 697 

Heaven and Hell, The Reality 
and Significance of 442, 518, 

606, 841 

"He Shall Perish,''.. 801 

Hinduism 176 

Highland Cottage, A 921 

His Light 886 

History of the Old School Mas- 
ter, The 936 

Honor thy Parents 734 

Hope Thou in God 922 

How to Get a Testimony 691 

Icarian Community, The New 135 
Iceland Republic and its Legal 

System, The 167 

I Hear it Yet 290 

Improvement Era j59 

Improvement Association Offi- 
cers to be Set Apart 154 

Improvement Association, The 

Far East 152 

Incident of the Black Forest, 
and the Apache Indians of 

Arizona, An 366 

Inconsistency of A^ostics 301 

Influence of Religion on the 

Mind 779 

Ingersoll, Death of Robert 

Green 862 

In Lighter Mood, 74, 148, 314, 
389» 473»552, 628, 706, 873, 950 

Inspiration, Philosophy ofl 38 

Inward Kingdom of God Neces- 
sary to Salvation, An.. 217 

Islam, The Spirit of 490 

James and John 281 

Judaism, Historical 28 

Justification of Faith, The 194 

Just a Hint or Two 955 

Lake at Sunset, The 489 

Lamentation on the Death of a 

Father 331 

Last Hours of Dr. Harry A. 

Young 641 

^Law of Tithing, The 299 



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INDEX TO SUBJECTS. 



PAGB. 

Laws of Religion, The 303 

Leayen of the Gospel, The 504 

Learn aTrade 867 

Legendary Anecdotes of St. 

John 459 

Life and Character Sketch of 

Lorenzo Snow ^ 561 

Life-Influencing Maxims, 229, 

539» 690 

Life'sChase 503 

Life's Obstructions 907 

Lighter Mood, In 74, 148, 314, 

389. 473, 55a. 628. 706. 873, 950 
Liquified Air, The Wonders of 497 
Lives of the Apostles: 

Simon Peter 208 

James and John 281 

Paul 351 

Longfellow's Bridge at Mid- 
night, On 579 

Long Live the Prophet 67 

Lorenzo Snow, Life and Char- 
acter Sketch of. 561 

Man, The Building of a 21 

Manila and the Part Taken by 
the Utah Batteries in its Cap- 
ture 161 

Manual for 1897-8, A Third Edi- 
tion of„ 397 

Manual for 1899,-1900 798 

Manual, Life of Jesus. 71 

Meeting After Absence 496 

Meetings by Returned Mis- 
sionaries^ 875 

Membership Permanent 233 

Message to Garcia, A 909 

Ministering to the Afflicted 692 

Midnight Musings 933 

Miraculous Interpositions of 
Providencence Against the 
Bnemies of Righteousness, 

Some «... 534 

Missionary Experiences 598 

Acts of Special Providence in 
Missionary Experience, 229, 

263, 361 > 452. 534 
Case of Miraculous Healing 

A 815 

Character of Our Assailants, 

The 817 

Dream PulfiUed, A 686 

Gift of Healing, The 819 

Temptation, or Godsend 687 

Way Opened Through Faith, 

The « 818 



PAGB. 
Missonary work in the South, A 

Sample of.. 456 

Missionary Work in Utah Stake 554 

Model Stake Report, A 631 

Modem Value (» the Bible 230 

Mormon Church, The 241 

Mormon Point of View in Edu- 

cation,The , 119 

Moral Qualities of Milton^ 359 

More About Tithing 464 

Morning Star, The 201, 605 

Music, 

See the Mighty Angel Ply- 
ing « 240 

My Life 814 

Mysterious Visitor, A 409 

Napoleon 571 

Nature 175 

Necessity of a Change of Heart, 

The 527 

Night 266 

Notes, 72, 144, 231, 312, 387, 
472, 550. 627. 704, 788, 872. 947 

Oliver Cowdery «. 90 

Old Schoolmaster, The History 
ofthe 936 

On a Faded Violet. 672 

On Longfellow's Bridge at Mid- 
night 579 

Oriental Religious Faiths: 

Brahmo-Somaj 401 

Buddhism 81 

Confucianism .*.. 338 

Hinduism... 176 

Historical Judaism 28 

Origin and Nature of Man from 
the Standpoint of Revelation 
and Reason 767, 820, 914 

Our Course of Study 157 

Our Work: 
Annual Conference of the Y. 
M. and Y.L.M.L Asso- 
ciations 707, 789 

As to Music 155 

Association Officers, To 957 

Correspondence Bureau Pro- 
posed, A 76 

Far feast Improvement Asso- 
ciation, The 152 

Finish the Course of Study, 393 
General Improvement Fund, 315 

Just a Hint or Two 955 

Get More Manuals^ 232 

Manual for 1899 798 



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INDEX TO SUBJECTS. 



V, 



PAGB. 

Meetings by Returned Mis- 

sionaries^ 875 

Membership Permanent 233 

Missionary Work in Utah 

Stake « 554 

Model Stake Report A 631 

Mutual Improvement Asso- 
ciation Officers to be Set 

Apart 154 

Our Course of Study 157 

Raiding Newspapers » 316 

Report of Mutual Improve- 
ment Missionary Work. 395 
Report of Mutual Improve- 
ment Missionary work 

for 1899 553 

September Work 877 

Statistical Report of the Y. 

M.M.I. A.. 796 

Summer Lectures 716 

Third Bdition of Manual for 

1897-8 A 397 

Trainmg Young Men to Smg 

475. 629 

Use of Missionary Bras, The 232 

Word About the Era, A 394 

Word to Missionaries, A 156 

Writing as a Means of Im- 
provement 952 

Young Men's Association in 

Old Syria, A. 635 

Pacific, Across the 46 

Palestine, Emperor William's 

Visit to 202 

Parliament of Religions, The 
Church of Jesus Christ of 

Latter-day Saints at the 

584, 673. 750, 831, 893 
Parting and the Meeting, The 850 

Past and Future 126 

Past Year, The 222 

Paul 351 

Personality of God, The 15 

Philippine Crime, The Story 

of a. 481 

Philippine Problem, The 381 

Philosophy of Inspiration, Free 

Agency and Revelation 38 

Place of Man in the Universe, 

The 785 

Plea for Mormon Civilization, 

^ A 775, 85^ 

Poetry: 

Aspirations of Youth „ 613 

Autumn Days 117 

Aziola, The 418 



PAGB. 

Creation 18 

Daybreak 866 

Dream of Youth, A 258 

Duty.. 166 

Evening Star, The 597 

Friendship, Love and Truth 27 

From the Arabic 107 

God Elnoweth Best. 829 

Hearts of Oak 697 

His Light 886 

I hear it Yet 290 

Lake at Sunset, The 489 

Lamentation on the Death of 

a Father 331 

Life's Chase 503 

Meeting After Absence 496 

Midnight Musings 933 

Ministering to the Afflicted.. 692 

Morning Star, The 201, 605 

My Life 814 

Napoleon 572 

Nature 175 

Night 266 

On a Faded Violet 672 

Parting and the Meeting, 

The 850 

Past and Future 126 

Past Year, The 222 

Prayer 14 

Sacred 463 

Song to Sorrow, A 434 

Sonnet 369, 913 

Souvenir, A 441 

Spring 424 

Sword, The 346 

Time 512 

To Blossoms 526 

To the Husbandman 517 

Wars's Drum 892 

Winter Thoughts 226 

Why Must it be 860 

Political Samoa 435 

Polysophical and Mutual 741 

Power of Religion. The 545 

Prayer 14 

Progress of the War 56, 128 

Prompter, The 382 

Promptings of the Still Small 
Voice 452 

Questions, Answers to Interest- 
ing 275. 467 

Reading Newspapers 316 

Reformation and Religion 624 



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INDEX TO SUBJECTS. 



PAOB. 

Reality and Significance of 
Heaven and Hell, The 442, 

518, 606, 841 
Rebate on Subscriptions to 

Stakes 143 

Religion as a Comfort in Old 

AjB^ and Adversity ^ 934 

Rebg^on, The Laws of. 303 

Remarkable Case of Religious 
Devotion and Self-Sacrince... 748 

Report, A Model Stake 631 

Report, Annual Y. M. M. I. A. 

Statistical 796 

Report of Mutual Improvement 

Missionary Work 395 

Report of Mutual Improvement 
Missionary Work for 1899.... 553 

Return of the Volunteers 870 

Revelation, Philosophy of In- 
spiration, Free Agency and 3S 

Sacred 463 

Samoa and her Neighbors 335 

Samoa, Political 435 

Samoa, The Eden of the Pacific 733 
Sample of Missionary Work in 

the South, A 456 

Scenery of the Clyde 304 

Scotch Characteristic, A 309 

See the Mighty Angel Flying, 

(Music) 240 

September Work 877 

Simon Peter 208 

Sister's Sentiment, A 692 

Soil, A Voice from the 108 

Song to Sorrow, A 434 

Sonnet 369, 913 

Some Selections Worth Study- 
ing 930 

Souvenir, A 441 

Spain, Progress of the War 

with :...56, 128 

Spirit of Islam, The 490 

Spring 424 

Star Spangled Banner, The 583 

Statistical Report of the Y. M. 

M. I. A.. 796 

Story of a Philippine Crime, 

The ^ 481 

Story of Edison, The Inventor, 373 

Storyofthe War, A 850 

Stranee Dwelling, A 942 

Stumbling Blocks 721 

Summer Lectures 716 

Sword, The 346 

Syria, a Young Men's Associa- 
tion in Old 635 



PAGB. 

Tale for the Twilight, A 409 

Talks to Young Men, 

Fruits of the Spirit ^ 699 

Learn a Trade 867 

* Tithing, Some Wordson 781 

Temptation, or Godsend? 687 

Tendency to Deify Evil, The... 944 
Tennessee Massacre, An Un- 
published Letter on the i 

Territorial Expansion 425 

Testimony, How to get a 691 

Tide of Life, The 775.856, 923 

Time....«. 512 

^Tithing, More About 464 

^^thing. Some Words on.. 781 

Tithing, the Law of...-. 299 

To Blossoms 526 

To the Husbandman 517 

Trafalgar, The Battle of. 659 

Training Young Men to Sing, 

475» 629 
Two Claimants to the Throne 
of Prance 513 

UniversilT Association, The.... 241 
Unpublished Letter on the 

Tennessee Massacre, An i 

Use of Missionary Eras, The... 232 
Utah Batteries, The Part Taken 

by, in the Capture of Manila 161 

Voice from the Soil, A 108 

Volunteers, Return of the 870 

War, The Progress of the.. .56, 128 

War's Drum 892 

Way Opened Through Faith. 

The 818 

What Agnosticism is 100 

What is Man? 377 

What Version of the Bible to 

Buy 620 

Where Virtue is 384 

Why Must It Be? 860 

Winter Thoughts 226 

Wonders of Liquified Air, The 497 

Word About the Era, A 394 

Word to Missionaries, A 156 

Word to Young Latter-day 

Saints, A 614 

Word with Young Men, A 601 

Writing as a Means of Improve- 

* ment 952 

Young, Last Hours of Dr. Harry 
A 641 

Young Men's Association in 
Old Syria, A 635 



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IMPROVEMENT ERA, VOLUME IL 

INDEX TO AUTHORS. 



NAMB. PAGB. 

Adams, Samuel L 97 

Anderson, Edw. H ^ 623 

Anderson, Nephi 332, 561 

Andrus, Robert 691 

BeU, Henry G I75 

Bjomson, Bjomstjeme 936 

Brimhall, Dr. Geo. H 927 

Buckley, E - 243, 244 

Burdick, Arthur J 489 

Campbell, Thos 597 

auflf.Prest.W.W. 363,454,687, 748 

Crockett, Fred W 15, 45^ 

Crocheron, Geo. W 692 

Cowdery, Oliver 187, 267, 

347> 4I9» 529. 590» 652, 729, 807 
Cowley, Apostle M. F 263, 447 

Davis, K. R 866 

Davey, Sir Humphry 779 

Davis, John H 224 

Daybell, William. 686 

Dharmapala, H 81 

Done, Prof. Willard...2o8, 281, 351 
Dutcher, Edward William 942 



NAMB. FAGS. 

Lama8ter,W. H 100 

Landon, Miss 346 

Lee, W. 335, 435. 735» 887 

Lester, William 540 

Lyman, Cha8.R 554 

Madsen, Bishop Christian A 

486, 617, 693 

Marshall, MariaA 814 

Maycock, Philip S 636 

Mendes, Rev. Dr. H. Periera... 28 

. Montgomery 27, 613 

Mont^ue 303 

Moore, D 201, 605 

Morris, Nephi L 459 

Morgan, C. B 463 

Mozoomdar, Protab Chunder... 401 
Musser, J. W 817 

Naisbitt, Henry W 21, 741 955 

Neeley, Enos A 818 

Nicholson, John 38, 767 820 914 

Nelson, Prof. N. L ....217, 291, 

443, 518, 606, 841 
Nye, Ephraim H 815 



Eckart,NinaWinslow 117 Esmond, Alfred 850 

Palmer, William R 692 

Parry, Edwin F 301 

Pearson, Sarah E 226, 331, 697 

Penrose, C W 275 

Perry, Lilla C 496 

Preston, Bishop W. B 299, 464 

Reynolds, Geo 801 

Reynolds, Sidney S 456 

Ricks, Hon. Hyrum 690 

Richards, Apostle Franklin D. 

241, 243. 244. 601 

Richards, Samuel W 18,90, 377 

Roberts, Hon. B. H....119, 194, 

504. »*» 584. 673, 750, 831, 893 

Robison, Willis E i 

Rodgers, Andrew L 366 

Schultz 503 

Scott of Am¥rell 892 

Seaman, Geo. A 46, 152 

Sears, J. S 538 

Shelley 418, 672 

Snow, Prest. Lorenzo 467 

Smith, The Prophet Joseph 189 

Somerville Jooxnal 441 



Famsworth, Mary A 860 

Fitzfferald, M. D 310 

Freddeton, John 539 

Goddard,Geo 614 

Goethe 517 

Herrick 526 

Hiffginson, Ella 3^ 

Hi^Geo. E 497 

HoKuneHsien 338 

Hubbard Elbert 909 

Hull. Thos 79, I59„ 236, 318, 

398.477.556,638,717,799, 

878, 959 
Hunt, Leigh 424 



Ingebretson, James 126 

819 



Jensen, Parley P.. 

Johnson, Albert J 

Jones, Geo. M 155 

Kazinczy 913 

Kennedy 290 

Kimball, Elias.. 534 

EInox 512 



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INDEX TO AVTBORS. 



NAME. PAOB. 

Southey 659 

Stephens, Prof. Evan 240 

Stohl, Oleen N 631 

Stanford, T. Y 513 

Sundwall, Peter, Jr 76 

Tanner, Prof. J. M 202, 321, 425 

Tennyson 14 

Torgeirson, John 167 

Vivekananda, Swami 176 

Walker, C. L 933 



NAME. PAGB. 

Ward, J. H 775, 856, 923 

Webb, Mohammed 490 

Whitney, Bishop O. F 571 

Whittier J. G 886 

Widtsoe, Prof. John A 108 

Wilberforoe 934 

Wolfe, Walter M 721 

Wootton, A...280, 368, 527, 854, 907 

Young, Maj, Richard W. 161, 

481, 641 
Yoang, Dr. Seymour B 881 



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IMPROVEMENT ERA. 



Vol. n. NOVEMBER, 1898. No. 1. 



AN UNPUBLISHED LETTER ON THE TEN- 
NESSEEsfMASSACRE* 



A^THRILLING NARRATIVE. 

BY WILLIS B. ROBISON, PRESIDENT OP THE WAYNE STAKE OP ZION. 



[Prefatory Note.— On the 10th of August, 1884, Elders John 
H. Gibbs and Wm. S. Berry, together with two Condor brothers, were 
murdered at the Condor farm, Cane Creek, Tennessee, just as they 
were beginning Sabbath morning services. They were killed by a 
mob of armed men, some, if not all, of whom were masked. The 
number of men in the mob has been variously estimated at from 
fifteen to thirty. The leader of the mob was killed by one of the 
Condor brothers after the Elders were shot. Mrs. Condor, the 
mother of the two boys, was savagely [wounded after the others 
were killed. 

A few days after the killing, and after the visit to the scene 
of the massacre related by President Robison, Elder B. H. Roberts 
went to the perilous place, exhumed the bodies with his own hands, 
and took them to Nashville, where they were placed in the care of 



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2 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Elder Robison. He brought them to their homes, where the last 
sad rites were performed in their honor, amid general mourning 
throughout all Hon. — Editors.] 

Salt Lake City, Utah, 

March 12th, 1895. 
Elder B. E. Roberts, 

Dear Brother: — ^In accordance with a promise made by me at yonr 
request, I will write for your benefit a brief account of the part I took 
in the State of Tennessee at the time of the massacre of Elders John H. 
Gibbs and William S. Berry, and also some few items connected with the 
journey home with their bodies, after you had secured them. The length 
of time that has elapsed since then, and the entire absence of notes of refer- 
ence at my disposal, will make my account perhaps a little faulty as to 
minor details, and perhaps as to exact dates as well. Should you find in 
the latter errors that are apparent, please make the proper corrections. 
And in these few words of preface permit me to say that I am thankful 
that I was considered worthy of being entrusted with the responsibility 
of bringing the bodies of my martyred brethren home to Zion; and in 
my life's history there is no page of which I feel more proud, than the 
one which records the faithful performance of that trust. And in the 
great beyond where I hope to meet them, I trust this act may be another 
cementing bond between us, for I believe they will not be unappreciative 
of anything that tended to bring their mangled remains home and re- 
store them to their families, and that the lustre emitted from their Mar- 
tyr's crown, may shed a few glimmering beams across my pathway. 

Yours in the Gospel, 

Willis E. Robison. 

PRESroENT ROBISON'S NARRATIVE. 

Sunday, August 10th, 1884, is a date that will be ever memor- 
able in my life. On that day Elder Willard H. Robinson of Salina, 
Utah, and myself held a meeting according to previous appoint- 
ment at the house of Brother George W. Seals, on Cedar Creek, in 
Dickson County, Tennessee. At that meeting, and during the whole 
day a spirit of sadness prevailed that I never before witnessed in 
my labors, and on account of which our meeting, so far as the 
preaching was concerned, was a failure. After the dispersion of the 
people I went out into the peach orchard and sat down under a 
tree where I could be alone, not caring to talk to anyone, and 



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A THRILLING NARRATIVE. 3 

my companion felt much the same as I did. While sitting there 
Sister Seals came out and hunted me up, and with tears streaming 
down her cheeks, asked me what they had done that I was offended 
at them; said she and her husband knew something had transpired 
that had wounded my feelings, and desired to know what it was, 
that they could make reparation. I could with difBculty make her 
believe otherwise than that such was the case. I make mention of 
this to show the spirit of sadness that was prevalent at that time. 

I had not seen Elders Gibbs, Jones, Berry, and Thompson for 
some time, and according to appomtment made by mail they were 
to meet Elder Robinson and myself at McEwen on the next Tuesday, 
and get their mail, which had been accumulating for some weeks, 
and then we were to spend a day together on Blue Greek, close by^ 
where we had many friends. 

On the 11th Brother Robinson and I walked over to Blue Greek, 
where we waited for the other Elders, stopping at J. L. Ghoats'. 
I think we waited there all day Tuesday, and then the brethren 
not having arrived, we concluded something had detained them. 
We felt that we could wait no longer, as we had been opening up 
a new field, and felt we should return to it agam. So we bade Mr. 
Ghoats' family good-by, and leaving a message for the Elders, when 
they should come, started for our field of labor. Thinking that 
something regarding their delay might be learned at the post office, 
we went by McEwen to inquire, when we got to town, where we 
were somewhat acquainted. We then heard first of the sad event 
— of the murder of some, or all, of the Elders we had been waiting 
for. The papers contained the account of the meeting at Brother 
Gender's, the attack of the mob and the [killing of the Mormon 
preachers; but the accounts were very conflicting. One statement 
was that all were dead, another assumed the fact that only one or two 
were killed, and the others were hid in the woods, but desperately 
wounded. In fact no two rumors seemed to agree, to give us any 
definite information, but it was very patent there was something in 
the report. Our depression of spirits the Sunday previous, the 
failure of the Elders to appear at the time agreed upon, and above 
all the fact that we knew they intended holding meeting on Gane 
Greek at the time the killing was alleged to have occurred, gave 
an air of credibility to the whole affair. I will not attempt to de- 



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4 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

scribe how I felt under the chrcomstances; language is insufBcient. 
Suffice it to say I had labored with those brethren and formed at- 
tachments snch as Mormon missionaries alone can form. And with 
one of them (Elder Thompson) I had left home, and together we 
had labored with no feeling except that of perfect harmony ever 
existing between us; and now to think of some of them lying dead, 
shot down like dogs, and some of them lying fatally wounded in the 
woods, with no one to minister to their dying wants, or give them 
a cheering word, was more than I could stand. Then a hope pre- 
sented itself, that after all the rumor might be an exaggerated 
one, and matters might not be so bad as represented. The only 
way I knew of to relieve myself of the suspense was to go and see 
for myself. Believing I could do better by going alone I went back 
to Mr. Cheats with my companion, and left him there, and notwith- 
standing the protests of my friends, started for Cane Creek. I 
wore an old shirt and some jeans pants and a pair of heavy boots 
to give me the appearance of a laborer. That day I walked to a 
station, the name of which I have forgotten, (Gillem) but it was 
where the little narrow gauge raibroad ran down to Centerville. I 
stayed at a hotel there that night, partly to pick up some informa- 
tion and partly because I could ride part way down on a train in 
the morning. I claimed to be going down to Wayne County to get 
a job of cotton picking. The next morning I rode to Centerville 
on the tram. I will here digress and state that I had heard very 
much about the murder by this time; everybody was talking about 
it, and it was justifiable in their opinion, as the Elders were repre- 
sented as being a low-down lot of scoundrels and blacklegs; and I 
learned that the people residing there were determmed to stamp 
Mormonism out of their midst. I want to state that I had fully 
weighed all these things, and the chances of being able to make 
the journey in safety, and of course relied on a power superior to 
man, to guide my actions. After leaving Centerville and walking 
a few miles, I did something that I have often wondered at, and to 
this day whether I did right or wrong is not clear to my mind. 

Knowing that the citizens of the country were acquainted with 
the fact that we wore our garments as underclothing, and fearing 
if I fell into the hands of amob and my body was searched for evi- 
dence of my identification my garments might give me away, I 



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A THRILLING NARRATIVE. 5 

took them off, rolled them up in a neat package and climbing a 
bushy tree, concealed them among the branches. 

My course now lay along an old unused raibroad track leading 
from Centerville to Buffalo. This track had been torn up during 
the war, and had never been repaired. It ran through a wild, heavily 
timbered country with no habitations visible for some miles. While 
passing along through this part my eye caught sight of two men 
partially concealed just ahead of me. Had there been any doubt in 
my mind as to their having seen me I would probably have made 
a detour, and gone around them. But, like a flash it came to me, 
that they were there to intercept any Elders that might be going 
to Cane Greek; and knowing that I was in for it, I walked boldly 
forward. As I came up they met me with the usual ''Hello, thar, 
stranger ! ^ to which I answered, 'Hello yourselves ! " They asked 
me to sit down with them on the track, as they wanted to talk to 
me. With this I complied, and they then began to ply me with 
questions, as to my business, where I was from, and where I was 
going, and the reason I was traveling afoot. I answered their 
questions by stating I was going down towards Wayne County 
in search of a job of cotton picking, that I was somewhat ac- 
quainted there, etc. And in reply to their questions as to whom I 
knew there, I told them the Praters, the Rileys, the Jobs, New- 
bums and some others, taking care to select the names of such as 
from a previous acquaintance I knew were hostile to the Mormons. 
As was customary among laborers there in warm weather I had 
thrown my shirt open in the front, which fact they were not slow 
to notice, as my breast was [exposed; and one of them remarked 
that I wasn't tanned up very badly. I said my health had been poor 
and I had not done much out-door work of late. They still seemed 
suspicious and offered me some tobacco to chew. I acccepted it, 
and having been formerly a user of the weed before going on my 
mission, it did not make me sick. The men now suggested that as 
they were out hunting they might as well walk along a little way 
with me; and so we started out slowly, talking as we went. Just 
ahead of us was a high trestle work, that we had to walk over. 
They asked me if iwalking over trestles made me dizzy. One of them 
said it made him dizzy, but it didn't affect Joe; and suggested that 
Joe go ahead and I should follow him while the other fellow brought 



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6 IMPRO VEMENT ERA. 

up the rear. I thought it was perhaps a plan to push me off, and 
claim it to have been an accidental fall on my part, as in all proba- 
bility such a fall would have killed me instantly; but to have shown 
any fear or suspicion of them at that time would have been fatal 
to the character I was assuming, therefore I agreed to the propo- 
sition, and we started out in the order named with a full determi- 
nation on my part that if I went over one of them should accom- 
pany me. After walking some distance we stopped and held 
another parley in which they came out and frankly told me that I 
could go no further; that if I was not a Mormon Elder myself, 
people would take me for such, traveling afoot as I was, and I 
would be killed as the others had been; that the whole country was 
ablaze with excitement, that the killing of Gibbs and Berry was a 
justifiable act, as they had been seducing all the women they had 
baptized, etc., and the Mormons must be rooted out. If I chose 
I might go back but I could not proceed. I laughed at what they 
said and told them if I was liable to be killed for a Mormon preacher 
I would stay with them a few days until the present excitement was 
allayed, or perhaps I might get a job of work in their neighborhood 
as I was not particular if I secured employment of some kind. 
After some further talking they said I might proceed but to go by 
the way of Hoenwall instead of Cane Creek. I thanked them for 
the suggestion and we separated, I to resume my journey, and they 
to resume their watch for some Mormon Elder (B. H. Roberts, I 
presume) who would be bold enough to try to reach his friends 
on Cane Creek. 

When I reached Buffalo River I was at a loss just which way 
to go, as the road was not at all familiar, I having traveled it but 
once before, and that in the winter when there were no leaves on the 
trees; and I dared not make enquiries, for be it remembered that I 
had been warned to goby the way of Hoenwall,and should some party 
be still watching to see if I followed the suggestion, and find that 
I did not intend to do so, I might not be allowed to proceed. But 
I knew enough of the country to know that I was not more than 
four or five miles from Cane Creek, and so turned aside in the 
woods to wait until darkness came to hide me, as 1 did not dare to 
go farther in daylight. When night had come I started out again 
and selecting what seemed to me to be the best route or trail, I 



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A THRILLING NARRATIVE. 7 

proceeded very cautiously, and at about eleven o'clock came to a 
little creek that seemed somewhat familiar to me on account of 
its peculiar looks. It was named Slippery, and flowed into Cane 
Greek as I remember about two miles below Brother Condor's 
house. I followed this creek down until it came to the larger creek 
(Cane) and then I knew where I was. I can assure you I felt much 
better than when rambling through the woods uncertain as to 
whether I would come to the proper place or not. I now pro- 
ceeded quietly up the creek until I came to the house of Brother 
Talley, and thought it would be a good idea to wake him up, and 
get him to go to Brother Condor's with me, or at least to give me 
some information of the true condition of affairs so I might know 
just how to proceed. So I knocked at the door and his dogs barked 
around me, (as only southern dogs can bark) and made noise 
enough to have wakened any one, but I could get no reply to my 
knocking. I told them who I was, what I wanted of them, and 
asked that I might be allowed to come in and at least talk with 
them, but all to no avail. I could get nothing from them although 
I could hear them at times whispering among themselves. Not 
daring to remain in argument too long for fear of being overheard 
by some one else, I finally left just as wise as when I came, with this 
conviction firmly settled in my mind, that they dared not come to 
the door for fear of being killed. I learned afterwards that this 
was the case; they thought it was the mob trying to test their 
loyalty to the Elders, and felt if they opened the door to let in a 
supposed Mormon Elder they would all be killed. 

Prom Brother Tally's I went on up the creek to the Condor 
homestead, my experience having convinced me that it would be a 
useless waste of time to try to wake any one else to go with me. 
Arriving at the house, I saw a glimmer of light underneath the 
door and heard an indistinct murmur of voices inside. You may 
remember a large stump just outside the gate. I got behind this 
to be protected from stray shots from the house should I again be 
mistaken for a mobocrat by some unseen watcher inside, who might 
be rendered desperate by what had been suffered by the family. 
I then threw a handful of gravel against the door to attract atten- 
tion, when immediately all became quiet inside. I now went to the 
door and told them who I was and asked to be admitted. A wom- 



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8 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

an's voice then replied and told me to go away, that I had caused 
enough suffering already there to satisfy the fiends of the infernal 
regions. ^That thejiElders had been killed, the two sons of the 
family as well, and the 'aged mother now lay wonnded seriously 
and might die at any time, and she begged me to go away and leave 
them alone. But I had come too far to be out-argued this time, 
and boldly told them that I would not do it; I was not a mobocrat, 
but what I claimed to be, and insisted on giving details of my visit 
to them in the previous winter to substantiate what I said. By 
this time Brother Condor, who had been asleep up stairs, had been 
awakened, and came down and began to talk to me, recognized my 
voice and let me in. On entering all were glad to see me for a 
minute and then fear came over them. Brother Condor said the 
roads were all guarded and the mob would know I had come in 
and would soon be there, and I would be killed and perhaps some 
of them as well. In fact I never saw people so badly frightened 
as they were, and also the kind neighbors who were sitting up 
with Sister Condor. But I told them there was no danger; that I 
had been very careful, and in coming down Slippery Creek (which 
Brother Condor said was guarded) not even a dog had barked at 
me. I wanted to know just how matters stood, who was killed and 
who was wounded, and all connected with it. Then they told me, 
the first facts I had received. That Elders Gibbs and Berry and 
the. two boys were all killed and had been buried; that Elders 
Jones and Thompson were unharmed and safe among friends; that 
my visit could do no good and they were anxious for my safety and 
wanted me to go as soon as I would. I had had nothing to eat 
since early in the morning and it was now one o'clock in the night; 
so they prepared me something to eat, and a lunch to take with 
me, and after staying just one hour at their house, I left. I will 
not give the details of the killing of, the Elders as told me there, 
as you are fully acquainted with them. But I will say that when 
I fully understood that all was done that had been done, the dead 
buried, the others unharmed and in a place of safety, I felt to 
leave the enemies' country as soon as possible. I will say for 
Brother Condor, although he felt very bad, yet his faith in the 
Gospel was not weakened by what he had passed through; he ac- 
knowledged the hand of the Lord in his bereavement. His wife, 



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A THRILLING NARRATIVE. 9 

who was propped up in bed smoking ^a cob pipe, did not seem so 
resigned as he did; but I could overlook that in her, suffering as 
she was both in body and spirit. Brother Condor insisted that in 
going away I should follow no road or path for fear of being cap- 
tured by the mob. The moon was just rising above the tree tops 
when I bade them all good-by at the house. Brother Condor went 
a short distance with me to the edge of the timber, and then in 
parting told me to keep my face in the direction of the moon, and 
in^about four miles I would come to Ithe Buffalo River somewhere 
near the old railroad bridge, and as I knew the track was on my 
left, I need not get lost. 

I need not tell you of my journey in the night through that 
four miles of woods, with neither road nor path to guide me; of 
the briers and brambles I came in contact with; the fallen trees 
to clamber over; the thickets to penetrate; and last but not least, 
the dew that soaked through my clothes and wet me to the skin, 
and made my boots, which were new and unbroken, draw my feet 
up till I could hardly walk. Suffice it to say that just as day was 
dawning I came to the river, close to the bridge. Hunters were 
out hunting game with their hounds. I could hear the dogs bay- 
ing in all directions, and the road to the bridge ran through a lane 
for about a mile, with farm houses close on either side. I did not 
know just what to do; to go ahead would mean, perhaps, discovery 
by some one not jfriendly, and my appearance, to say the least, 
would excite suspicion; and to remain concealed for a whole day 
and wait till night did not suit me, because I knew Elder Robin- 
son and my friends on Blue Creek would be full of anxiety for my 
safety. While hesitating just what course to pursue, one of those 
heavy river fogs suddenly settled down on the scene before me 
and seemed almost to have come on purpose for my benefit. I 
hastily pulled off my wet bopts, and with one in either hand I 
struck the railroad ties in my stocking feet like a professional tie 
counter, only I went on the double quick. I could hear the people 
talking while doing their chores, sometimes but a few rods from 
me, but I passed through the lane and across the bridge unchal- 
lenged and unobserved; and worn out, I plunged into the woods on 
the other side to rest for a short time. I will say that the fog only 
lasted long enough for me to get into the woods, and then rose. 



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10 IMPRO VEMENT ERA. 

and the morning came on as beautiful as bright sun shine could 
make it. I had now walked steadily for nearly twenty-four hours, 
and thought to get a little sleep before resuming my journey; but 
anxiety was too great on my mind. I could not close my eyes; my 
thoughts kept wandering from my present situation to the Elders in 
the field, and what effect the murdering of them would have among 
the people, and I thought of their families at home, and kindred 
subjects connected therewith, until I gave up all idea of sleep and 
concluded to go on. I now made the discovery that my feet were 
swollen so badly that I could not get my boots on, pull hard as I 
could, so I took my knife and split them open in front and suc- 
ceeded in getting them on in that way. 

Resuming my journey, I had not gone far when in turning a 
curve in the road I was suddenly brought to a stand-still by three 
men stepping out of the woods in !my path, and I realized that I 
was again hailed as a suspicious character. Although these men 
were, neither of them, the ones whom I had met the previous day, 
they were fully posted in relation to the interview that occurred 
at that time and boldly charged me with either being a Mormon or 
a spy, and asked my reasons for .returning so quickly, instead of 
proceeding further south as I claimed was my intention the day 
before. I replied that I was unfortunate enough to be compelled 
to travel on foot because I had no money to travel otherwise; that 
I found the people very much excited over the event that had lately 
occurred on Cane Greek, and a fear of being mistaken for a Mor- 
mon, who I understood always went on foot, had caused me to 
hesitate on the risks to be run; and further that walking had used 
me up; that my feet were so badly swollen that I could scarcely 
travel and had been obliged to cut my boots to accommodate them 
(which fact showed for itself); and that I had concluded to go 
back home and let cotton picking go for the present. Now, 
whether my experience of the day before had enabled me to get 
up a better line of defense to justify my proceedings, or whether 
these men were less suspicious than the others, I do not know. But 
I succeeded with less difficulty than upon the other occasion in 
maintaining the character I had assumed. Finally with many ad- 
monitions of caution lest I be taken for a Mormon, they allowed 
me to proceed. My walk from there to Centerville was uneventful. 



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A THRILLING NARRATIVE. 11 

I crippled along until I reached Centerville, then took the little nar- 
row gauge back to Gillem, At Gillem I would have to wait for 
about four hours for the regular express to come along to take me 
on to McEwen, and as I had but three dollars in money and I knew 
my companions had none, I thought I would walk a few miles 
and stop with a friend, and then walk through the next day and 
save my money to buy some new boots. But after going a mile 
or two a feeling came over me not to proceed but to go back and 
take the train and go on to McEwen that night. The more I thought 
of it the more convinced I was that such would be the proper 
course to pursue, and I acted accordingly. I went back to Gillem 
and waited for the train and arrived at McEwen about eleven 
o'clock at night. It was still four miles to Mr. Cheats where I had 
left Elder Robinson, but I walked out there in about an hour, waked 
up the family, and found him gone. You may remember that you 
wrote me a letter from Nashville, askinfir us to come there as soon 
as we could and meet you at Gilchrist's Hotel. I had been 
gone longer than I anticipated, and Elder Robinson and Mr. 
Cheats' family had come to the conclusion that I had met with 
the fate of the other Elders, and he. Elder Robinson, had gone on 
that night to Billy Hooper's with the intention of proceeding im- 
mediately to Nashville in the morning, having guessed from the 
writing and postmark the letter was from you and opened it. I 
now could see the reason why I was impressed to go back to Gil- 
lem and wait for the train; if I had not done so all the next day 
I would have been traveling west towards McEwen, and he would 
have been traveling east towards Nashville. As it was, Mr. 
Cheats mounted a boy on a horse and had^ihim go to Hooper's 
and stop him until I came along. I will say nothing concerning 
our walk to Nashville, over one hundred miles, which we made in 
two and a half days, although if time permitted there might be 
several items of interest connected with it. But suffice it to say, 
that at the end of that time two travelers, one of them at least, 
tired, weary, and foot-sore, might have been seen walking along 
the pike that passes by the penitentiary and leads into the city of 
Nashville. I had been at the Gilchrist hotel and was somewhat 
acquainted in the city and had no difficulty in finding the place 
where you requested me to meet you. But when the clerk re- 



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12 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

f erred to the hotel register he announced that yon had been there 
some three or f onr days ago, but had gone and he knew not whither. 
Of course this news was quite a disappointment to us and left us 
in a quandary how to proceed. But remembering there was a 
branch of the Church at Baird's Mills, in Wilson County, we con- 
cluded to go there for the present as we had no money to wait at 
the hotel. Elder Robinson was for going on that night by train, 
as we had enough money between us to pay our fare there, but I 
felt otherwise. I said I was worn out with the journeying of the 
last few days, and that we would stay in town that night and have 
a good rest and then start the next morning and walk the distance, 
so we bought a big melon for our dinner, having had none as yet, 
and then to loiter away the balance of the day went down to the 
depot. We asked at what time the train left for Wilson County, 
(Baird's Mills) and were told that it would be about six in the even- 
ing, and if we wished we might remain in the waiting room until 
that time. Now that is just what we did wish, for some place to 
lounge around and spend the day instead of going to a hotel 
where we would have to pay for lounging around. After awhile I 
left the waiting room and sauntered out for no apparent object or 
purpose, and seeing a crowd gathered at some (^stance curiosity 
prompted me to see what was attractmg them. After elbowing 
my way among them I found they were viewing two caskets, and 
heard the words "Mormon Elders, killed on Cane Creek," and upon 
investigation found it to be really the bodies of Elders Gibbs and 
Berry, that had been buried at Cane Creek only a few days before. 
And then I knew you or.some one else was with them. I hastened 
back and found Elder Robinson and told him what I had discovered 
and we put ourselves on duty as sentinels to await developments. 
Nor had we long to wait until we saw Elder Thompson approach- 
ing, who seeing us at the same time, motioned us to follow him 
and then turned and left the depot. I need not dwell upon our 
meeting and the subsequent meeting of you and me in the waiting 
room, where you were waiting in disguise, nor to other events, in- 
cluding a visit with you to the newspaper oflSces to try to get the 
true condition of the affair before the public,and your final conclusion 
to send me home with the bodies of our brethren, instead of com- 
mg yourself as you had anticipated. All this you will remember. 



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A THRILLI^G NARRATIVE. 13 

and I will not refer to them, and only say that that same night abont 
twelve or one o'clock, if my memory serves me right I left Nash- 
ville on my homeward trip. Nothing of importance occurred un- 
til I arrived at Cairo, Illinois. There a drunken fellow came aboard 
the train who claimed to be a nephew of the preacher that headed 
the mob at Cane Creek,and who was killed by young Hudson or Condor 
at the time,and swore he would kill me,f or you will know that on the 
train I was a noted character. '%ome Mormon preachers had been 
killed down in Tennessee. They were said to be guilty of all the 
crimes imaginable, including seduction and adultery, which was 
part of their religion, and the people down there stood it as long 
as they could and then killed them as they ought to have done, 
etc., etc., and this fellow is now taking their dead bodies back to 
Zion." 

These and other remarks of a similar kind greeted my ears 
every few minutes, so that everybody knew who I was. Conse- 
quently when the preacher's nephew came aboard he had no diffi- 
culty in finding me. But the officers prevented any hostile demon- 
stration on his part further than cursing and swearing at me in par- 
ticular and the whole Mormon Church in general. We had to 
cross the river and change cars at Cairo and the conductor would not 
allow ihe corpses again to be put aboard the cars, but they were 
set on the ground, and the people yelled, '*Throw them in the river." 
I produced and pointed out the certificates of death, showed they 
had died from gun-shot wounds, and not from any contagious dis- 
ease, and showed the tickets to Kansas Cityland demanded my rights, 
and defied them to proceed without me and the bodies of the 
Elders. Finally when they saw they could not bluif me and 
after wrangling for a few minutes with the train waiting to 
start, I was allowed to put them on the cars. At Kansas City you 
will remember you were to have a man meet and assist me, and gave 
me his address. But I could find no such person. I bought tickets 
for the Elders (dead men's tickets) and myself from here to Utah. We 
had to change depots, and I had a repetition of the Cairo scene. 
Notwithstanding the certificates of death and the exhibition of their 
tickets the trainmen would not allow me to put them on the cars, 
the conductor declaring he would quit his job first if the company 
wanted them taken. Here a compromise was worked up. I was 



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14 IMPROVEMENl ERA. 

aUowed to put them on the platform and lash them with ropes to 
prevent their shaking off. The night came on wet and rainy and 
I felt that perhaps the ropes might, by getting wet, break, and so I 
took another turn at the baggage-master and succeeded in getting 
permission to put them inside at the next station. Thus matters 
went on until I arrived at Pueblo, Colorado, where I met the first 
kind word that I had received on the whole trip, from a big yard- 
master, with a Cleveland badge on his breast. You will remember 
it was just previous to Cleveland's first election. 

I had to lay over in Pueblo for a few hours and also change 
cars, and this man insisted that I go in the office and rest myself 
and he would wire Brother Morgan as to my whereabouts and also 
see the cofiins were properly transferred, all of which he did as 
promised. I soon after fell in with Sheriff John Turner, of Provo, 
and was also met the next day by the special car that came to meet 
the bodies, and I was once more among my friends. 



PRAYER. 



More things are wrought by prayer 
Than this world dreams of. Wherefore let thy voice 
Rise like a fountain for me night and day, 
For what are men better than sheep or goats 
That nourish a blind life within the brain, 
If, knowing God, they lift not hands of prayer 
Both for themselves and those who call them friend? 
For so the whole round world is every way 
Bound by gold chains about the feet of God. 

Tennyson. 



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THE PERSONALITY OF GOa 

BY ELDER FRED. W. CROCKETT. 



What kind of being is God? To this question there are diver- 
sities of answers and opinions, so far different that one shudders at 
the thought of reconciliation. One contends that He is mere spirit, 
while another dives deeper into absurdity and as a result of his 
explanation establishes the inconsistent theory that God has neither 
parts nor passions; that He is not a substance and is everywhere 
and nowhere at the same time. Thus we see the many conJBicting 
ideas with respect to the make-up and nature of God. At this 
juncture the question may be asked, since the matter is of vital 
importance to our future welfare, as we have seen from the above 
statements, how are we to ascertain the true character of God and 
thus determine the correctness or erroneousness of the above men- 
tioned theories? To this I reply let us go to His witnesses and 
from them glean the necessary information. 

God created man in His own image. This must be counted as 
a collateral evidence that there is at least a striking similarity 
between God and man. When we behold man, we behold also the 
likeness of the Creator Himself. In the book of Genesis we are 
told that after the great deluge when man was destroyed for his 
disobedience, the earth resumed its natural beauty. The Prophet 
Noe by way of gratitude and appreciation for the great kindness 
and favor of which he had been the recipient, built an altar to the 
Lord and offered up burnt offerings demonstrative of his thankful- 
ness. The Lord smelled the sweet savor that arose from the altar 
and said in His heart, I will no more smite everything living as I 
have done (Gen. 8: 21). We are forced to conclude from this part 



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16 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

of scripture that God has at least one of the senses possessed by 
man, namely, the sense of smell. These evidences may appear to 
some as weak and insignificant, but how can they be explained 
away? Some no doubt will assert that the evidence is taken from 
the Old Testament, and that renders it invalid and unreliable because 
it is said that Christ nailed the old scriptures to the cross. This 
argument, however, is not only unreasonable, but absurd and illogi- 
cal. Christ's doing away with the old law does not rob it of its 
divine origin or establish the fact that it is not the word of God. 
The Old Testament is just as much the word of God as the New. 
The same God that created Adam lives today, and instituting a law 
through His only begotten Son does not take one iota of divinity 
from the old law. Christ, Himself, said before the New Testament 
was extant, ''Search the scriptures, for in them ye think ye have 
eternal life, and they are they which testify of me" (John 5: 39). 

We are told that Moses, Nadab, Abihu and seventy of the 
elders of Israel saw God and there was under His feet as it were a 
paved work of sapphire (Ex. 24: 10). Further along in the same 
book we read that when Moses had made an end of communing with 
the Lord upon Mount Sinai, two tables of testimony were given him 
which were written by the finger of God (Ex. 24: 21). Moses tells 
us that the Lord spoke to him face to face as a man speaks to his 
friend. 

Thus far we have obtained all of our evidence aflSrmatory of 
the personality of God from the Old Testament. Let us now turn 
our attention to the New, and perchance it may afford additional 
proof that will strengthen the testimony already produced. 

After feeling the keen agonies of torture and the heart-bursting 
pains of the cross our Savior died, was buried and was resurrected. 
They who gazed in tender sympathy and in awful sorrow upon the 
inspiring countenance as it languished upon the cross and as the 
last shade of life faded away, also beheld the body reanimated and 
the glorious victor shining with immortal light. Three days after 
the crucifixion the beloved Son arose and for many days waDced and 
communed with His chosen subjects. They to whom He manifested 
Himself after His resurrection stood in awe and wonderment. They 
had witnessed His life ebb away on Mount Calvary, but they had 
quite forgotten what He told them on one occasion while in Galilee, 



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THE PERSONALITY OF GOD. 17 

that on the third day He would arise. Nevertheless He who had 
died was now before them. They stood in an attitude of fear, 
supposing they had seen a spirit, and the Master, fully understanding 
the situation, made the following reply: ''Behold my hands and 
my feet, that it is myself; handle me and see, for a spirit hath not 
flesh and bones as ye see me have." 

This proving insufficient to convince their skeptical minds. He 
asked for meat ''and they gave Him a piece of broiled fish and honey 
comb, and he did eat before them" (Luke 24). Here was the Savior 
— a resurrected being — eating before His disciples to convince them 
that though He had suffered death He still lived with a body of 
flesh and bones. Let us not lose sight of the fact that it was with 
this identical body of flesh and bones that He ascended to heaven. 
Paul the apostle declares in writing to the Hebrews that Christ was 
the brightness of His Father's glory and the express image of His 
person (Heb. 1: 3). 

Taking the foregoing in its literal and true sense we plainly 
see that God is as Christ was after His resurrection, a personal being, 
with a body of flesh and bones. 

As further evidence corroborative of the matter under con- 
sideration, we read of Stephen at the time he was stoned looking up 
into heavoQ and beholding Christ at the right hand of the Father 
(Acts 7). Who, I ask, can in front of this mass of testimony now 
produced, deny the personality of God? Is any man so incredulous 
and bereft of discernment that he sees no beauty or grandeur in 
the divine fact of the personality of God? After this abundance 
of incontrovertible testimony who can advocate the illogical theory 
that God is a mere spirit? 

In my estimation it seems that no heart susceptible to the en- 
tertainment of divine truths can in any way avoid the acceptance 
and advocacy of the facts arrived at in the above argument. 



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18 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 



CREATION. 



What field for thought this word supplies. 
O'er which to range 'mid earth and skies; 
Nor can the great Creator's plan 
Be fathomed by the mind of man. 

Wonders in science, art, and skill. 
Combine the ethereal space to fill 
With worlds and systems eternized, 
For spirit homes celestialized.] 

Sun, Moon, and Stars have worshiped been. 
And fabled into fancied gods; 
By sons of Him who made them all, — 
His works adored, but not His words. 

This earth was once in beauty dress'd 
Celestial hands arranged it all. 
For perfect man, and happiness. 
In which he dwelt before the fall. 

Painters may sketch with rarest skill, 
In all the fairest colors known; 
And yet the lily of the field. 
Surpasses aug)^t that they have shown; 

The sculptor too in faultless form. 
May shape the image of his mind; 
And yet how worthless when compared. 
With life in forms, by God enshrined! 

The chemist may the air dissolve. 
And all the gases separate; 
Its vital power for man destroy. 
Disease ax^d death thus generate. 



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CREATION. 19 

No other science makes pretense, 
Nor can so well all natnre scan; 
Twill analyze and synthesiie 
All componnds known to search of man. 

For life all elements designed, 

Onr God created — ^then ordained; 

By skill dissolved, transposed, and changed, 

They're means of death— life is not gained. 

Thus there is proof that all God's works» 
By loftiest science are combined; 
To earth — to man, this law applied. 
Will bring perfection as designed. 

The streams of water in the earthy 
Like veins and vital blood in man, 
Ck>nvey life's thrill to all its parts>. 
Tis in the great Creator's plan. 

Each change of seasons on the earth 
Gives vigor to prodnctive powers; 
From day and night, to human life. 
Comes vital strength from restful hours. 

The air we breathe, is food to earth, 
Like man, it could not live, but in it. 
And viewed in every thoughtful light, 
Is type of men who dwell upon it. 

It lives, and moves, and honors law, 
Sustains humanity and others. 
In bearing and in feeding life, 
Becomes the very best of mothers. 

How well its author must have known 
The wants of those for whom created! 
How well intelligence divine 
Knew earth and man must be related. 



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20 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Nay earth hath more than honored law. 
Has borne the corse and sins of others. 
And with its like in all the spheres, 
Shall e'er in kinship be as brothers. 

So mnch like man is earth itself, 
That bom again they both mnst be; 
By water cleansed, by fire refined. 
From taint of sin shall both be free 

Earth, air, and water all agree — 
Their powers of element combine. 
And act in perfect harmony. 
To consummate the grand design. 

The heavens are high above the earth. 
But earth than they shall higher be. 
And with exalted worlds on high. 
Shall dwell in glory numbered three. 

All living things thus joined in life, 
Naught can exist with power to sever, 
For man and worlds shall being have. 
And by God crowned, be His forever. 

Samuel W. Riehardi. 



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THE BUILDING OF A MAN. 

BY BLDEE H. W. NAKBITT. 



In all divme procedure as seen or revealed there is nothing 
saperflnons; everything has its uses, and where human observation 
has failed as yet to apprehend this, the conclusion from things known 
is, that final discovery is inevitable. 

Now man, it is said, is the highest, the most important product 
of this earth at least; to him all things are subservient; for him all 
things were made. So far as other creations are concerned, he 
may be, is, ''a little lower than the angels," and Shakespeare's im- 
mortal apostrophe may not be strictly applicable to every phase of 
tribal or national development; yet the highest, the brightest, the 
best, are simply the outgrowth of faculty inherent in the lowest, 
however dormant or incapable of present manifestation; for through- 
out the fleeing centuries it has not been found that any new faculty 
has been engrafted into man's constitution or forced upon him by 
any outside pressure; the normal powers, faculties, etc., have but 
been quickened, cultivated, enlarged by necessities and use. 

It is easy to perceive that while the Creator ''made man up- 
right, he hath sought out many inventions," and the legitimate 
action of personal endowment has been dwarfed, perverted, or abused 
at the instance of power, whatever form that power might assume. 

Holy writ afSrms that ''God hath made of one blood all the. 
nations of the earth," but Science presumes to classify and by in- 
ference at least, would establish a series of creative efforts, ignor- 
ing all the forces of ages and conditions which with isolation and 
fostered enmity between the parts, made new types possible in the 
human, as mocUfications and types within the memory of a genera- 



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22 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

tion, have been made easy in the animal kingdom. Not that new 
forms of animal life have been evolved or created, but variety at 
the instance of intelligence has established the type. 

The farther inference follows, that when the primitive nnity or 
homogeneity of humanity was infringed upon; when sin entered into 
the world and human passions began to exert themselves; when war 
and collision suggested dispersion; isolation, climate, diet, king- 
craft and priestcraft operating upon sensitive faculty created bias, 
prejudice, hatred, and war, even to the death. 

Is it then possible that the present diversity, while subject to 
and no doubt utilized in the divine purpose, is it possible, we ask, 
that the nationalities and tribal relations of the earth are truly 
artificial, the product of human device, and sustained today by the 
plausible theories of nationalities? Or do they exist at tiie in- 
stance of conquest, of which there are quite modem instances in 
plenty, where power has overthrown old institutions, compelled the 
change of language, and subjected past loyalty to strain so severe 
and far reaching, that a later generation would be unfamiliar with 
the tongue, the habits, and the institutions of their fathers? 

For men are the product of institutions. The Mongolian, 
Americanized for a generation, is unlike his fathers; the Hawaiian 
is not what he was before the advent of Captain C!ook; our aborig- 
ines are but a shadow of what they were when the Pioneers 
crossed the plains. The processes of modification and amalga- 
mation are going on in these United States under the same law that 
operates in Alsace and Lorraine under German rule, in Hungary 
and Poland under Russian domination, and everywhere else, as ob- 
servation will establish. 

The agencies of modem civilization, however, are only begin- 
ning to be felt in the breaking down of the antiquated barriers 
erected by usurpation; schools and culture, the printing press and 
books; facilities of travel and the attrition of contact, are demon- 
•strating on a colossal scale, that there is no essential enmity be- 
tween the varied sections of mankind. World's fairs, international 
exhibitions, conmierce and barter, travel and experience are the 
alchemists which are dissolving the crust formed of craft and solidi- 
fied by age; men are appearing before each other in the guise of 
friends; free intercourse and interchange of products are impressing 



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THE BUILDING OF A MAN. 23 

upon the tmiyersal mind the idea that humanity is one, that the 
hitherto isolated individualities and nationalities are a necessity, 
and can be a blessing to each other. 

Even the preaching of persecuted, emasculated Christianity, 
has been a potent factor in creating international comity; in up- 
rooting superstition; in broadening the thought; and preparing the 
way under Providence, for the revealment and propagation of that 
higher — ^because purer and more potent — doctrine of the Gospel, 
which alone presents the unity of divine purpose and of divine 
procedure, and applies this to [the almost obsolete idea of man's 
unity by creation and brotherhood. Hence the irrefragable con- 
clusion that revelation from the Creator is absolutely needed for 
the working out of human destiny as it appears to the prescient 
mind of "Him with whom we have to doP 

All the organizations and institutions of man's wisdom have 
been the outgrowth of special intention to perpetuate a special 
type. French institutions and rule have been used expressly; Eng- 
lish methods have been used successfully; and our young nation 
prides itself, as its predecessors did, in securing the love and alle- 
giance of the subject, his loyalty and life, to the support and 
furtherance of this nationality. Even the iconoclast in either 
country evinces no intention of nullifying but rather of increasing, 
establishing, perpetuating, consolidating, or extending this local 
national thought beyond the boundaries of its original domain. 

In all this there is little thought of manhood buUding in the 
abstract, but the Englishman per se, the German, the Frenchman, 
the American is the desired product of friction, discipline, training, 
and education. Travel and experience obliterate this narrowness, 
and the intelligent man of opportunity becomes generous, cosmo- 
politan, "a man of the world," assimilating to the type of a veri- 
table child of God, although early association may have woven its 
poetic tendrils into the very fibres of his heart. 

It would appear to the looker-on as if these ideas should be 
fundamental in this glorious country of ours, and that in the 
education of its future citizens, every part of man or woman 
nature should be certain of all needed culture; not the mental only, 
but the industrial; not the two combined alone, but the spiritual 
or religious also; because the religious faculty is imbedded in 



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24 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

human nature. It is this which gives man preeminence over the 
animal kingdom; it is the crown of humanity; perverted, it be- 
comes superstition; enlightened, it becomes Christian, or why 
boast ourselves as being a Christian nation? Why engage in a 
war the essence of which was declared to be Christianized hxunani- 
tarianism? Besides, if God is a myth, if religion is a nonentity, 
if there is nothing beyond local responsibility differing in China 
and America, in Spain and Cuba, upon what does the superstructure 
of social morality, integrity, and righteousness rest, or can society 
simply fall back upon the heathenish thought, ''Let us eat and 
drink, for tomorrow we die"? 

Not only should "man-building" be based upon the culture of 
his whole nature, but all his preceptors, his educators should 
understand this nature and. what he hopes to accomplish by its 
culture. A teacher who is deficient or ignorant of this, is hardly 
fitted for his high and sanctified office. If great things can be 
compared with meaner ones, the question might be asked, if a wise 
man would entrust a valuable farm to one knowing nothing of land 
or crops? Would he entrust the building of a house to one un- 
acquainted with lumber, brick, mortar, and the intended uses of 
that house? Or in the arrangement and completion of a dwelling, 
would an architect be justified in overlooking the room or rooms 
which typify best the meaning of the word home? Or would it 
be wisdom to spend all a person's means in embellishing the upper 
parts, if the foundation was defective, neglected, or unsafe? 

The comer-stone of a magnificent edifice always commands 
special attention; the comer-stone of man-building in the image 
of God, is the intelligent cultivation of the religious sentiment. 
And it may be asserted broadly, without fear of contradiction, that 
no man is a thoroughly competent educator unless he understands 
the nature, the purpose, the destiny of that rare element of man- 
hood which he may direct or pervert as jus ignorance or intelli- 
gence may determine. 

It is a pleasant thing to contemplate, it is a grand thought to 
cherish, it will be sublime when universal and heavenly in its full 
fruition, for it can hardly be appreciated or realized now. But the 
Church Schools of Utah have sei^ upon this idea in the spirit 
thereof. Many professors and teachers are now grappling with 



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THE BUILDING OF A MAN. 25 

this essential dogma; theology is being tanght systematically; 
young men and women are learning the alphabet of life; ''the 
powers of the world to come" are being invoked in the acquisition 
"of knowledge; they now see (if dimly) the outlines of their earthly 
mission. A few are ''seeking wisdom as for hidden treasure f' im- 
pressions are being f ormed, and there are ahready indications of 
the development of a new type of manhood and womanhood, ihe 
product of new and effectual institutions, because divine. The 
day is not far distant when traversing the continents and isles of 
the sea, men shall say of such, "that man (or woman) was bom in 
ZSon," just as the world have said, "that man is a Jew," or of Israel. 
The influence of Grod-given institutions is written on his forehead 
where faithfulness and obedience have been the maxim of his gen- 
erations. 

It is religion (true religion) that must save the world; sectar- 
ianism cannot do it; education (intellectual) cannot do it; super- 
stition cannot do it; nor science, nor politics, nor wealth. God 
hath determined that it shall be done by Jesus Christ; by the 
preaching of His Gospel; by the aid of His Priesthood and the 
growth of His Church, with the aids and auxiliaries thereof; among 
which are all organizations "from the kindergarten to the univer- 
sity," each breathed upon by His Spirit, illuminated by inspiration, 
guided by principles revealed from heaven, and applied to every 
condition of man upon the earth, from "the hewer of wood and 
drawer of water" to the statesmen and rulers in the high places of 
the earthi 

It is a great thing to have made a beginning; to hold the keys; 
to con the alphabet, and to study the science of eternal life. The 
intelligent workers may be few; they may only know from hour to 
hour what they shall do next, yet if they know the voice of God, 
if susceptible to the whisperings of "the still small voice," there 
will be advancement, "slow but sure," "without observation," yet 
like the temple of Solomon "rising like an exhalation," "without 
even the sound of ax or hammer or any tool of iron being heard 
therein." 

It is the mission of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints to solve this educational problem. It was no empty boast 
made by the Prophet when he said, "/ combat the errors qf ages; I 



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26 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

meet the violence of mobs; I cope with illegal proceedings from 
executive authority; lent the Gordian knot qf powers; I solve mathe" 
maiical problems (f universities with truth — diamond truth, and God 
is my right hand man!" 

There is a mania for enlightenment which is one-sided, in that 
it only considers material things. The world is becoming ''heady, 
highminded, lovers of themselves, rather than lovers of Godf self- 
laudation and personal aggrandisement is the spirit of the age; 
''great / and little u" foreshadows trouble; men are left to them- 
selves, having no use for God, for faith, for religion, for truth, or 
their fellow-man, only as he may be used as a lever to lift themselves 
to power. 

Mormonism is God's protest against this drift; the teachings 
of His servants are a protest against selfishness, and the asserted 
shrewdness of worldly wisdom. The Church Schools are a protest 
against education without religion, against the cultivation of the 
head and neglect of the heart; and (shall it be deemed presump- 
tuous to say) unless "the little leaven can leaven the whole lump," 
the boasted education of this age, scholastic, political, financial, 
and religious, will fail to stem the flood of immorality which threat- 
ens us this very day. Our institutions will go down, our liberties 
will be overthrown, and our example will perish from the earth. 
The homes, the schools, the pulpits, the forums of the land must 
stand for purity, for honor, for manhood, for faith and God, or 
catastrophe is as inevitable as the fate of the nations of old, who 
gave themselves up to pleasure and "perverted the right way of 
the Lord." 



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FRIENDSHIP, LOVE, AND TRUTH. 

When friendship, love, and truth abound 

Among a band of brothers, 
The cup of joy goes gaily round, 

Each shares the bliss of others. 
Sweet roses grace the thorny way 

Along this vale of sorrow; 
And flowers that shed their leaves today 

Shall bloom again tomorrow. 
How grand in age, how fair in youth. 
Are holy friendship, love, and truth! 

On halcyon wings our moments pass. 

Life's cruel cares beguiling. 
Old time lays down his scythe and glass, 

In gay good-humor smiling; 
With ermine beard and forelock gray, 

His reverend front adorning. 
He looks like winter tum'd to May, 

Night soften'd into morning. 
How grand in age, how fair in youth, 
Are holy friendship, love, and truth! 

From these delightful fountains flow 

Ambrosial rills of pleasure; 
Can man desire, can heaven bestow, 

A more resplendent treasure? 
Adom'd with gems so richly bright. 

We'll form a constellation. 
Where every star, with modest light. 

Shall gild his proper station. 
How grand in age, how fair in youth, 
Are holy friendship, love, and truth! 

Montgomery. 



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ORIENTAL REUGIOUS FAITHS- 

I. 

fflSTOmCAL JUDAISM. 

BY REV. DR. H. PEREIRA IfENDES, NEW YORK. 



Our history may be divided into three eras, — ^first, the Biblical 
era; second, the era from the close of the Bible record to the pres- 
ent day; third, the future. 

The first is the era of the announcement of those ideals which 
are essential for mankind's happiness and progress. The Bible 
contains for us and for humanity all ideals worthy of human effort 
to attain. I make no exception. 

The attitude of historical Judaism is to hold up these ideals 
for mankind's inspiration and for all men to pattern life ac- 
cordingly. 

The first divine message to Abraham contains the ideal of 
righteous Altruism — "Be a source of blessing." And in the mes- 
sage announcing the Covenant is the ideal of righteous ego- 
ism, "Walk before me and be perfectf* "Recognize me, God; be a 
blessing to thy fellow-man; be perfect thyself r Gould religion 
ever be more strikingly summed up? 

The life of Abraham, as we have it recorded, is a logical re- 
sponse, despite any human failing. Thus he refused booty he had 
captured. It was an ideal of warfare not yet realized — ^that to 
the victor the spoils do not necessarily belong. Ghildless and old, 
he believed Grod's promise that his descendants should be numerous 
as the stars. It was an ideal faith! That also, and more, was his 



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ORIEhTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS. 29 

readiness to sacrifice Isaac, — a sacrifice ordered to make more pub- 
lic his God's condemnation of Ganaanite child sacrifice. It revealed 
an ideal God, who would not allow religion to cloak outrage up- 
on holy sentiments of humanity. 

To Moses next were high ideals imparted for mankind to aim 
At. On the very threshold of his mission the ideal of ''the father- 
hood of God** was announced, — 'Israel is my son, my first bom,'' 
implying that other nations are also his children. Then at Sinai 
were given those ten ideals of human conduct, which, called the 
** Ten Commandments," receive the allegiance of the great nations 
of to-day. Magnificent ideals! Yes, but not so magnificent as the 
three ideals of God revealed to him, — ^first, God is Mercy! second, 
God is Love! third, God is Holiness! 

"The Lord thy God loveth thee!" The echoes of this are the 
commands to the Hebrews and to the world: 'Thou shalt love the 
Lord thy God, with all thy heart, with all thy soul, and with all 
thy might;" "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself." "Thou 
shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart; ye shall love the stranger." 

God is Holiness! "Be holy! for I am holy; " it is God calling 
to man to participate in His divine nature. 

To the essayist on Moses belongs the setting forth of other 
ideals associated with hinu The historian may dwell upon his 
"Proclaim freedom throughout the land to its inhabitants." It is 
written on that Liberty Bell, which announced "Free America P' 
The politician may ponder upon his land-tenure system; his decla- 
ration that the poor have rights; his limitation of individual wealth; 
the relation he established between church and state. The preacher 
may dilate upon that Mosaic ideal, Sebright with hope and faith, — 
wings of the human soul as it flies forth to find God, — that God is 
the God of the gpiriU of all flesh! It is a flash-light of inmiortality 
upon the storm-tossed waters of human life. The physician may 
elaborate his dietary and health laws, designed to prolong life and 
render man more able to do his full duty to society. 

The moralist may point to the ideal of personal responsibility. 
The exponent of natural law in the spiritual world is anticipated 
by his "Not by bread alone does man live, but by obedience to di- 
vine law." The lecturer on ethics may enlarge on moral impulses, 
their correlation, free will, and such like ideas; it is Moses who 



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30 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

teaches that the qaickening cause of all is God's revelation — ''our 
wisdom and our understanding," and who sets before us ""Lif e and 
death, blessing and blighting/' to choose either, though he advises 
''choose the life." Tenderness to brute creation, equality of aliens, 
kindness to Servants, justice to the employed! What code of ethics 
has brighter gems of ideals than those which make glorious the 
law of Moses? 

As for our other prophets, we can only glance at their ideals 
of purity in social life, in business life, in personal life, in political 
life, and in religious life. We need no Bryce to tell us how much 
or how little they obtain in our commonwealth to-day. 

So, also, if we only mention the ideal relation which they hold 
up for ruler and people, that the former ''should be servant to the 
latter," it is only in view of its tremendous results in history. 
For these very words licensed the English revolution. From that 
very chapter of the Bible the cry, "To your tents, Israel," waa 
taken up by the Puritans who fought with the Bible in one hand. 
Child of that English revolt, which soon consummated English lib- 
erty, America was bom, herself the parent of the French Revolu- 
tion, which has made so many kings the servants of their peoples. 
English liberty! America's birth! French Revolution! Three tre- 
mendous results truly! Let us, however, set even these aside, great 
as they are, and mark those three grand ideals which our prophets 
were the first to preach. 

First, universal peace, or settlement of national disputes by ar- 
bitration. When Micah and Isaiah announced the ideal of univer- 
sal peace, it was the age of war, of despotism. They may have 
been regarded as lunatics. Now all true men desire it, all good 
men pray for it. And bright among the jewels of Chicago's cor- 
onet in 1893, was her Universal Peace Convention. 

Second, universal brotherhood. If Israel is God's first-bom, 
and other nations are therefore his children, Malachi's "Have we 
not all one Father?" does not surprise us. The ideal is recognized 
to-day. It is prayed for by Catholics, by Protestants, by Hebrews, 
by all men. 

Third, universal happiness. This is the greatest. For the 
ideal of universal happiness includes both universal peace and uni- 
versal brotherhood. It adds being at peace with God, for without 



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ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS. 31 

that happiness is impossible. Hence the prophet's bright ideal 
that one day ''All shall know the Lord from the greatest to the 
least," ''Earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord as the 
waters cover the sea," and "All nations shall come and bow down 
before Grod and honor his name." 

Add to these prophet ideals, those of our philosophers. The 
"Seek wisdom" of Solomon, of which the "Know thyself" of Socra- 
tes is but a partial echo; Job's "Let not the finite creature attempt 
to fathom the infinite Creator,-" David's reaching after God! and 
then let it be clearly understood that these and all ideals of the 
Bible era are but a prelude, an overture. How grand, then, must 
be the music of the next era which now claims our attention! The 
era from Bible days to these. 

This is the era of the formation of religious and philosophic 
systems throughout the east and the classic world. What grand 
harmonies, but what crashing discords, sound through these agest 
Melting and swelling in mighty diapason, they come to us to-day as 
the music which once swayed men's souls, now lifting them with 
holy emotion, now mocking, now soothing, now exciting. Above 
them all rang the voice of historical Judaism, clear and lasting, 
while other sounds blended or were lost. Sometimes the voice was 
in harmony; most often it was discordant as it clashed with the 
dominant note of the day. For it sometimes met sweet and elevat- 
ing strains of morality, of beauty, but more often it met with the 
debasing sounds of immorality and error. 

Thus historical Judaism would harmonize with Confucius' in- 
sistence of belief in a Supreme Being, filial duty, his famous "What 
you do not like when done to you, do not unto others," and with 
the Buddhistic teachings of universal peace. But against what is 
contrary to Bible ideal, it would protest, and from it it would hold 
separate. If future research should ever reveal an influence of 
Jewish thought on the three great Oriental faiths, Buddhism, Zor- 
oastrianism and Confucianism, all originally holding beautiful 
thoughts, however later ages have obscured them, would it not be 
partial fulfillment of the prophecy, so far as concerns the East — 
"that Israel shall blossom and bud, and fill the face of the earth 
with fruitr 

In the West, as in thj9 East, historical Judaism was in harmony 



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32 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

with any ideals of classic philosophy which echoed those of the 
Bible. It protested where they fdled to do so, and because it 
failed most often, historical Judaism remained separate. Thus, as 
Dr. Drummond remarks, Socrates was ''in a certain sense mono- 
theistic, and in distinction from the other gods, mentions Him who 
orders and holds together the entire Kosmos;'' ''in whom all things 
beautiful are good,*^ "who from the beginning makes men." His- 
torical Judaism commends. 

Again Plato, his disciple, taught that God is good, or that the 
planets rise from the reason and understanding of God. Histori- 
cal Judaism is in accord with its ideal "God is good,'' so oft re- 
peated, and its thought hymned in the almost' identical words, 
"Good are the luminaries which our God created, He formed them 
with knowledge, understanding, and skill." But when Plato con- 
demns studies, except as mental training, and desires no practical 
results; when he even rebukes Arytas for inventing machines on 
mathematical principles, declaring it was worthy only of carpenters 
and wheelwrights; and when his master, Socrates, says, "It amuses 
me to see how afraid you are lest the common herd accuse you of 
recommending useless studies'* — ^the useless study in question being 
astronomy — historical Judaism is opposed and protests. For it 
holds that every earnest man is filled with the Spirit of God. It 
bids us study astronomy to learn of God thereby. "Lift up your 
eyes on high and see who hath created these things, who bringeth 
out their host by number. He calleth them all by name, by the 
greatness of His might, for He is strong in power, not one faileth;" 
even as later sages practically teach the dignity of labor by them- 
selves engaging in it. And when Macaulay remarks, "From the 
testimony of friends as well as of foes, from the confessions of 
Epictetusand Seneca as well as from the sneers of Lucian and the 
invectives of Juvenal, it is plain that these teachers of virtue had 
all the vices of their neighbors with the additional one of hy- 
pocrisy," it is easy to understand the relation of historical Judaism 
to these, with its ideal, "Be perfect." 

Similarly the sophist school declared, "There is no truth, no 
virtue, no justice, no blasphemy, for there are no gods; right and 
wrong are conventional terms." The sceptic school proclaimed, 
"We have no criterion of action or judgment, we cannot know the 



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ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS. 33 

truth of anything, we assert nothing, not even that we assert 
nothing; if religion is belief, we have none." The Epicurean 
school taught pleasure's pursuit. But historical Judaism solemnly 
protested. What are those teachings of our ^'Sayings of the 
Fathers," but protests, formally formulated by our religious 
heads? Said tiiey, 'The Torah is the criterion of conduct. 
Worship instead of doubting. Do philanthropic acts instead 
of seeking only pleasure — society's safeguards are law, worship, 
and philanthropy." So preached Simon Hatzadik. "'Love labor," 
preached Shenangia to the votary of Epicurean ease. ''Procure 
thyself an instructor," was Gamaliel's advice to any one in 
doubt. "The practical application, not the theory, is the essential," 
was the cry of Simon, to Platonist or Pyrrhic. "Deed first, then 
creed." "Yes," added Abtalion, "deed first, then creed, never 
greed." "Be not like servants who serve their master for price; 
be like servants who serve without thought of price and let the 
fear of God be upon you." "Separation and protest" was thus the 
cry against these thought-vagaries. 

Brilliant instance of the policy of separation and protest was 
the glorious Maccabean effort to combat Hellenist philosophy. If 
but for Charles Martel and Poictiers, Europe would long have been 
Mohammedan, then but for Judas Maccabeus and Bethoron or Em- 
maus, Judaism would have been strangled. But no Judaism, 
no Christianity! Take either faith out of the world and what 
would our civilization be? Christianity was bom — originally and 
as designed and declared by its founder, not to change or alter one 
tittle of the law of Moses. If the Nazarean teacher claimed, 
tacitly or not, the title, "Son of God," in any sense save that which 
Moses meant when he said, "Ye are children of your God," can we 
wonder that there was a Hebrew protest? 

Presently the crescent of Islam arose. From Bagdad to 
Granada Hebrews prepared protests which their Christian students 
carried to ferment in their distant homes. For through the Arabs 
and Jews the old classics were revived and experimental science 
was fostered. The misuse of the former made the methods of the 
Academicians the methods of Scholastic Fathers. But it made 
Aristotelian philosophy dominant. Experiment widened men's 
views. The sentiment of protest was imbibed; sentiment against 



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34 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

scholastic argament, against bridling research for practical ends; 
against the supposition ''that syllogistic reasoning could never con- 
duct men to the discovery of any new principle," or that such 
discoveries could be made except by induction, as Aristotle held; 
against official denial of ascertained truth, as for example, earth's 
rotundity. .This protest sentiment in time produced the Reforma- 
tion. Later it gave that wonderful impulse to thought and effort 
which has substituted modem civilization with its glorious con- 
quests, for medisBval semi-darkness. 

Here the era of the past is becoming the era of the present. 
Still historical Judaism maintained its attitude. We march in the 
van of progress, but our hand is always raised, pointing to God. 
That is the attitude of historical Judaism. And now to sum up; 
for the future opens before us: 

1. The ''separatist" thought. Genesis tells us how Abraham 
obeyed it. Exodus elaborates it: We are "separated from all the 
people upon the face of the earth" (33: 16). Leviticus proclaims 
it: "I have separated you from the peoples" (20: 25). '1 have 
severed you from the peoples" (26). Numbers illustrates it: "Be- 
hold the people shall dwell alone" (23: 9). And Deuteronomy de- 
clares it: "He hath avouched thee to be His special people" (24: 
18). And who are the Hebrews of today, here and in Europe? 
The descendants of those who preferred to keep separate, and who 
therefore chose exile or death, or those who yielded and were bap- 
tized? The course for historic Judaism is clear. It is to keep 
separate. 

2. The protest thought. We must continue to protest 
against social, religious, or political error with the eloquence of 
reason — ^never by the force of violence. No error is too insignifi- 
cant, none can be too stupendous for us to notice. The cruelty 
which shoots innocent doves for sport — the crime of duelists who 
risk life which is not theirs to risk — for it belongs to country, wife, 
or mother, to child or to society; militarianism of modem nations; 
the transformation of patriotism, politics, or service of one's coun- 
try into a business for personal profit — until these and all wrongs 
be rectified, we Hebrews must keep separate and protest. And 
we will do so until all error shall be cast to the moles and bats. 
We are told that Europe's armies amount to twenty-two millions of 



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ORIEhTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS. 35 

men. ' Imagme it! Are we not right to protest that arbitration, 
and not the role of might should decide? Yet, let me not cite 
instances which render protests necessary. 'Time would fail, and 
the tale would not be told,'' to quote a rabbi. 

How far separation and protest constitute our historical Jew- 
ish policy is evident from what I have said. Apart from this, 
socially, we unite whole-heartedly and without reservation with our 
non-Jewidh fellow-citizens; we recognize no difference between 
Hebrew and non-Hebrew. 

We declare that the attitude of historical Judaism, and, for 
that matter, of the Reformed School also, is to serve our country 
as good citizens, to be on the side of law and order and fight an- 
archy. We are bound to forward every humanitarian movement; 
where want or pain calls, there must we answer; and condemned 
by all true men be the Jew who refuses aid because he who needs 
it is not a Jew. In the intricacies of science, in the pursuit of all 
that widens human knowledge, in the path of all that benefits 
humanity, the Jew must walk abreast with non-Jew, except he pass 
him in generous rivalry. With the non-Jew we must press onward, 
but for all men and for ourselves, we must ever point upward to 
the Common Father of all. Marching forward, as I have said, but 
pointing upward, this is the attitude of historical Judaism. 

Religiously, the attitude of historical Judaism is expressed 
in the creeds formulated by Maimonides, as follows: 

We believe in Grod, the Creator of all, a unity, a Spirit who 
never assumed corporeal form. Eternal, and He alone ought to be 
worshiped. 

We unite with Christians in the belief that revelation is in- 
spired. We unite with the founder of Christianity that not one 
jot or tittle of the law should be changed. Hence we do not 
accept a first-day Sabbath, etc. 

We unite in believing that God is omniscient and just, good, 
loving, and merciful. 

We unite in the belief in a coming Messiah. 

We unite in our belief in immortality. In these Judaism and 
Christianity agree. 

As for the development of Judaism, we believe in change in 
religious custom or idea only when effected in accordance with the 



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36 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

spirit of God's law, and the highest authority attainable. Bnt no 
change without. Hence we cannot, and may not, recognize the 
authority of any conference of Jewish rabbis or ministers, unless 
those attending are formally empowered by their communities or 
congregations to represent them. Needless to add, they must be 
sufficiently versed in Hebrew law and lore; they must lead lives 
consistent with Bible teachings, and they must be sufficiently ad- 
vanced in age, so as not to be immature in thought. 

And we believe heart, soul, and might, in the restoration of 
Palestine, a Hebrew state from the Nile to the Euphrates— even 
though, as Isaiah intimates in his very song of restoration, some 
Hebrews remain among the Gentiles. 

We believe in the future establishment of a court of arbitra- 
tion above suspicion, for settlement of nations' disputes, such as 
could well be in the shadow of that temple which we believe shall 
one day arise, to be a "house of prayer for all peoples," united at 
last in the service of one Father. How far the restoration will 
solve present pressing Jewish problems, how far such spiritual or- 
ganization will guarantee man against falling into error, we cannot 
here discuss. What if doctrines, customs, and aims separate us 
now? There is a legend that when Adam and Eve were turned 
out of Eden or earthly Paradise, an angel smashed the gates, and 
the fragments flying all over earth, are the precious stones. We 
can carry the legend further. The precious stones were picked up 
by the various religions and philosophers of the world. Each 
claimed and claims that its own fragment alone reflects the light 
of heaven, forgetting the settings and the incrustations which 
time has added. Patience, my brothers. In God's own time we 
shall, all of us, fit our fragments together and reconstruct the 
gates of Paradise. There will be an era of reconciliation of all 
living faiths and systems, the era of all being in at-one-ment, or 
atonement with God. Through the gates shall all people pass to 
the foot of God's throne. The throne is called by us the mercy- 
seat. Name of happy augury, for God's mercy shall wipe out the 
record of mankind's errors and strayings, the sad story of our 
unbrotherly actions. Then shall we better know God's ways and 
behold His glory more clearly, as it is written; '*They shall all 
know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith 



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ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS. 37 

the Lord, for I will forgive their iniquity, and will remember their 
Bins no more/' (Jer. 31: 34). 

What if the deathless Jew be present then among earth's peo- 
ples ? Would ye begrudge his presence ? His work in the world, the 
Bible he gave it, shall plead for him. And Israel, God's first-bom, 
who, as His prophet foretold, was for centuries despised and re- 
jected of men, knowing sorrows, acquainted with grief, and es- 
teemed stricken by God for his own backsUdings, wounded besides 
through others' transgressions, bruised through others' iniquities, 
shall be but fulfilling his destiny to lead back his brothers to their 
Father. For that were we chosen; for that we are Grod's servants, 
or ministers. Yes, the attitude of historical Judaism to the world 
will be in the future, as in the past, helping mankind with his 
Bible, until the gates of earthly paradise shall be reconstructed by 
mankind's joint efforts, and all nations whom Thou, God, hast made 
shall go through and worship before Thee, Lord, and shall glorify 
Thy name. 



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PHILOSOPHY OF INSPIRATION, FREE 
AGENCY, AND REVELATION- 



BY ELDER JOHN NICHOLSON. 



"A spirit actually does exist which teaches the ant her path, the 
bird her building, and men whatever lovely arts and noble deeds are pos- 
sible to them." — Ruskin, 

INSPIRATION IS dual: UNIVERSAL AND SPECIAL. 

Man is a centre of intelligence. He is operated upon by external 
forces. He is a spiritual as well as a physical entity. Experience 
and observation teach that he is susceptible of being inspired. Every 
man, reli^ously disposed or otherwise, who is mentally active, must 
know that he has been the subject of inspiration. When thus acted 
upon he seems to rise above himself. His being is quickened and 
his mind enlarged. While man in general is willing to admit that 
he, as an individual, on occasions during his lifetime, has been the 
instrument of inspiration, as a rule he professes skepticism when 
his neighbor makes a claim to having been the centre of a similar 
operation. Yet his own inspiration is a proof that his fellow-men, 
as an entirety, are inspired. 

It is reasonable then to presume that mankind, as a whole, is 
the medium of inspiration. If there be a diffusive source of inspi- 
ration directing man toward the beautiful, the pure, the noble, the 
good, and the true, it must be supremely intelligent. As its activity 
leads toward the right it must also itself be supremely good. Being 
both good and intelligent it must necessarily avail itself of every op- 
portunity to increase the quantity of that which is good. Every 
individual, male and female, presents in some degree, an opportunity 



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PHILOSOPHY OF INSPIRATION, 39 

of this character, however limited it may be in myriads of instances. 

Experience teaches this: that inspiration comes in response to 
individual effort, opening to mental view the field of truth as if a 
light were flashed first upon the mind and then upon the subject 
under contemplation. When the inspiration is full the soul is en- 
raptured with the spirit of truth. Circumstances and surroundings, 
as well as capacity and intellectual activity, have much to do with 
the degree of inspiration, not only in regard to individual cases but 
as relating to aggregate bodies of mankind, such as communities 
and nations. The nature of the source of inspiration is such that 
it must conform to law. Indeed, it must be a power which acts in 
concert with truth; hence its operations must be economic. Having 
power to operate upon man, it makes the best possible use of every 
opportunity which each individual presents. Man knocks at the door 
leading to the expansive field of truth; the spirit of truth, if it may 
be so designated, illumines the threshold, presents the seeker with 
a key (faith and mental effort) and bids him enter and explore. 

It would be illogical to contend that it is only the truly good who 
are inspired. Men who are regarded as being in some respects bad 
are made the mediums of inspiration. They are sometimes inspired 
with great thoughts and accomplish great good. This is because in 
some directions they present opportunities to the spirit of truth to 
economize them in the interest of progress and development. It would 
be unprofitable, because a man were unprogressive and even bad in 
one or more directions, to shut him off from assistance in lines in 
which his capacity and activity would be serviceable. An Omnipo- 
tent, Intelligent, Ahnighty Power could not pursue a course antag- 
onistic to progress. A man possessed of a farm, a portion of the 
soil of which is barren while the remainder is prolific, would be 
esteemed as unwise if he neglected to cultivate the good ground 
because of its being in the same tract as the unprofitable part. He 
might, however, with consistency virtually abandon the whole if, 
as an entirety, it failed to respond to his efforts to render it pro- 
ductive. To expend his energies upon such an unresponsive subject 
would be waste, and consequently a violation of the natural law of 
economy. 

If there be an inspirational influence or power which inspires 
men to pursue truth and righteousness, it follows that there must be 



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40 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

a force whose inspiration leads to error and to unlawful deeds. The 
existence of good and evil cannot be denied, as man is constantly 
confronted by and associated with botL If there is an inspiration 
in the one direction there mnst also be a power which operates in 
favor of the other. Both these forces are in constant activity, and, 
being opposites, they are in continual conflict. As with light and 
darkness, to the extent that the one gains the mastery, the other is 
driven from the field. In the midst of the warfare man is devel- 
oped by gaining, through experience, a knowledge of good and evil. 
Everything by which man is surrounded indicates that it is only by 
experience that he can obtain this information; hence the economy 
of his present sphere of action. Without it he would remain in 
ignorance and consequently without progress. 

MAN A FREE AGENT. 

The situation elucidated in the foregoing involves the free agency 
of man. This independence of action is inherent. It necessitates his 
being brought in contact with both truth and its opposite, and, as a 
natural sequence, with the spirit, influence, or inspiration belonging 
to each of these conditions. If there were an inspirational induce- 
ment connected with good and none associated with evil there would 
be no continuance of warfare; man would have no experimental pro- 
bation and would be without the necessary educational facilities for 
progress. 

The conditions of man's existence are such that the expulsion 
or retention of good or evil and their influences largely depends upon 
himself, in the exercise of his agency; as he seeks the good and the 
true and the inspiration thereof, the influence of the opposite de- 
parts, and vice versa. Hence, when there shall be universal brother- 
hood it will be the result of the legitimate exercise of the agency 
of man. He will obtain the good and the true while retaining a 
knowledge of the evil and its consequences, and, so far as he shall 
be developed, he will have become like the Gods. 

REVELATION IS PERFECTED INSPIRATION. 

It is clear that man is the subject of inspiration, by a spiritual 
power which aids and develops him according to the direction in 
which he bends his mental activity along the lines of truth and profit- 



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PHILOSOPHY OF INSPIRATION. 41 

able productivity. It is equally clear that he is mampulated, so far 
as he yields himself to its seductive influence, by a spiritual power 
which is opposed to his progress. K this be established another 
and more pronounced connection between the divine and human fol- 
lows as a sequence, in logical order. What is now referred to is direct 
and specific conmiunication between the Creator and the creature. 
In other words, revelation from God to man may be called divine in- 
spiration perfected. Those who enjoy this inestimable boon belong 
to a class in advance of their fellow-men who are not thus highly 
favored. The words, '^highly favored," should perhaps be modified by 
directing attention to the law [of adaptation and economy, already 
referred to, and the necessity for conformity to the conditions upon 
which revelation must be predicated. That is to say: that when a 
divine communication is to be given to individual man, and through 
the latter to a portion of the race or to humanity at large, the medium 
must be the most economic selection for the purpose. The choice 
must be made upon the basis of suitability. It would be unprofit- 
able to choose as the leader and conductor of a great musical organ- 
ization one whose mind has but little capacity in the direction of 
the harmony of sound. Success cannot be obtained unless the per- 
son selected to lead in the accomplishment of any great undertak- 
ing is open to the conditions involved in the enterprise. This is 
beyond the domain of controversy. 

This reasoning is introduced to meet objections that have been 
offered against any one or number of men being selected by the 
Almighty as mediums to whom He directly speaks, while the great 
mass of the race are ignored in this regard. Is it not plain that 
these matters must be subject to laws and conditions? Would it 
not be unreasonable, for instance, for one who raises an objection 
of this character and who happens to possess intelligence in some 
specific direction, far above that of the ordinary run of mortals, to 
demur to the comparative superiority of his own capacity in a given 
line over that possessed by individuals composing the mass of man- 
kind? It has already been stated that a basis of suitability in any 
great enterprise must be the open condition of the mind in regard 
to the elements involved in the subject. 

For instance, it becomes necessary, for the public good, to 
construct a mammoth bridge over a broad river whose current is 



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42 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

not only wide but deep, swift, and powerful. Would it be proper 
to confide this great undertaking to one who does not believe that 
the project could be consummated? 

The wise choice would be the man who not only believed in the 
feasibility of the enterprise but who, by a process of mental activity 
aided by an inspirational power, could construct the bridge in his 
"mind's eye." He thus erects a veritable mental or spiritual structure, 
as the principles of force, suspension, support, and adhesion are un- 
folded to his view; he places his detailed thought upon paper, in the 
form of plans and specifications. He thus creates the bridge before 
it becomes a handiwork. It is purely mental or spiritual. The 
unbeliever did not have the necessary degree of the true "basis of 
action in all intelligent beings" — ^faith. The other had faith and 
built upon that basic principle. After the latter had completed his 
mental bridge all that was necessary was to construct it physically. 
This done the bridge becomes a material reality and the position of 
the builder in reference to it passes from the sphere of faith to that 
of knowledge. The man who did not believe was not intrusted with 
the enterprise. He could not produce the bridge, spiritually or 
mentally, and therefore could not construct it materially. 

Faith is a principle of i^niversal application. It, as stated, is 
the basis of action in all intelligent beings. It has the same con- 
nection with things divine as with those that are human. This 
being the case, the person who does not believe that God has com- 
municated nor that He does or will communicate directly with man, 
is deficient of a constituent indispensable to his reception of a divine 
revelation. 

In searching for God, men are almost universally governed by 
the idea that He has merely an expansive existence, and is there- 
fore without form. That He has a diffusive existence is admitted. 
This truth is beautifully conveyed in the expression of the celebrated 
John Ruskin, quoted in the beginning of this article. 

There are reasons for the belief that Deity has a concentrated 
as well as an expansive or diffusive being. There certainly is power 
in the principle of concentration as well as that of expansion. Man 
is an exemplification of the fact that both principles can exist in 
association. He is called the child of God. If this designation of 
the creature means anything it implies that, limited as the re- 



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PHILOSOPHY OF INSPIRATION. 43 

semblance may be, he possesses the characteristics of the source 
of his being. 

* Man is a concentrated power. He is likewise an expansive 
force. He is surrounded by an influence which can be felt without 
personal contact, by those who come into his presence. This invis- 
ible something has been designated, for convenience, his personal 
atmosphere. It can be felt even if he may not utter a word. By 
his influence and operations he may circumscribe the globe and 
affect the well being of myriads of people who never beheld him, 
his influence continuing after death. 

It may be asserted that the disparity between God and man is 
so great as to be incomprehensible. That cannot be logically held 
as conclusive evidence that there is no co-relationship between the 
two. Time is a minute division of duration. It is of a character 
to be understood by man. Duration as a whole, however, is with- 
out beginning or end, and is therefore beyond finite comprehension. 
It would not be maintained, on that account, that there is no co- 
relationship between eternity and time. 

There is a spark of Deity in man. He has not only a concen- 
trated existence, but also one which is in a sense expansive, or 
diffusive. If those dual conditions are associated with man, why 
not with Grod, in whom there must be every great quality capable 
of being possessed. Greatness and power are associated with con- 
centration as well as with expansion. 

When a claim of Divine revelation and appointment from God 
is set up, the people to whom the presentment is addressed gen- 
erally divide into four classes. They may be designated thus: (1.) 
Those who are indifferent in relation to the subject. (2.) Those 
who repudiate without investigation. (3.) Those who demand proof. 
<4.) Those who investigate and either accept or reject. 

With the first class it is useless to deal, beyond attempting to 
dissipate their indifference and bring them into one of the other 
three grades. The condition of the inactive is hopeless. Those 
who come under the second head are unreasonable, because they 
do not apply the same test to the things that are spiritual or divine 
that they would bring to bear upon and demand for the most ordi- 
nary matters that affect the welfare of humanity. Those who 
belong to class three are in no better situation. They place the 



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44 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

burden of proof outside of themselves. They demand proofs of a 
character that are not asked for upon other subjects. 

To illustrate: An astronomer states to one who has no scien- 
tific knowledge that the distance of the moon from the earth ia 
240,000 miles. He to whom the statement is made says: "Give 
me proof of this and I will believe, otherwise I will reject your 
assertion as untrue." The scientist at once points out that the 
other must prove the matter for himself by an educational process. 
This is the only way by which he can grasp the mathematical fact 
in relation to the distance between the earth and the moon. This 
is quite clear to many who would shout for proofs of the validity 
of a claim made in relation to divine things. 

If the prophet who assumes to have a revelation and mission 
from God points a way whereby the authenticity of his message 
can be tested, the repudiator of his averments and he who clamors 
for proof occupy an unreasonable position until they have applied 
the means of ascertainment prescribed. It, may be assumed by 
those who reject revelation that the proffered means of obtaining 
the information ought to be such as will appeal to the reason of 
mankind. Granted that this is the case, it merely presents another 
point which can only be determined by an investigatory process. 
It is not enough hastily to conclude that a declared means of ob- 
taining knowledge of a fact is unreasonable and therefore not 
worthy of consideration. If the method is harmonious with ad- 
mittedly correct processes abready ascertained, then it also must 
be true. In this as in all other things, let truth be the test of 
truth. In considering the claim of a man who assumes to have a 
special message from God, let the value of the proposed means of 
discovering whether or not this assumption be correct, be tried by 
first finding out whether or not it agrees with universal law. If 
it does it should be followed. If this course be taken there need 
be no doubt in reference to the result. If by the activity of the 
mind, through faith, a mighty structure can be conceived and be- 
come a mental reality, who can say that by the same process, which 
is inspirational, the very being of God cannot be ascertained, and 
direct communication be established between humanity and divinity? 

As in the instance of the man who could not mentally create 
the bridge,. it may be asserted that this is impossible, but this does 



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PHILOSOPHY OF INSPIRATION, 45 

not affect the fact that the man who comprehended the possibility 
of the project was aware that the desired result could be reached. 
It was just as true to the mind of the man who grasped the possi- 
bility before as it was after the structure became a material reality. 
So with him who reaches the spiritual conclusion that God exists, 
and attains the consummation of his hopes and aims by the estab- 
lishment of inter-communication between himself and his Maker. 

It may be said, in opposition to this standpoint, that ''No man 
by searching can find out God." This is admitted when the con- 
ditions necessary to the discovery are left out. One of these 
is the reciprocal response of the Creator to the spiritual activity 
of the creature. The discovery of Grod is impossible as a result of 
searching if the divine Being does not reward the efforts of the 
searcher by manifesting Himself to the seeker after divine truth. 
The discovery of God without faith — ^belief in His existence — is 
impossible. The means of discovery must be such as are prescribed 
by Himself. To assume that God can not place Himself in direct 
communication with humanity is absurd, because if this were true 
His power would be limited, and such limitation would be at vari- 
ance with every conception of the Almighty. This power being 
existent with Him, it would be unreasonable to hold that He would 
never exercise it. To possess a power, the exercise of which would 
be of incalculable benefit, and fail to put it in operation would be the 
opposite of God-like. It would be a flagrant violation of the law of 
economy, which demands the best possible results from all things 
existent. 

If the foregoing commends itself to the reason of man and is, 
to a considerable extent, sustained by his daily experience, it is 
fair to presume that it is true. If that be the case, whatever har- 
monizes with it is of the same character. From this standpoint 
the doctrine of Christ, as revealed through Himself, Joseph Smith, 
and all the other prophets, is likewise true. This includes the exist- 
ence of the Spirit of God, "which lighteth [or inspires] every man 
that Cometh into the world,*" the spirit of Satan which seduces man 
from light into darkness; the development of man by means of 
his agency and contact with spiritual opposites; the personal as 
well as diffusive nature of God — '^Father, Son, and Holy Ghost,*" 
and the principle of communication from the Father and the Son, 
directly or through agencies of their appointment. 



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ACROSS THE PACIFIC 

BY GEORGE A. SEAMAN. 



[Note. — ^This article is made up of extracts from a letter written 
by Brother Seaman, one of the Utah volunteers in the second Manila 
expedition, to his wife. It was written at different times during the 
voyage from Honolulu to Manila, its interest arising from the fact that 
it details the events and impressions of the journey as they were exper- 
ienced by the writer. — Editors.] 

We have crossed that imaginary line where custom has estab- 
lished the change of date, and while you are still living in the 
events of Thursday, June 30th, we have skipped that day and date, 
and are seeking shelter from Friday's hot sun. You will under- 
stand that we are about half through our ocean voyage, which we 
have now become quite used to. It seems more of an accepted 
routine now than before, and the probability is that the latter half 
will seem much shorter than the former. It is to be hoped it will, 
for this monotonous drag seems to kill ambition and give one no 
other desire than to kill time. Some wander about from morning 
till night aimlessly doing nothing, while others more ambitious, 
occasionally pick up a book and with drooping eyelids read until 
sleep overcomes them, and they stretch out in some shady place 
where the most air is stirring, and sleep until bugle call warns 
them that drill time has arrived or that it is meal time. Such, 
with but little variation, has employed us since we left Honolulu 
last Saturday. 

I find some time to read artillery tactics, a thing very neces- 
sary, as I have charge of the section. We drill twice a day for 
thirty minutes each time, mostly for the purpose of exercise and 
to straighten the men out that they may have the carriage of a 



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ACROSS THE PACIFIC. ' 47 

soldier. One thing has been arranged for our health and pleasure. 
The rear end of the boat on lower deck has been cleared of every- 
thing and pieces nailed down to keep the water from running down 
the deck. A hose is there attached to the engine's pumps and a 
stream of water is continually running. It is the favorite resort 
of the men, many of whom bathe there (of course it is a shower 
bath) two or three times daily. Before we reached Honolulu 
there was no such arrangement and the men did no bathing. 

We have had health rules presented to us, and they must be 
read weekly that the men may become thoroughly acquainted with 
them and know how to care for themselves in the climate we will 
soon find ourselves in. Not one of our battery boys is in the hos- 
pital, and apart from minor ailments all are in good health. There 
are quite a nimiber of the infantry boys in the hospital wards, one 
or two with quite serious diseases. One young fellow lies just op- 
posite where I am lying on deck writing to you, with an attack of 
typhoid. They have nursed him carefully for a good many days 
and now pronounce him out of danger. There are also several 
cases of measles on board. 

I started to tell you about the waves as we watched them 
when they were running fastest and highest. Of course the higher 
the waves the deeper the troughs, and the two taken together, 
while only measuring depth by feet, appeared much like mountain 
and valley. In the distance could be seen a wave crest gradually 
advancing with a deep valley before it. Of course the valley 
would reach us first and as we gazed down in its great depths the 
huge wave would rush on, and with an energy accumulated from 
long travel would lash itself into foam and dash its spray high 
into the air. Then would follow a series of smaller waves, seem- 
ing to be an effort of the sea to gain a rest and strength for a 
greater effort than before. A great crowd of us watched it with 
the glee and shouts of a crowd of school boys. 

We have been quietly looking after the Mutual Improvement 
Association I told you of in my last. I have the names of nearly 
thirty who are more than anxious to join in the movement. There 
are some eight or ten yet to get whom I am positive of enrolling. 
We have not perfected an organization yet and may not before we 
land, because there is no convenience for holding meetings. 



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48 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Another thing has been instituted on ship-board that claims 
some attention and study. Soon after we left San Francisco a 
signal corps was organized in our battery, and today it was ex- 
tended to embrace all of the non-commissioned officers. Of course 
that includes me, and I will be compelled to lemn that. We were 
given the alphabet today and have our first recitation tomorrow. 
It is much the same as telegraphy, there being, instead of dots 
and dashes, motions to right, left, and front with a flag, or, if at 
night, a lantern. The movements are nimibered 1 Oeft)^ 2 (right), 
3 (front and down). Each letter contains from one to four of 
these nimibers, and will require considerable study to memorize. 
The boys who have been studying them for ten days are becoming 
quite proficient in them. 

It is now 6 a. m., July 2nd. My guard duty did not lose me 
much sleep last night; the greater part of two hours being all, 
and while I was awake I was reclining in a comfortable chair on 
the top deck. The evening was lovely; hardly a cloud was to be 
seen and such as were visible were small and fleecy. The stars 
were all shining brightly. The night, while not warm (compara- 
tively), did not drive one to put on his coat. The misty dampness 
so common, was not to be felt, and altogether it was just such 
an evening as lovers would choose for a ramble. 

The vigilance of the commanding officers is quite necessary 
as a health precaution. This morning a poor fellow was brought 
up from steerage quarters and put in a cabin room, with a severe 
attack of measles and pneumonia. He looked to be a very sick 
man. Another report was around day before yesterday that a 
man had been buried from the Chiiui. 

I will go back a week and tell you as much as I can about 
Honolulu and our reception there. Thursday, the 23rd of June, 
quite early in the day we sighted land and from then on all were 
eagerly stretching their necks and straining their eyes to catch a 
more definite sight. When we were near enough to get a good 
view of the land darkness began to close in, and we watched then 
to catch sight of the first shore light. We did not have to wait 
long to be rewarded on that score, for light after light appeared, 
and finally a city was open to our view, traced only by the long 
rows of electric lights. We were nearing the harbor, and as ves- 



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ACROSS THE PACIFIC. 49 

sels dare not enter a harbor without a pilot, we burned lights to 
signal for that officer. We were soon answered, and shortly a 
small steamer with a band and excursionists came out with him to 
meet us. 'Mid strains of music, mostly our national airs, we soon 
found an anchorage. Not long afterward all had retired and every- 
thing was quiet. By 6 the next morning we had raised anchor 
and were moving into the wharf. As soon as we had moored they 
began shoveling coal into our vessel, filling all spare room. As 
soon as breakfast was over we were lined up, rolls were called and 
we were allowed to set foot on terra firma again. We were 
marched directly to the Myrtle Boat Club's boat house, and 
treated to a surf bath. We had a great time, the only difficulty 
we experienced being the constant swaying of sidewalks, plat- 
forms, and everything on which we set our feet. Of course it was 
nothing more than the sensation of ocean waves that stayed with 
us on land. It is a sensation that nearly everybody who travels 
across the ocean experiences. 

Mr. Isenberg, our host for the day, is a very corpulent man. 
He is as jolly as he is large, and he made us feel right at home. 
From the bath we were marched to the Oahu Railroad and Land 
Company's depot and loaded on the train for an excursion. When 
I say we I mean the Utah batteries, no infantry companies having 
the privilege of the excursion. Aboard the train were one thous- 
and bottles of soda water and many boxes of cigars for the bojrs 
to smoke. Mr. Kinney, a government official of Hawaii and a 
former Salt Laker, is the one to whom we are indebted for the 
excursion and the refreshment. All jbeing ready, we started out 
for what proved to be a very pleasant excursion through the 
country. The tropical verdure that went sailing by on either side 
formed a natural picture similar to those I have seen on canvas, 
the product of the artist's skill. Here, too, the artist had been at 
work, for the arrangement of orchards and gardens showed the 
work of skillful hands. Here we would go sailing by a grove of 
cocoa-nut palms, loaded with fruit after its own kind, and as they 
towered high above every other tree with their bare trunks and 
tufted coronets, they formed a striking contrast to our orchard 
trees in cooler climates. The banana tree is a small bushy tree, 
almost of scrubby growth, appearing barely strong enough to sup- 



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50 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

port its large and numerous bunches of froit. This season, we 
were told, the froit is of inferior size and quality. Next we would 
go sailing by a pine-apple farm. They grow low, something after 
the style of a cabba^, though much more desirable than that 
vegetable. The rice swamps, farmed mostly by Japs, are an in- 
teresting sight. The ground is worked while very muddy, and 
after the seed is in it is flooded. It seemed odd to see the men, 
with very few clothes on, working in mud nearly as deep as their 
legs were long. The land is left flooded thus till the rice is in the 
booty when it is drained off and the grain left to ripen. Every 
stage of farming was in progress!; some were plowing, some 
swamping, some draining, some harvesting, and some threshing. 
They have no seasons and as long as the ground has strength 
enough they can grow their crops in nearly all parts of the year. 
As we went riding through cuts and around bends new beauties 
continually came before us. Bushes along the railroad track were 
loaded with beautiful and variegated flowers. We passed the jut 
of the ocean where the beautiful pearl harbor is being made. Off 
in the distance could plainly be seen two volcanic cones, long since 
extinct, but still preserved in shape, showing what were once im- 
mense craters. There are two visible also from the city; in fact 
one, the Punchbowl, has part of the city built on its side. 

The real object of our ride, the Ewa Sugar Plantation, eighteen 
miles from Honolulu, was reached in a little over an hour's ride. 
Mr. Lowry, the superintendent, kindly turned the grounds and 
everything over to us, no restrictions whatever being placed on us. 
The first thing I did was to pluck some of the garden flowers and 
leaves to put in the letters I had ready |to send home. While I 
was running for the flowers some of the boys were making tracks 
for the trucks loaded with sugar-cane. They came back, each 
with a long stick of the sweet cane, sucking it with all his might. 
We began then the tour of the mill, claimed by employes to be 
the largest in the world. It surely is a large one, for in its man- 
ufacture of 140 tons of sugar daily, it employs 120 hands. Of 
those the most are Japs who are paid only $13.00 per month. 
They would fare very slim on that, perhaps as slim as I on my 
''$13.00'' a month, but they are furnished a house and fuel, and 
also water, by their employers. The mill expected to finish its 



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ACROSS THE PACIFIC. 51 

season's nin in about two weeks, having been running about six 
months. After the mill closes down the mill hands go out into 
the fields to attend the growing crops, which labor employs some 
1200 hands. 

One young man kindly showed several of us through the mill 
and answered our msmy questions besides telling us all the working 
of the cane to produce sugar. The first thing to be seen on en- 
tering the door is the tail end of the process, the sacking of the 
sugar for shipment. The sewing of the sacks is done by Japanese 
women. The cane is first run through powerful rollers in which 
all the juice is pressed out and the residue is left as tasteless aa 
sawdust and just as dry. The juice is then taken through pipes to 
vats, where it is heated and the refuse separated from it. Larger 
boilers then evaporate all the water, when it becomes syrup, sweet 
and golden. Two large cisterns then receive it, when it is boiled 
down to a granular state of much the same consistency as butter 
when it comes, before it is gathered. It is ready then for the ''sep- 
arators,'' hollow spheres with the upper part removed. These cyl- 
inders, for so they appear, excepting for their concave interior, 
revolve 1000 times per minute. The molasses is fairly thrown 
out of the sugar, which is left a golden yellow. It is then allowed 
to fall through the bottom and is ready for sacking. It is shipped 
to the United States where it is refined and put on the market. 
The reason it is not refined where it is made is because the import 
duty into the United States is so much less on unrefined sugar. I 
ate a handful of the sugar as it came from the separators, so hot 
that I could scarcely hold it in my hand. From the tower of the 
factory we had a fine view of the country. The fields of sugar- 
cane stretched out for miles on all sides. It was in different stages 
of growth, as everything else on the island seemed to be. 

Just before we boarded the train for our return trip. Captain 
Young very fittingly introduced Mr. Kinney, Mr. Isenberg, and Mr, 
Lowry. We gave each one of them three round cheers and a 
''tiger" and then Mr. Isenberg patriotically proposed and led in 
three cheers for "Old Glory." We hurried back to the city, where 
another treat awaited us. The good people of Honolulu had tables 
spread in the shade in their public square, and we feasted on all 
the dainties usually on a first-class bill of fare. The ladies waite4 



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52 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

on us with the good grace and charm that only ladies t)088e88, and 
that incited ns to eat more than we otherwise would have eaten. 
How different from an incident a day or two before when two boys 
got into a fight because one thought the other had one more bis- 
cuit than he should have. After eating all our substantial foods, 
pies, cakes, etc., we feasted on grapes, bananas and pine-apples 
until it was with difficulty that we could leave our seats. During 
all this time the band was plajdng, but the stirring national airs 
had little effect and provoked little applause until we had our 
stomachs well filled. A man who is hungry, you know, is not in a 
position to be patriotic or sentimental. The grounds where all 
these pleasures were found, surround the palace, now the chambers 
of the national council. Those halls were thrown open to us as 
weU, and as if that were not enough they furnished us with writing 
material and then collected and stamped all our mail. The govern- 
ment had made an appropriation for that purpose. The use. of 
telephones, everything was free to the '*boys in blue." When we 
returned to the boat a great many of us had a large pine-apple un- 
der each arm. We have been eating pine-apple occasionally ever 
since. We had no sooner reached the boat than we were turned 
loose, each section under its chief, with the strict injunction to be 
back not one minute later than 7 o'clock. Some went back to the 
writing hall and spent most of their time there, while others roamed 
about the town. 

The town itself is quite a sight. Eversrthing is clean and 
neat. The dwellings usually have a plot of ground with them on 
which the owner raises some choice and delicate fruits. The city 
did not present the bustle and confusion of our American cities, 
and yet it seemed to be in a thriving state. There are many beau- 
tiful houses; some nearly mansions, and very often, as the boys 
passed by them, they were invited in and treated to the best there 
was to be had. We had no sooner returned to the boat at 7 o'clock 
than I heard twenty-five of our battery would be permitted to go 
out till 11 o'clock that evening. I put in an early application and 
luckily became one of the fortunate twenty-five. With Dr. Young 
and two or three others, I found the mission house, and spent the 
evening visiting with the Elders and the wife of Elder Williams. 
The natives were holding a singing school and we went into the 



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ACROSS THE PACIFIC. 53 

church where they were and passed a pleasant hour. They sang 
for us, and when they sang a hymn we knew, we jomed in with 
them. Of course we did not sing their language but that made no 
difference. We were introduced to them and had considerable 
sport trying to learn a word or two, particularly "good-by.** A 
gentleman who went with us, though not a Mormon, said it was the 
finest time he had had since he left home, and he would not have 
missed it for five dollars. On our way back to the boat we bought 
a string of bananas, and they cost only fifty cents. They were 
not large ones but most of them were very good for all that. 

After we got on the boat that night there was no more getting 
off to go up town. All we got to see of the town had to come 
where we were. And it was there, too. The fruit peddler, the 
pie-man, the soda water cart, all with their wares for sale. Some 
amusing wajrs of passing purchases up and change down were im- 
provised, and not infrequently did the luckless vendor lose his wares 
in the sea. Some of the natives whom we met the night before 
were there. When we pulled away from the wharf about noon 
they were the last people I could distinguish, still waving their 
handkerchiefs at us. 

Here I found myself 8000 miles from home among strangers, 
as it were, and yet I found myself peculiarly drawn to these native 
people. Usually, but unjustly, we look upon the Islanders as a very 
inferior class of people, but the truth is that they are highly intel- 
ligent and social. Their skin and some habits that differ so mater- 
ially from our own, form incorrect criteria from which to judge 
them. They showed a great interest in us. One would hardly 
think that opposition would exist to their annexation to the United 
States, but their chief fear is that eventually they will be deprived 
of their possessions as the Indians have been, and they have a 
mortal fear of seeing their once glorious power thus slip away 
from them. Undoubtedly they have had their minds poisoned in 
that particular. 

We are now sailing south, along the west side of the Luzon* 
the island upon which Manila is situated. You can see by that 
that we are nearing the end of our journey. We are all in good 
spirits over it, regardless of the consequences when we get there. 
The journey has been a long, tedious one, and we are more than 



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54 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

pleased that it is about ended. It hardly seems, though, to my 
mind, that we have been sailing for thirty days with only an occa- 
sional glance at land. While it has been long, there has been a 
monotony in it that has obliterated all trace of time, and from one 
day to the next it is difficult to keep track of the day and date. 
Tomorrow, Sunday, the 17th, will be a day for us to remember. 

Day before yesterday it was stormy and rough during the 
whole day, but through the mist and clouds we caught sight of 
land on the horizon to the north of us. There was much gazing 
at it, as it warned us that we were in the group of islands cap- 
tured by Dewey. 

Next morning as soon as we were up we could see land on 
both sides of us. The day was calm, and consequently excessively 
warm. We were near enough to see the wooded uplands and hills, 
and the breakers dashmg against the rugged beach on the north. 
About 11 o'clock we spied the smoke of a vessel directly in our 
course. We watched it as it came nearer and nearer with a great 
deal of wonder, and guessing as to its nationality and its inten- 
tions. What if it were a Spanish gun-boat Ijdng in waiting for us? 
We could not offer effectual resistance and would be taken. The 
China sped on ahead to ascertain who she might be, and from 
their signals we soon learned it was one of our own craft. She 
lowered 3 boat and sent a messenger to the Chimi, which signalled 
us to stop as soon as we came up to them. As soon as she (the 
China) gave orders to the other vessels of the squadron and or- 
dered three cheers for our escort, the Boston, she left us to hasten 
on to Manila. What that means we are unable to find out at present. 
We, of course, got the latest news that the Boston had received 
from Hong Kong, and though it is quite old, we feel still that it is 
news. The principal things we have learned are concerning the 
battle at Santiago, and the dispatch of the Spanish fleet to Manila. 
That means that perhaps we will have something to do to hold the 
advantage already gained, and if we are compelled to retain it by 
fighting, we expect to do our duty and still come out masters of 
the situation. 

The Boston, now sailing in our lead, is not a large vessel, but 
appears a formidable craft with her iron sides and her mounted 
batteries. Her largest guns are two eight-inch guns. She has a 



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ACROSS THE PACIFIC. 55 

great many smaller ones. There areno railings around her decl, 
which is down very close to the water; in fact, very little of the 
vessel is high above the water. She was right in the thickest of 
the fight at Manila, but to ns there was nothing to show that she 
helped in one of the greatest naval victories of the world. Her 
company seemed to ns a safeguard against possible attack by some 
wandering Spanish gun-boat. The boys stand and look at her for 
long stretches of time. 

It is warm again today, but not so warm as yesterday. There 
is not much breeze stirring, but we have shade to protect us from 
the direct rays of the sun. In the distance, landward, there is a 
little shower passing; in fact, we can see them in nearly every 
direction. We are beginning to learn already that it is as easy 
for nature to weep and shed tears as it is for a baby. I hope we 
shall be so located that the effects of the frequent storms will be 
reduced to the least possible danger. We were discussing it the 
other day with Captain Young, and during the talk he showed us a 
pictorial magazine on Manila. A great many of the houses in the 
country were built high above the ground on poles tied to the 
trunks of palm trees. Think of us swinging among the cocoanuts 
in company with children of our remote ancestors(?) — monkeys. If 
the weather we are getting now is any criterion we shall need such 
luxuries. 

I expect by tomorrow morning we will be with Dewey. Whether 
we will go ashore at once or not I cannot say. The general im- 
pression is that we will. I believe the other expedition has been 
landed. If we land there is apt to be so much to do that I cannot 
find time to write any more before the mail leaves. 

We are anchored right in the middle of Dewey's fleet, where 
he had his famous battle. We can see the hulls of the sunken 
vessels, or their rusty smoke-stacks and stripped masts. 

As we were coming in the harbor we could see the smoke and 
hear the report of cannon off in the direction of Manila. We are 
told that it is fighting between the insurgents and Spaniards, and 
has been going on every day for a good long time. The cannon- 
ading is not very heavy and perhaps they are only skirmishing. 
The first expedition landed after the first night and are in bar- 
racks. We may be stationed in the same place — Cavite. 



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PROGRESS OF THE WAR 

BETWEEN SPAIN AND THE UNITED STATES OP AMERICA. 



(continued from page 842, no. 11, vol. I.) 
VI. 

While the events related in onr last chapter were occurring in 
Cuba, the troops were being pnshedlforward for the Philippines. 

Fonr transports carrying 4,200 men, forming the second Man- 
fla expedition, sailed from Sim Francisco on June 15th under com- 
mandt^of Kieneral F. V. Greene, and on the 27th of the same month 
the third expedition sailed in the transports Indiana^ Ohio, Morgan 
OUy, and GUy qfPara, commanded by General Arthur Mc Arthur. 
On June 29th General Merritt, who commands the forces sent to 
the Philippines, sailed from San Francisco. 

On June 30th the United States Cruiser Qiarleston and the 
three transports of the first Philippine expedition arrived at Cavite. 
On the way to the Philippines the Charleston took possession of 
Guam, Ladrone Islands, June 21st and carried six Spanish officers 
and fifty-four men from the garrison, prisoners to Cavite. So with 
the first installment of United States troops on the ground, and the 
second and third well on the way everything was shaping itself for 
decisive work and a speedy settlement of affairs in the Philippines. 
On the same day several thousand Spanish reinforcements succeed- 
ed in entering Santiago. 

And now we come to one of the most glorious and import- 
ant events of the war. Glorious because of the magnificent work 
of our war vessels and the humanity and generosity displayed by our 



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PROGRESS OF THE WAR. 57 

officers and men towards the Spaniards when the victory was won ; 
and important becanse it practically closed the war ; for Spain soon 
after this battle, seeing the hopelessness of continuing the straggle, 
sued for peace. 

The capture and occupation of the outer works of Santiago, 
and the almost certain fall of the city in the near future, ap- 
pears to have determined Admiral Gervera to carry out the repeat- 
ed instructions of his government, and make a dash out of the har- 
bor in the hope of escaping; preferring, to use his own words, to 
have his ships destroyed at sea, fighting like a sailor, to having 
them ignobly captured or destroyed in the harbor with no chance 
of defending himself. 

On Sunday morning July 3rd, Admiral Sampson, on his flag- 
ship New York, sailed eastward about seven miles on his way to 
confer with General Shaf ter at Siboney. The MassaehusetU, New 
Orleans, and Newark had left the line and were about forty miles 
to the eastward for coal, provisions, and ammunition. The re- 
mainder of the American fleet, the cruiser, Brooklyn, C!ommodore 
Schley's flagship, the battleships Iowa, Oregon, Texas, and Indiana 
and the converted yachts. Vixen and Gloucester lay lazily outside 
the harbor of Santiago with Sabbath stillness all around them and ap- 
parently nothing to disturb the monotony which had marked the 
days and weeks already spent on the blockade. 

A column of smoke could be seen rising just back of the high 
hill at the entrance of Santiago harbor and the officers on duty were 
carefully watching it. 

Suddenly at 9: 30 a.m. the cry rang out from the navigator 
of the Brooklyn, "After bridge, there! Report to the commodore 
and the captain that the enemy's ships are coming outP' 

Then commenced a sea fight destined to be known as one of 
the most memorable in history. 

The Spanish ships, under full head of steam followed each 
other in rapid succession out of the harbor and darted to the west- 
ward, in the following order: Maria Teresa, Vizcaya, Cristobal Colon, 
and Almirante Oqvendo, followed by the torpedo boats Furor and 
Plvton. 

Every American vessel was speedily under way and in barely 
three minutes from the time the alarm was given every ship was 



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68 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

cleared for action and every man was in his appointed place ready 
for the battle. 

Led by the flagship Brooklyn the great ships rushed to the 
flght and engaged the Spaniards. The fire of the American gun- 
ners was deadly and rapid, and in an incredibly short time four of 
the Spanish ships were ashore, wrecks. 

The firing had commenced at 9: 40 o'clock. At 10: 80 the 
Maria Teresa and the Oquendo were on the beach on fire and 
iiddled with shot and shell. The two torpedo boats, PlvJUm and 
Furor were destroyed earlier in the fight. 

The Vizcaya and CoUm were making every effort by a run- 
ning fight to escape, and for a while it looked as if at least one of 
them would succeed. The Brooklyn was following them closely, 
but their speed was too great for the Indiana^ Texas, and Iowa, and 
these vessels turned to the rescue of the enemy on the burning 
Spanish vessels. 

Now, however, it became apparent that the Oregon was leav- 
ing the other battleships and with great clouds of smoke pouring 
from her funnels, was coming rapidly to the aid of the Brooklyn, 

The Vizcaya has been classed by critics as the superior of 
the Brooklyn, but fearing nothmg. Commodore Schley ordered 
his captain to ''get in close'' and was soon pouring two thousand 
I)Ouncls of metal against the Vizcaya every three minutes. 

The Oregon had now come near enough to pour in several six 
inch projectiles and in about thirty-five minutes after the Brook- 
lyn closed in on her, the Vizcaya was on fire and was headed 
for the shore. 

The Cristobal Colon, which to all appearance had so far es- 
<^aped injury, was now about four miles ahead of the Brooklyn 
with the Oregon a little farther behind. These two great vessels 
took up the chase with the Texas following about five miles in 
their rear. 

For an hour and a half the chase continued without much gain 
on either side, but every effort was made by the Brooklyn and 
Oregon and they began to gain slowly on the enemy. 

At 12:20 o'clock the Oregon threw two thirteen-inch shells 
after the Colon but they both fell short; the second, however, 
struck so close astern that it threw tons of water on the deck of 



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PROGRESS OF THE WAR. 59 

' the flying foe. At 12:40 our ships had gained so much on the 
Spaniard that the Brooklyn was able to land a few eight-inch 
shots against her sides and it was seen at once that the race 
was nearing its end, and without an attempt at a last fight the 
Orutobal Colon^ the last of Admiral Cervera's fleets ran ashore 
and surrendered at about 1*.20. 

And so in less than four hours the flower of the Spanish navy 
was utterly destroyed and Spain's sea power entirely blotted out. 

The Spanish losses were about six hundred lives, 1,300 pris- 
oners and $12,000,000 of property. Among the prisoners was 
Admiral Gervera, who surrendered to Lieut.-Ck)mmander Wainwright 
of the Gloueeder. 

The most marvelous fact is that only one man was killed and 
tiiree wounded, all on the Brooklyn, and this is doubly wonderfid 
when it is known that that vessel was hit more than thirty times. 

Every effort was made by the American officers and men to 
save Jthe lives of the brave fellows on the wrecked and burning 
Spanish ships, and hundreds of them were rescued. 

A writer in the Review qf Reviews says: 

''The victory in its racial, moral, and material aspects reminds 
one irresistibly of that over the Spanish Armada. But it has no 
dark spot upon it. The Spaniards were fed and clothed by the Am- 
ericans, their wounded were tended by our surgeons, their dead 
wrapped in their own flag and buried with all the honors of war. 
Nor by word or deed was any one of the prisoners reminded of his 
humiliation.'' 

The first news of this glorious event reached the United States 
in the following dispatch from Admiral Sampson: 

3:15 p. m., Siboney, July 3. 
To the Secretary of the Navy: — 

The fleet under my command offers the Nation as a Fourth of July 
present the destruction of the whole of Cervera's fleet. 

''Not one escaped. It attempted to escape at 9:30 a. m., and at 2 
p. m. the last, the Crutoibal Colony had run ashore six miles west of San- 
tiago and let down her colors. 

"The Infanta Maria Teresa, Oqvendo, and Vizeaya were forced 
ashore, burned and blown up within four miles of the port. Our loss 
^ne killed and two wounded. 



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60 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

''Enemy't oes probably several hundred from gunfire, explosions, and* 
drowning. 

''About 1300 prisoners, including Admiral Cervera. 
'The man killed was George H. Ellis, chief yeoman of the Brooklyn. 

"SAMPSON." 

This reached the country on the morning of July 4th, and with 
it came word that the Ladrones had been seized and the first Man- 
ila expedition had safely landed at Cavite. 

The people everywhere were wild with delight and the nation's- 
birthday was never before celebrated so enthusiastically and with 
such thankfulness. 

All eyes were now turned to Santiago and the army investing it. 
At 8 :30 o'clock on the morning of July 3rd General Shafter demanded 
the surrender of the city. An hour later Cervera made his daring 
dash for liberty with the result already stated. This, of course, 
entirely changed the naval and military situation, and it VTas thought 
that the fall of the city could be accomplished much more easily by 
the co-operation of the fleet in the harbor, and the army on land. 

In the meantime, however. General Shafter, having received 
confirmation of the statement that General Pando with 6,000 men 
had entered Santiago, and realizing the strength of the fortifications 
and entrenchments of the city and the exhausted condition of his 
own troops after their terrible experiences at San Juan and El Caney, 
called for reinforcements, and immediate steps were taken by the 
authorities at Washington to send additional troops to his assist- 
ance. 

While the soldiers lay in the trenches outside Santiago await- 
ing reinforcements and the navy still remained at the entrance of 
the harbor ready to co-operate with them, President McKinley is- 
sued on July 6, 1898, the following most beautiful proclamation, 
breathing a spirit of true Christianity, calling upon the people of our 
nation to return their thanks to God for His marvelous care of our 
army and navy: 

To the People of the United States of America: 

At this time, when to the yet fresh remembrance of the unprece- 
dented success which attended the operations of the United States fleet 
in the bay of Manila on the 1st day of May last, are added the tidings of 
the no less glorious achievements of the naval and military arms of our 



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PROGRESS OF THE WAR. 61 

Moved country at Santiago de Cuba, it is fitting that we should pause, 
and, staying the feeling of exultation that too naturally attends great 
deeds wrought by our countrymen in our countr3r's cause, should rever- 
ently bow before the throne of Divine Grace and give devout praise to 
God, who holdeth the nations in the hollow of his hands and worketh upon 
them the marvels of His high will, and who has thus far vouchsafed to us 
the light of his face and led our brave soldiers and seamen to victory. 

I therefore ask the people of the United States, on next assembling 
ior Divine worship in their respective places of meeting, to offer thanks- 
giving to Almighty God, who in His inscrutable wa3rs, now leading our 
hosts upon the waters to unscathed triumph, now guiding them in a strange 
land through the dread shadows of death to success, even though at a 
fearful cost, now bearing them without accident or loss to far distant 
-climes, has watched over our cause and brought nearer the success of the 
right and the attainment of just and honorable peace. 

With the Nation's thanks let there be mingled the Nation's prayers 
that our gallant sons may be shielded from harm alike on the battlefields 
and in the clash of fleets, and be spared the scourge of suffering and dis- 
-ease while they are striving to uphold their country's honor; and withal, 
let the Nation's heart] be stilled with holy awe at the thought of the 
noble men who have perished as heroes die, and be filled with compas- 
idonate sympathy for all those who suffer bereavement or endure sickness, 
wounds, and bonds by reason of the awful struggle. 

And above all, let us pray with earnest fervor that He, the dispenser 
of all good, may speedily remove from us the untold afflictions of war and 
bring to our dear land the blessings of restored peace, and to all the 
domain now ravaged by the cruel strife, the priceless boon of security 
and tranquillity. William McKinlet, 

Executive Mansion, Washington, D. C, July 6, 1898. 

On July 7th Lieut. Hobson and his brave men who sank the 
^* Merrimac " in the mouth of Santiago harbor, were exchanged for a 
Spanish lieutenant and fifteen men who had been captured at El 
Caney. 

Several days passed before the reinforcements could arrive at 
Santiago and the truce was extended from time to time. Oppor- 
tunity was given to General Toral, in command of the Spanish 
forces, to communicate with the Madrid government, and telegraph 
operators were sent to him from the American lines for that purpose. 

On July 9th General Toral offered to surrender the city if his 
troops were allowed to withdraw with their arms. This was refused 
ty General Shafter. 



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62 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

On the 10th, the expected reinforcements arrived at Siboney 
and were rapidly moved to the front, and on the 11th General Miles 
arrived in Cuba and conferred with General Shafter and Admiral 
Sampson. 

Pending the arrival of additional troops General Shafter had 
greatly strengthened the American lines around Santiago. Siege 
guns and mortar batteries had been placed in position and every 
preparation made to bombard the city if the Spanish commander re- 
fused to surrender. On July 10th and 11th some shells were thrown 
into the city by the land batteries and by the ships outside the har- 
bor, but before long the bombardment was stopped. 

After several propositions had been made by the Spaniards and 
rejected by the American government, General Toral was notified 
that he must accept the terms of the United States and surrender 
or negotiations would close and the bombardment of the city com- 
mence. 

On July 14th, Santiago surrendered. The terms of the capitu- 
lation were that the Spaniards should surrender all the troops in the 
province of Santiago de Cuba, which includes all the eastern end of 
the island, leaving in the hands of the Americans all their arms and 
munitions of war, and all the forts and defenses of the city to be 
left intact. The United States agreed to transport the troops thus 
surrendered back to Spain at the expense of this government. 

On Sunday, July 17th, the formal surrender was made and the 
stars and stripes were hoisted over the governor's palace in Santiago. 
General McKibben was appointed temporary military governor. 

Following is the report made by General Shafter to the adju- 
tant-general at Washington on the day of the formal surrender: 

Santiago db Cuba, July 17. 
"Adjutant-GeTieralf United States Army, Washington: 

"I have the honor to announce that the American flag has been this 
instant, 12 o'clock, noon, hoisted over the house of the civil government, 
in the city of Santiago. An immense concourse of people present. A 
squadron of cavalry and a regiment of infantry presented arms and band 
playing national air. Light battery fired salute of twenty-one guns. 
Perfect order is being maintained by municipal government. Distress is 
very great, but little sickness in town. Scarcely any yellow fever. 

"A small gunboat and about 200 seamen left by Cervera have sur- 
rendered to me. Obstructions are being removed from the mouth of harbor.. 



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PROGRESS OF THE WAR. 63 

"Upon coming into the city I discovered a perfect entanglement of 
defenses. Fighting as the Spanish did the first day, it would have cost 
5,000 lives to have taken it. 

Battalions of Spanish troops have been depositing arms since day- 
light in onr armory, over which I have gnard. General Toral formally 
surrendered the plaza and all stores at 9 a. m. 

"W. R. Shaptee, Major-General.'' 



Headquarters United States Army, Santiago, 

- July 17th. 
" To AdjiUant-Generaly United States Army, Washington : 

"My ordnance officers report about 7,000 rifles turned in today and 
600,000 cartridges. At the mouth of the harbor there are quite a num- 
ber of fine modem guns, together with a saluting battery of fifteen old 
bronze guns. Disarming and turning in will go on tomorrow. List of 
prisoners not yet taken. Shafter, Major-General Commanding." 

On July 18th a state document was issued by direction of Presi- 
dent McKinley providing for the government of the province of San- 
tiago de Cuba. It announces the assumption of the government of 
the province by a new political power, and guarantees to the people 
of the territory affected absolute security in the exercise of their 
rights. 

It is the first docmnent of the kind ever issued by a President 
of the United States, and marks a new epoch in American history. 
Following is a full text of the document : 

Adjutant General's Oppicb, Washington, D. C, 

July 18, 1898. 
^'General ShafteTy Santiago, Cuba : 

"The following is sent you for your information and guidance. It 
will be published in such a manner in both English and Spanish as will 
give it the widest circulation in the territory under your control : 

Executive Mansion, Washington, D. C, 
July 18, 1898. 
" To the Secretary of War: 

Sir: — ^The capitulation of the Spanish forces in Santiago de Cuba and 
in the eastern part of the Province of Santiago and the occupation of the 
territory by the forces of the United States, render it necessary to in- 
struct the military commander of the United States as to the conduct 
which he is to observe during military occupation. 



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64 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

The first effect of the military occupation of the enemy's territory is 
the severance of the former political relations of the inhabitants and the 
establishment of a new political power. 

In this changed condition of things, the inhabitants, so long as they 
perform their duties, are entitled to security in their persons and property 
and in all the private right and relations. It is my desire that the inhab- 
itants of Cuba should be acquainted with the purpose of the United States 
to discharge to the fullest extent its obligations in this regard. It will 
therefore be the duty of the commander of the army of occupation to an- 
nounce and proclaim in the most public manner that we come not to make 
war upon the inhabitants of Cuba, nor upon any party or faction among 
them, but to protect them in their homes, in their employments, and in 
their personal and religious rights. All persons who either by active aid 
or by honest submission, co-operate with the United States in its efforts 
to give effect to this beneficent purpose will receive the reward of its sup- 
port and protection. Our occupation should be as free from severity as 
possible. 

Though the powers of the military occupation are absolute and 
supreme and immediately operate upon the political condition of the in- 
habitants, the municipal laws of the conquered territory, such as affect 
private rights of person and property, and provide for the punishment of 
crime, are considered as continuing in force, so far as they are compatible 
with the new order of things, until they are suspended or superseded by 
the occupying belligerent, and in practice, they are not usually abrogated, 
but are allowed to remain in force, and to be administered by the ordinary 
tribunals, substantially as they were before the occupation. This en- 
lightened practice is, so far as possible, to be adhered to on the present 
occasion. The judges and other officials connected with the administra- 
tion of justice may, if they accept the supremacy of the United States, 
continue to administer the ordinary law of the land, as between man and 
man, under the supervision of the American commander-in-chief. The 
native constabulary will, so far as may be practicable, be preserved. 

The freedom of the people to pursue their accustomed occupations will 
be abridged only when it may be necessary to do so. 

While the rule of conduct of the American commander-in-chief will 
be such as has just been defined, it will be his duty to adopt measures of 
a different kind, if, unfortunately, the course of the people should render 
such measures indispensable to the maintenance of law and order. He will 
then possess the power to replace or expel the native officials, in part or 
altogether, to substitute new courts of his own construction for those that 
now exist, or to create such new or supplementary tribunals as may be 
necessary. In the exercise of these high powers the commander must be 



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PROGRESS OF THE WAR. 65 

guided by his judgment and his experience, and a high sense of justice. 

One of the most important and most practical problems with which it 
will be necessary to deal is that of the treatment of the property and the 
collection and administration of the revenues. It is conceded all public 
funds and securities belonging to the government of the country in its 
own right, and all arms and supplies and other moveable property of such 
kind may be seized by the military occupant and converted to his own 
use. The real property of the state he may hold and administer, at the 
same time enjoying the revenues thereof, but he is not to destroy it save 
in the case of military necessity. 

All public means of transportation, such as telegraph lines, cables, 
railways and boats belonging to the State may be appropriated to his use, 
but unless in case of military necessity, they are not to be destroyed. All 
churches and buildings devoted to religious worship and to the arts and 
sciences, all schoolhouses, are, so far as possible, to be protected, and all 
destruction or intentional defacement of such places, of historical monu- 
ments or archives, or of works of science or art, is prohibited, save when 
required by urgent military necessity. 

Private property, whether belonging to individuals or corporations, 
is to be respected and can be confiscated only as hereafter indicated. 
Means of transportation, such as telegraph lines and cables, railways and 
boats, may, although they belong to private individuals or corporations, 
be seized by the military occupant, but unless destroyed under military 
necessity are not to be retained. 

While it is held to be the right of the conqueror to levy contributions 
upon the enemy in their seaports, towns, or provinces which may be in his 
military possession by conquest, and to apply the proceeds to defray the 
expense of the war, this right is to be exercised within such limitations 
that may not savor of confiscation. As the result of military occupation 
the taxes and duties payable by the inhabitants to the former govern- 
ment become payable to the military occupant unless he sees fit to sub- 
stitute for them other rates or modes of contribution to the expenses of 
the government. 

The moneys so collected are to be used for the purpose of paying the 
expenses of government under the military occupation, such as the salaries 
of the judges and the police and for the payment of the expenses of the 
army. 

Private property taken for the use of the army is to be paid for when 
possible in cash at a fair valuation, and when payment in cash is not pos- 
sible, receipts are to be given. 

All ports and places in Cuba which may be in the actual possession 



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66 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

of our land and naval forces will be opened to the commerce of all neutral 
nations, as well as our own, in articles not contraband of war, upon pay- 
ment of the prescribed rates of duty which may be in force at the time 
of the importation. William MgKinley. 

By order of the Secretary of War. 

H. C. CJoRBiN, Adjutant-General. 

On July 20th the United States government awarded the con- 
tract for transporting the Spanish prisoners to Spain, to the Spanish 
Trans-Atlantic Company. The total cost of the movement of these 
prisoners is estimated at about $550,000. 

Here is a sight never before witnessed in the world. A nation 
having entered upon a war for no other purpose than to bring free- 
dom to an oppressed people, after having been victorious in every 
engagement on land or sea, transporting the prisoners taken from 
the enemy, thousands of miles to their native land and hiring the 
ships of the conquered foe in which to carry them. And thus at every 
step in this remarkable war new lustre is added to our great nation, 
not so much by its victories in the field and pn the ocean, as by its 
wonderful magnanimity and exhibition of high and noble purpose. 



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EDITOR^S TABLR 



LONG LIVE THE PROPHET. 



"The King is dead— long live the King!" 

The Prophet is dead — ^long live the Prophet! 

The former of these exclamations is the cry and response that 
goes through the land when a British monarch dies. "The king is 
dead!" and the response that immediately follows, "Long live the 
king!" is to give tlie assurance that the succeeding ruler has taken 
his place, that the succession is immediate, instant, that for no one 
moment is England without a constitutional ruler. 

It is thought by those who favor the monarchial form of gov- 
ernment, to be an excellent feature of the British constitution, this 
instant succession of the kings of the nation. It gives no oppor- 
tunity for usurpers to seize the throne, and allows no interregnum in 
which factions and claimants may arise. No doubts exist in the 
minds of the subjects as to the succession. It is all pre-arranged, 
governed by well established law which the subjects understand as 
well as the rulers, and the nation glides from the one administra- 
tion to another without friction, without halting; and doubtless 
among the few things that can be said for monarchial government 
this is one of the best. 

But why say, "The Prophet is dead — long live the Prophet?" 

Because the succession in the prophetic office, and presidency 
of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is just as fan- 
mediate, just as well assured as it is in the kingdom of Great 
Britain. The Prophet is dead; but there is not an instant that the 



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68 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Church is without a prophet; for no sooner does the Prophet-Preei- 
dent take his departure, than his mantle falls upon the shoulders 
of his successor. There is not a single moment, when the Church 
is regularly organized, that the Lord does not have open the author- 
itative channel through which to communicate His will to the body 
religious. 

In the Church the Lord has provided that, ''Of the Melchisedek 
Priesthood, three Presiding High Priests, chosen by the body, ap- 
pointed and ordained to that office, and upheld by the confidence, 
faith, and prayer of the church, form a quorum of the Presidency 
of the Church." 

And after them, ''The Twelve Counselors are called to be the 
Twelve Apostles, or special witnesses of the name of Christ in all 
the world. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ And they form a quorum equal in author- 
ity to the three presidents previously mentioned." 

And then again, "The seventy are also called to preach the 
Gospel, and to be especial witnesses to the Gentiles and in all the 
world. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ And they form a quorum equal in authority 
to the Twelve Special Witnesses or Apostles just named." 

Since the authority and power of the Twelve Apostles is equal 
to the authority and power of the First Presidency, it must follow 
that anything which the First Presidency could have done when in 
existence can be done by the Quorum of Twelve Apostles; and hence 
they can preside over the Church; and as the senior member of 
that council is always the president of the Quorum, it follows that 
so long as the Quorum of the Twelve are acting as the Presidency 
of the Church, he stands at their head and is God's mouth-piece to 
the Church, and through him will be communicated the mind and 
will of God to the people; for he is the Prophet and Seer and Rev- 
elator to the Church, and whenever the First Presidency is to be 
re-established it will be through him that the will of the Lord will 
be made known, and God's prophet and mouth-piece and president 
of the Church chosen. 

This beautiful arrangement, now so well known in Israel, pro- 
vides against all confusion; protects the Saints against all liability 
of being deceived; gives no opportunity to usurpers; no occasion 
for factions; no disturbance of the tranquillity of the Church; and 
at the same time it makes the succession of our prophets instant. 



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EDITORS TABLE. 69 

Hence it comes* to pass that President Lorenzo Snow, to the 
joy of all the Saints, chosen by the Apostles at their special meet- 
ing on the 13th of September to be the President of the Ghnrch, 
and sustained in that position by the Saints in general conference 
of the CHiurch on the 9th of October, glides into his position without 
confusion, without excitement, without a doubt as to the legality 
of his succession, and around him gather the Saints with their hearts 
full of love and confidence and knowledge that he is the prophet 
of the living God. And while we remember with a sweet sorrow 
the departure of the late beloved president, Wilf ord Woodruff, we 
turn to his successor and with joy imspeakable say, ''Long live the 
Prophet." 



This number commences Volume n. of the Improvement Era. 
In publishing Volume I., great success has attended the efforts of 
the General Board. The enterprise has been successful financially, 
and from the liberal patronage and praise bestowed upon the Era, 
we are led to believe that it has been equally successful in obtain- 
ing a literary standing. That it has been a means of great assist- 
ance to the oflScers of the Improvement Associations we have abun- 
dance of evidence. Stake superintendents and presidents of associ- 
atioiis in all parts of Zion have expressed their appreciation of the 
help it has been to them in that it has been a medium through which 
they have received instruction from the General Superintendency 
and Board of Aids; while the literature it has contained has been 
of immense value both to the young men of Zion at home and the 
Elders who are traveling and preaching the Gospel abroad. All this 
is especially gratifying to the editors and managers, and leads them 
to form a determination that for the future the organ of the Young 
Men's Associations shall be made to contribute more and more to 
the welfare of this institution. It will be made more and still more 
indispensable to the officers of associations, until it shall come to 
be recognized as impossible to successfully conduct association work 
and keep in touch with the development of it without being in pos- 
session of the information and counsel and instruction to be found 
from time to time in its pages; while the scope and quality of the 



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70 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

literature it shall publish will make it a magazine of general inter- 
est to all people. 

In Volume I., by a series of special articles, the Era became 
noted as a magazine that kept abreast with the times. These arti- 
cles included a consideration of the annexation of the Hawaiian 
Islands, written by Professor Quff as the result of his visiting the 
islands and holding a series of meetings with the natives of that 
country; ascertaining their views concerning the annexation of 
Hawaii to the United States. The condition of affairs in war-swept 
Cuba was described by Congressman King, who personally visited the 
island previous to the American declaration of war. The death of 
the great English Statesman furnished the occasion of an extended 
biographical sketch of William Ewart Gladstone by Bishop Whit- 
ney; the death of Bismarck afforded a like opportunity to Professor 
J. M. Tanner to write up a biographical sketch of this first states- 
man of Europe and the nineteenth century; the death of President 
Woodruff also afforded the occasion for the official biographical 
sketch of him, which appeared in No. 12 of the first volume, writ- 
ten by the historian of the Church, Elder Franklin D. Richards. 
These special articles, together with the chapters on the progress 
of the American-Spanish war, have given to the Era the character 
for keeping abreast of the great events of the time, above referred 
to, a character that will be maintained and intensified during the 
years that are to come. 

What special events will transpire in the present year to make 
the pages of the magazine of intense interest, we cannot now, of 
course, determine; but our readers may be assured that whatever 
great events take place, the Era will have special articles in rela- 
tion to them. We will make our magazine a reliable depository of 
great current questions and events such as will make it for all time 
to come a valuable work of reference in the libraries of our young 
men. 

The prospects now opening before the Improvement Era for 
becoming a first-class magazine are much improved over what they 
were a year ago. And it is safe to say that they will increase from 
year to year until the organ of the Young Men's Mutual Improve- 
ment Associations of Zion will be truly representative of our young 
men both at home and abroad, where we are assured that through 



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EDITORS TABLE. 71 

the agency of our missionaries the magazine will be extensively 
known. If men are known by the company they keep, so also are 
they known by the books they read; which after all are in a man- 
ner our companions, and none the less really so because they hap- 
pen to be silent companions. It is our ambition that so far as the 
young men of Zion are to be known by the Era, which is theirs, 
they shall be favorably known as having a relish for good and sub- 
stantial reading upon great and important questions; known for 
having sound minds, and while not adverse to wholesome light liter- 
ature and pure fun; yet as earnest men they are interested in the 
consideration of serious matters. Such is to be, so far as we can 
forecast it, the character of the second volume of this magazine, 
for such is the character of the magazine which we believe will 
contribute most to the improvement of our young men. 



There is quite a demand from various classes and organiza- 
tions'outside of the Improvement Associations, for last year's Man- 
ual. If any of the members of the associations have copies in good 
condition, which they wish to dispose of, they will please notify 
Brother Thomas Hull, the general secretary. 



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NOTES. 



A man with an open mind can never become narrow and rigid, 
for he has within him the principle of growth. He is like a plant, 
rejoicing in the invigorating influences of fresh air, sunshine, and 
dew, developing healthfully and shedding its beauty and fragrance 
on all around. His education is never ended, for he is eagerly 
learning from every source, and using all possible opportunities of 
gathering knowledge. The views he has formed and the truths 
he has embraced are never held with that narrow tenacity which 
holds them back from all frank and free discussion. He is not 
afraid of putting them to any test, assured that, if they are true, 
they will stand the trial, and, if not, he can no longer uphold them. 

One of the most important items in health-culture is to keep 
the lungs and heart in good condition. It is possible to breathe 
sufficient air to so oxygenate the blood that it will consume the 
waste and poisonous matters of the system, as fire bums up chaff 
or tinder. People who feel dull, heavy, stupid, unwilling to exert 
themselves, indeed often unable to do so, will find that a regular 
course of breathing exercises .will be of more benefit to them than 
all the medicine in creation. There are many times when the' use 
of medicines merely aggravates the existing ill. It is simply a 
further accumulation of undesirable material that must be carried 
about until nature is assisted to cast it out or bum it up. 

Intelligence is never afraid to face any tmth, knowing that 
each one has a message for those who will heed it. The entire 
past, whether that of individual or of nations, with its mingled 
stores of good and evil, may be so read and studied as to draw 
forth unmixed blessings for the future. It is this purpose, held 



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NOTES. 73 

closely in view, that enables us to dwell for a time upon the dark 
passages of our lives without despair or hopelessness. If, instead 
of indulging in vain lamentation, which of itself is only paralyz- 
ing, we examine its sources, thoughtfully analyzing their nature 
and their effects, and distinguishing between actions and inten- 
tions, we shall be able so to apply the results to our present life 
and conduct as. to produce hope and effort and progress from what 
at first sight seemed to offer only regret and self-censure. 

A pretty story is told at Hawarden regarding Mr. Gladstone's 
interest in young men. Some time ago an aged charwoman at 
Hawarden Castle had a refractory son, who had long given her 
great trouble. In her desperation she begged to be permitted to 
see Hr. Gladstone. She poured her tale of sorrow into the ears of 
the venerable statesman, who, after sympathizing with her, sent a 
special messenger in. pursuit of the youth, and he was brought 
to Hawarden Castle and placed in the library. There Hr. Glad- 
stone had a long, quiet talk with him, pointing out the path of 
rectitude and melting him to tears. The youth rose to go, where- 
upon Mr. Gladstone, placing his hand on his shoulder, said: ''We 
must have a word of prayer." The venerable gentleman and the 
rebellious youth knelt together in prayer, with the result that the 
mother's heart was rejoiced in the complete reclamation of her 
son. 

An English journal thus comments on the injurious effects of 
anger: Anger serves the unhappy mortal who indulges in it, much 
the same as intoxicants constantly taken, serve the inebriate. It 
grows into a sort of disease which has various and terrible 
results. Sir Richard Quain said, not long ago: ''He is a man very 
rich indeed in physical power, who can afford to be angry." This 
is true. Every time a man becomes "white" or "red" with anger, 
he is in danger of his life. The heart and brain are the organs 
most affected when fits of passion are indulged in. Not only does 
anger cause partial paralysis of the small blood vessels, but the 
heart's action becomes intermittent; that is, every now and then it 
drops a beat — much the same thing as is experienced by excessive 
smokers. 



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74 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

There are some people in the United States who have not been 
infected with the recent war-craze, and have some respect for human 
life, only too sadly cheapened in times like these. In New York 
State, a laudable effort is being made to stem the thirst for blood, 
incited in the young by inflanmiatory appeals to a sometimes ques- 
tionable patriotism, which, unheeding of its horrors, deifies war and 
sighs for the crimson glory of battlefields. The anti-war move- 
ment expresses itself by the offer of prizes to school children for the 
best essays treating war as an evil, and looking to international 
arbitration as a humane substitute. The theme set with its divi- 
sions, is as follows: 

"Would not the highest development of human thought be shown to 
be a strong argument for the abolition of war? (a) Natural causes of 
war; (b)The inhumanity of war; (c) The cost and waste of war; (d) A 
remedy — ^a board of arbitration between nations." Motto — " Patriotism 
is not at its highest when a man says, 'I will diQ for my country,*' it is at 
its highest when he says, * I will live nobly for my country.' " 

The movement is one which promises to spread throughout the 
country, resulting in the suppression of extreme "jingoism" in the 
minds of the young people, and the establishment of more humane 
sentiments. 



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IN LIGHTER MOOa 



The Reverend T. DeWitt Talmage has a keen sense of humor, 
and his jokes are as likely to be directed against friends as enemies. 
His son Frank, attempting to emulate his father's greatness, became 
a minister and went to Chicago to officiate. The following incident 
may afford a hint of the famous preacher's estimate of his son's 
abflity: 

One day a dirty, ragged, unkempt beggar approached Dr. Tal- 
mage and asked for alms. Being a believer in the principle of self- 
support, however, the clergyman steadily refused to respond. The 
beggar saw that a strong appeal was necessary, and he made it. 

" But, Mr. Talmage," said he, "I am one of your son's converts." 

With shrewd, twinkling eyes, Mr. Talmage looked the fellow 
over from head to foot, and remarked with a quizzical grin: 

"Well, you look like one of Prank's jobs." 

Irish bulls are always new, no matter how old. All our readers 
have no doubt heard of the son of the "ould sod" who declared that 
in England the tops of some of the houses are "copper-bottomed 
wid lead." Another remarked that nothing on this earth could 
make him sea-sick; but that must have been before railways were 
known. Not exactly an Irish bull, but a characteristic Irish descrip- 
tion follows: An elephant had broken loose from a traveling circus, 
and one of the employes asked an Irish farm-hand if he had seen 
the animal. "Nary an iliphant have I seen," he replied, %ut be 
the powers, I saw an india-rubber bull pullin' turnips wid his tail!" 
One man had been told something which he particularly wished to 
remember. Said he, "FU remember it forever, and when I forget 
it m write it down." 



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OUR WORK- 



A CORRESPONDENCE BUREAU PROPOSED. 



Some time ago the editors of the Era received the following com- 
mnnication. It treats of a very important matter, and we think is 
worthy of serions consideration by the associations, to whom we com- 
mend it. Furthermore, we solicit suggestions of this character from the 
readers of our magazine; and we say if you have ideas relative to any 
work which could in your judgment be undertaken by our associations, 
by all means let us hear from you. 



Dear Brother: — Hoping I do not intrude too much upon your valu- 
able time, I take the liberty of laying before you a little matter which 
I ask you to consider as to its merits and advisability. You in your posi- 
tion as editor of the organ of the Young Men's Associations are no 
doubt taken up with measures that concern the welfare of that organi- 
zation, and it is in considering this that I think it pertinent to lay before 
you this subject, which I have for some time contemplated. It is a 
feature of M. I. work which, from my view at least, would prove to be 
of value to the Y. M. M. I. A. were it incorporated with that valuable 
organization. 

First, I may begin by referring to a commendable feature of the 
press in general in devoting columns for the correspondence and use of 
the readers; thus opening up a medium through which people may dis- 
cuss topics, and exchange ideas and opinions; recount the natural re- 
sources and physical advantages of their respective localities, etc. 

Now, one characteristic that impresses me is that in the periodicals 
that occasionally come under my notice, I scarcely ever see any correa- 



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OUR WORK. 77 

pondence from this State, while the majority of other states are repre- 
sented. The reason of this may be that, as the press in the past has 
been inclined to misjudge ns — that is the Latter-day Saints — ^we have 
bad to be silent with respect to writing in our papers; but Utah's advent 
into the new sphere of statehood, and the course of other events have 
had a tendency to obliterate this indiff^ence, and as a result an era 
is now dawning in which we are receiving a more liberal share of the 
editors' good will. No doubt they would now publish letters relative to 
the interests of this State with as much readiness as they publish com- 
munications from other parts of the Union. 

Considering this apparent neglect on the part of Utah writers, we 
will all agree and think it proper that something be done to impress the 
people — the young people in particular — ^with the importance of this 
matter of correspondence. This opportunity of writing to the press is 
an avenue that can be utilized to a great extent in removing the prevalent 
prejudice, and in inculcating a desire among readers in the world to in- 
vestigate our "strange" faith. 

To my mind, an interest in this direction and a use of this avenue 
can best be effected by establishing in the Young Men's Association a 
bureau or department for the purpose of fostering and conducting cor- 
respondence with the press, and subsequently writing to the individuals 
who may respond to the original press letter, and also of diffusing tracts 
and Church literature through the mails. 

This feature would supply the need for more practical work in our 
association. It would develop an increased desire in members to read 
Gospel literature with a view to acquire a more comprehensive knowledge 
of our doctrine so as to be able to conduct a creditable correspondence; 
it would stimulate more ardent sentiments favorable to the establishment 
of libraries. But the most important feature as a consequence of this 
new departure, would be the abating and lessening of the bias and preju- 
dice in the world as a result of the letters disseminated through the press, 
and later the correct exposition of our doctrine to individual investiga- 
tors, in the subsequent personal correspondence that would ensue. 

A pertinent objection might be raised on the grounds that attention 
to this matter would prove more experimental than practical. A friend 
of mine, together with myself, had some little experience that I think 
would tend rather to counteract the objection, and warrant my view as 
here expressed. 

Some months ago we wrote a short article to an eastern periodical 
in which we referred to some of the characteristics of this country; re- 
ferred to the moral situation of the people; made some mention of our 



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78 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

faith, and closed by expressing a wish to correspond with readers on 
questions relative to religion. The missive elicited some six responses 
from different persons, who avowed a wish to learn onr real faith, some 
inquiring about the truth or falsity of certain absurdities; others more 
informed pointing out apparent strange doctrines and asking for Biblical 
passages to substantiate our views, etc. I may here add that these en- 
quirers in every case, I think, had never had a meeting with an Elder 
of our Church. So far, I believe, we have defended and elucidated fairly 
well our Gospel principles, and eliminated to some extent the false im- 
pressions that some have had of us. We have also mailed correspond- 
ents above referred to, tracts and books, which, upon being read, are 
forwarded from one person to another. 

I may add that I believe the enquirers had good motives in their 
soliciting information. One of them is a contributor to a religious 
monthly, while another is connected with the profession of school teach- 
ing. 

Considering the little that this effort effected for the sake of the 
Gospel, it appears to me that the efforts of the young men in general, 
throughout Zion, would be of incalculable value in the promulgation of 
the Gospel if they would give it their attention. My opinion is that the 
young men of the association would be enthusiastic in the move of in- 
corporating the corresponding bureau, above proposed, with their work. 
There is in correspondence a certain fascination, particularly when it 
comes to a discussion of Gospel principles, which I think will imbue 
members in general with a desire to attempt writing. 

The systematizing of this plan of correspondence upon a practical 
basis would perhaps involve work for a time upon some committee, but 
when accomplished it would certainly be a feature to be commended; an 
excellent school for association members, as well as helping in the Latter- 
day work of preaching to "every kindred, tongue, and people" the Gospel 
of Jesus Christ. 

Yours very respectfully, 

Peter Sundwall, Jr. 



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EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 

BY THOMAS HULL, SECRETARY OF THE GENERAL BOARD OF Y. M. M. L A. 



September ISth: Miss Winnie Davis, daughter of Jefferson Davis, 
and known as the "Daughter of the CJonf ederacy, " dies at Narragansett, 
Rhode Island. 

19th: The war department orders reinforcements to Manila and an 
order is issued directing that 6,500 men lying at San Francisco be sent 
at once. * * * Dispatches from Manila state that it is asserted 
there that an attempt was made on the 1 6th instant to assassinate the 
insurgent leader, Aguinaldo, by poisoning soup intended for him. The 
plot was discovered by a steward, who upon tasting the soup fell dead. 

22nd: Fillipe Agoncillo and Jose Lopez, representatives of the pro- 
visional government of the Philippines, arrive at San Francisco on their 
way to Washington to petition for the independence of the islands. They 
will also place their petition before the Powers of Europe. * * * An 
imperial edict just issued in Pekin, China, definitely announces that the 
Emperor of China has resigned his power to the Empress (Dowager Em- 
press), who has ordered the ministers to deliver to her, in future, their 
official reports. * * * The situation in Paris, France, assumes a very 
grave aspect on account of the Dreyfus affair, and fears of serious con- 
flict between the authorities are entertained. 

23rd: A peremptory message has been sent to the Cuban military 
commission to the effect that the Spaniards must evacuate Cuba imme- 
diately. 

24th: The commission appointed to investigate the conduct of the 
war department during the Spanish-American war holds its first meeting 
in Washington. Major-Genial Granville M. Dodge was elected chairman 
of the commission. * * * The Spanish ship **l7ifanta Maria Teresa^** 
sunk in the fight off Santiago on July 3rd, having been floated, arrives at 
Guantanamo. 

25th: The hotel and buildings at Beck's Hot Springs, Salt Lake City, 
are entirely destroyed by flre. 

26th: Major-General J. Ford Kent returns to Salt Lake City from 
the war. * * * Fanny Davenport, the famous actress dies at her 
home in Duxbury, Mass. * * * The Commission appointed to investi- 
gate the war department holds its first business session behind closed 
doors. * * * The ashes of Christopher Columbus are exhumed 
in Havana preparatory to their shipment to Spain. * * * The French 
cabinet decides in favor of a revision of the Dreyfus case. 

27th: Theodore Roosevelt, colonel of Rough Riders, who served at 



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80 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Santiago, is nominated by the Republicans for Governor of New York. 
♦ * ♦ Wm. J. Bryan is lying sick with a low fever in Washington, D. C. 

28th: Thomas F. Baya^ Secretary of State during Cleveland's first 
term and Embassador to England during his second term, dies at Km- 
stein, Mass. 

29th: Queen Louise of Denmark dies at Copenhagen. 

30th: The Twenty-fourth United States Infantry reaches Salt Lake 
on its return from Santiago. * * * Forest fires devastate portions 
of Colorado and Wisconsin. 

October Isk A special dispatch published in London, England, states 
that telegrams furnished by the governor of Shanghai allege that the 
Emperor of China committed suicide on September 21st. This is under- 
stood to mean that the Emperor was assassinated. 

2nd: A terrific storm sweeps the Georgia and South Carolina 
coasts. Wind blew for eighteen hours at fifty to seventy miles an hour. 
Fifty to one hundred lives were lost and immense damage done to prop- 
erty. 

5th: The third national Eisteddfod opens its sessions in the Taber- 
nacle, Salt Lake City. * * * A serious battle occurs between the 
Pillage Indians and United States troops near Leech Lake, Minnesota 
reservation. The soldiers had been taken to the reservation to aid the 
United States marshal in serving warrants. 

6th: The Sixty-ninth Semi-Annual Conference of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints opens in Salt Lake City. 

9th: The Sixty-ninth Semi-Annual Conference of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints closes. At the afternoon session 
Lorenzo Snow is sustained as Prophet, Seer, and Revelator and President 
of the Church, with George Q. Cannon and Joseph F. Smith as his Coun- 
selors. Rudger Clawson is chosen to fill the vacancy which existed in 
the quorum of the Twelve Apostles. 

11th: President McKinley arrives in Omaha to visit the Trans- 
Mississippi Exposition. 

12th: At Virden, 111., where a miners' strike is on, a clash occurs be- 
tween the union and non-union men, on the arrival of a train with two 
hundred negro miners, and fourteen men are killed and twenty wounded. 

13th: Governor Tanner, of Illinois, refuses to allow negro miners 
to land from the cars at Virden, 111., and the officials of the Chicago and 
Alton Railway Company threaten to take steps to obtain legal redress. 

14th: The new Stake Tabernacle which was nearing completion at 
Richfield, Sevier County, is entirely destroyed by fire. The loss will ex- 
ceed $30,000. * * * The Atlantic Transport Companjr's steamer Mohegan 
is wrecked off the Lizard on the south-west coast of England, and one 
hundred and sixteen persons are drowned. 

16th: The National Peace Jubilee opens in Chicago. President 
McKinley is in attendance. 

17th: The Presbyterian sjmod of Utah at its closing session in 
Ogden, passes resolutions declaring that polygamy is practiced in Utah, 
and calling on people eveiywhere in the Unit^ States to begin the nec- 
essary agitation to memorialize Congress for a Constitutional amendment 
declaring monogamic marriage the only legal form and forbidding poly- 
gamous marriage. 



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IMPROVEMENT EE^ 



Vol. n. DECEMBER, 1898. No. 2 



ORIENTAL REUGIOUS FAITHS* 

n. 

BUDDfflSM. 

BY H. DHARMAPALA, OP CEYLON. 



A systematic study of Buddha's doctrine has not yet been 
made by the western scholars, hence the conflicting opinions ex- 
pressed by them at various times. The notion once held by the 
scholars that it is a system of materialism has been exploded. 
The positivists of France found in it a positivism. Buckner and 
his school of materialists thought it was a materialistic system. 
Agnostics found in Buddha an agnostic, and Dr. Rhys Davids, the 
eminent Palo scholar, used to call him the ''agnostic philosopher 
of India." Some scholars have found an expressed monotheism 
therein. Arthur Lillie, another student of Buddhism, thinks it a 
theistic system. Pessimists identify it with Schopenhaur's pessim- 
ism. The late Mr. Buckle identified it with the pantheism of India. 
Some have found in it a monoism, and the latest dictum is Pro- 
fessor Huxley's that it is an idealism supplying ''the wanting half 
of Bishop Buckley's well-known idealist argument." Dr. Eikl 



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82 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

says that Buddhism is a system of vast magnitude, for it embraces 
all the various branches of science, which our Western nations 
have been long accustomed to divide for separate study. It em- 
bodies, in one living structure, grand and peculiar views of physi- 
cal science, refined and subtle theories on abstract metaphysics, 
an edifice of fanciful mysticism, a most elaborate and far-reaching 
system of practical morality, and, finally, a church organization 
as broad in its principles and as finely wrought in its most intri- 
cate network as any in the world. All this is, moreover, confined 
in such a manner that the essence and substance of the whole 
may be compressed into a few formulas and symbols plain and 
suggestive enough to be grasped by the most simple-minded as- 
cetic, and yet so full of philosophic depths as to provide rich food 
for years of meditation to the metaphysician, the poet, the mystic, 
and pleasant pasturage for the most fiery imagination of any 
poetical dreamer. 

In the religion of Buddha- is found a comprehensive system of 
ethics and a transcendental metaphysic embracing a sublime psy- 
chology. To the simple-minded it offers a code of morality, to 
the earnest student a system of pure thought. But the basic doc- 
trine is the self -purification of man. 

Spiritual progress is impossible for him who does not lead a 
life of purity and compassion. The superstructure has to be built 
on the basis of a pure life. So long as one is fettered by selfish- 
ness, passion, prejudice, fear, so long the doors of his higher 
nature are closed against the truth. The rays of the sunlight of 
truth enter the mind of him who is fearless to examine truth, wha 
is free from prejudice, who is not tied by the sensual passion, and 
who has reasoning faculties to think. One has to be an atheist 
in the sense employed by Max Muller: 

There is an atheism which is not death; there is another which is 
the very life blood of all true faith. It is the power of giving up what, 
in our best, our most honest moments, we know to be no longer true. 
It is the readiness to replace the less perfect, however dear, however 
sacred it may have been to us, by the more perfect, however much it 
may be detested as yet by the world. It is the true self-sacrifice, the 
truest trust in truth, the truest faith. 

Without that atheism no new religion, no reform, no ref orma- 



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ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS. 83 

tioB, no resuscitation would ever have been possible; without that 
atheism no new life is possible for any one of us. The strongest 
emphasis has been put by Buddha on the supreme importance of 
having an unprejudiced mind before we start on the road of in- 
vestigation of truth. The least attachment of the mind to pre- 
conceived ideas is a positive hindrance to the acceptance of truth. 
Prejudice, passion, fear of expression of one's convictions, and 
ignorance are the four biases that have to be sacrificed at the 
threshold. To be bom as a human being is a glorious privilege^ 
Man's dignity consists in his capability to reason and to think and 
to live up to the highest ideal of pure life, of calm thought, of 
wisdom, without extraneous interventions. Buddha says that maa 
can enjoy in this life a glorious existence, a life of individual free- 
dom, of fearlessness and compassionateness. This dignified ideal 
of manhood may be attained by the humblest, and this consumma^ 
tion raises him above wealth and royalty. ''He that is compas- 
sionate and observes the law is my disciple." 

Human brotherhood forms the fundamental teaching of Buddha 
— ^universal love and sympathy with all mankind, and with animal 
life. Everyone is enjoined to love all beings as a mother loves her 
only child and takes care of it even at the risk of her life. The 
realization of the ideal of brotherhood is obtained when the first 
stage of holiness is realized. The idea of separation is destroyed 
and the oneness of life is recognized. There is no pessimism in 
the teachings of Buddha, for he strictly enjoins on his holy disci- 
ples not even to suggest to others that life is not worth living. 
On the contrary, the usefulness of life is emphasized for the sake 
of doing good to self and humanity. 

From the fetich-worshiping savage to the highest type of 
humanity man naturally yearns for something higher. And it is 
for this reason that Bud(Uia inculcated the necessity for self-reli- 
ance and independent thought. To guide humanity in the right 
path, a Tathagata (Messiah) appears from time to time. 

In the sense of a Supreme Creator, Buddha says that there is 
no such being, accepting the doctrine of evolution as the only 
true one, with corollary, the law of cause and effect. He con- 
demns the idea of a creator, but the Supreme God of the Brah- 
^nans and minor gods are accepted. But they are subject to th^ 



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84 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

law of cause and effect. This Supreme God is all love, all mere!- 
faly all gentle, and looks upon all beings with equanimity. Buddha 
teaches men to practice these four supreme virtues. There is no 
difference between the perfect man and this Supreme God of the 
present world. 

The teachings of Buddha on evolution are clear and expan- 
sive. We are asked to look upon the cosmos "as a continuous 
process unfolding itself in regular order in obedience to natural 
laws." We see in it all not a yawning chaos restrained by the 
constant interference from without of a wise and beneficent ex- 
ternal power, but a vast aggregate of original elements perpetu- 
ally working out their own fresh redistribution in accordance with 
their own inherent energies. He regards the cosmos as an almost 
infinite collection of material, animated by an almost infinite sum 
total of energy, which is called Akasa. I have used the above 
definition of evolution as given by Grant Allen in his 'life of 
Darwin,'' as it beautifully expresses the generalized idea of Buddh- 
ism. We do not postulate that man's evolution began from the 
protoplasmic stage; but we are asked not to speculate on the ori- 
gin of life, on the origin of the law of cause and effect, etc. So 
far as this great law is concerned we say that it controls the phe- 
nomena of human life as well as those of external nature, the 
whole knowable universe forms one undivided whole. 

Buddha promulgated his system of philosophy after having 
studied all religions. And in the Brahma-jola sutta sixty-two 
creeds are discussed. In the Kalama, the sutta, Buddha says: 

Do not believe in'what ye have heard. Do not believe in traditions 
because they have been handed down for many generations. Do not be- 
lieve in anything because it is renowned and spoken of by many. Do 
not believe merely because the written statement of some old sage is 
produced. Do not believe in conjecture. Do not believe in that as truth 
to which you have become attached by habit. Do not believe merely on 
the authority of your teachers and elders. Often observation and analy- 
sis, when the result agrees with reason, are conducive to the good and 
gain of one and all. Accept and live up to it. 

To the ordinary householder, whose highest happiness consists 
in being wealthy here and in heaven hereafter, Buddha inculcated a 
simple code of morality. The student of Buddha's religion, from 



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ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS. 86 

destroying life, lays aside the club and weapon. He is modest and 
full of pity. He is compassionate to all creatures that have life. 
He abstains from theft, and he passes his life in honesty and 
purity of heart. He lives a life of chastity and purity. He ab- 
stains from falsehood and injures not his fellow-man by deceit. 
Putting away slander, he abstains from calumny. He is a peace- 
maker, a speaker of words that make for peace. Whatever word 
is humane, pleasant to the ear, lovely, reaching to the heart, such 
are the words he speaks. He abstains from harsh language. He 
abstains from foolish talk; he abstains from intoxicants and stupe- 
fying drugs. 

The advance student of the religion of Buddha, when he has 
faith in him, thinks, ''full of hindrances in household life is a path 
defiled by passion. Pure as the air is the life of him who has re- 
nounced all worldly things. How difficult it is for the man who 
dwells at home to live the higher life in all its fullness, in all its 
purity, in all its freedom. Let me then cut ofF my hair and beard, 
let me clothe myself in orange-colored robes, let me go forth from 
a household life into the homeless state.'' Then before long, for- 
saking his portion of wealth, forsaking his circle of relatives, he 
cuts off his hair and beard, he clothes himself in the orange-col- 
ored robes and he goes into the homeless state, and then he passes 
a life of self-restraint, according to the rules of the order of the 
blessed one. Uprightness is his object and he sees danger in the 
least of those things he should avoid. He encompasses himself 
with holiness, in word and deed. He sustains his life by means 
that are quite pure. Good is his conduct, guarded the door of his 
senses, mindful and self-possessed, he is altogether happy. 

The student of pure religion abstains from earning a liveli- 
hood by the practice of low and lying arts, viz., all divination, in- 
terpretation of dreams, palmistry, astrology, crystal prophesying, 
charms of all sorts. Buddha also says: 

Just as a mighty trumpeter makes himself heard in all the four 
directions without difficulty, even so of all things that have life, there is 
not one that the student passes by or leaves aside, but regards them all 
with mind set free and deep-felt pity, sympathy, and equanimity. He 
lets his mind pervade the whole world with thoughts of love. 



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86 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

To realize the unseen is the goal of the student of Buddha^s 
teachings, and such a one has to lead an absolutely pure life. 
Buddha says: 

Let him fulfill all righteousness; let him be devoted to that quietude 
of heart which springs from within; let him not drive back the ecstasy 
of contemplation; let him look through things; let him be much alone. 
Fulfill all righteousness for the sake of the living, and for the sake 
of the blessed ones that are dead and gone. 

Thought transference, thought reading, cliarordience, clair- 
voyance, projection of the sub-conscious self, and all the higher 
branches of psychical science that first now engage the thought- 
ful attention of psychical researches are within the reach of him 
who fulfills all righteousness, who is devoted to solitude and to 
contemplation. 

Charity, observance of moral rules, purifying the mind, mak- 
ing others participate in the good work that one is doing, co-oper- 
ating with others in doing good, nursing the sick, giving gifts to 
the deserving ones, hearing all that is good and beautiful, making 
others learn the rules of morality, accepting the laws of cause and 
effect, are the common appanage of all good men. 

Prohibited employments include slave dealing, sale of weapons 
of warfare, sale of poisons, sale of intoxicants, sale of flesh — all 
deemed the lowest of professions. 

The five kinds of wealth are: Faith, pure life, receptivity of 
the mind to all that is good and beautiful, liberality, and wisdom. 
Those who possess these five kinds of wealth in their past incarna- 
tions are influenced by the teachings of Buddha. 

Besides these, Buddha says in his universal precepts: He who 
is faithful and leads the life of a householder, and possesses the 
following four (Dhammas) virtues, truth, justice, firmness, and 
liberality, such a one does not grieve when passing away. Pray 
ask other teachers and philosophers far and wide whether there is 
found anything greater than truth, self-restraint, liberality, and 
forbearance. 

The pupil should minister to his teacher; he should rise up in 
his presence, wait upon him, listen to all that he says with respect- 
ful attention, perform the duties necessary for his personal com- 
fort, and carefully attend to his instruction. The teacher should 



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ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS, 87 

show affection for his pupil. He trains him in virtue and good 
manners, carefully instructs him, imparts to him a knowledge of 
the sciences and wisdom of the ancients, speaks well of him to 
relatives, and guards him from danger. 

The honorable man ministers to his friends and relatives by 
presenting gifts, by courteous language, by promoting them as his 
equals, and by sharing with them his prosperity. They should 
watch over him when he has negligently exposed himself, guard 
his property when he is careless, assist him in difficulties, stand 
by him, and help to provide for his family. 

The master should minister to the wants of his servants, as 
dependents; he assigns them labor suitable to their strength, pro- 
vides for their comfortable support; he attends them in sickness, 
causes them to partake of any extraordinary delicacy he may ob- 
tain, and makes them occasional presents. The servants should 
manifest their attachment to the master; they rise before him in 
the morning and retire later to rest ; they do not purloin his 
property, do their work cheerfully and actively, and are respect- 
ful in their behavior toward him. 

The religious teachers should manifest their kind feelings 
toward lawyers. They should dissuade them from vice, excite 
them to virtuous acts — ^being desirous of promoting the welfare 
of all. They should instruct them in the things they had not pre- 
viously learned, confirm them in the truths, and point out to them 
the way to heaven. The lawyers should minister to the teachers 
by respectful attention manifested in their words, actions, and 
thoughts; and by supplying them their temporal wants and by 
allowing them constant access to them. 

The wise, virtuous, prudent, intelligent, teachable, docile man 
will become eminent. The persevering, diligent man, unshaken in 
adversity and of inflexible determination, will become eminent. 
The well-informed, friendly-disposed, prudent-speaking, generous- 
minded, self-controlled, self-possessed man will become emi- 
nent. 

In this world, generosity, mildness of speech, public spirit, 
and courteous behavior are worthy of respect under all circum- 
stances and will be valuable in all places. If these be not pos- 
sessed, the mother will receive neither honor nor support from the 



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88 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

son, neither will the father receive respect or honor. Buddha also 
says: 

Know that from time to time a Tathagata is bom into the world 
fully enlightened, blessed and worthy, abounding in wisdom and good- 
ness, happy with knowledge of the world, unsurpassed as a guide to 
erring mortals, a teacher of gods and men, a blessed Buddha. He, by 
himself, thoroughly understands and sees, as it w^e face to face, this 
universe, the world below with all its spirits, and the worlds above, and 
all creatures, all religious teachers, gods and men, and he then makes his 
knowledge known to others. The truth doth he proclaim, both in its 
letter and its spirit, lovely in its origin, lovely in its progress, lovely in 
its consummation; the higher life doth he proclaim, in all its purity and 
in all its perf ectness. 

1. He is absolutely free from all passions, commits no evil even in 
secrecy, and is the embodiment of perfection. He is above doing any- 
thing wrong. 

2. Setf-introspection — ^by this he has reached the state of supreme 
enlightenment. 

3. By means of this divine eye he looks back to the remotest past 
and future. Knows the way of emancipation, and is accomplished in 
the three great branches of divine knowledge, and has gained perfect 
wisdom. He is in possession of all psychic powers, always willing to 
listen, full of en^gy, wisdom, and dhyana. 

4. He has realized eternal peace and walks in the perfect path of 
virtue. 

5. He knows three states of existence. 

6. He is incomparable in purity and holiness. 

7. He is teacher of gods and men. 

8. He exhorts gods and men at the proper time according to their 
individual temperaments. 

9. He is the supremely enlightened teacher and the perfect embodi- 
ment of all the virtues he teaches. The two characteristics of Buddha 
are wisdom and compassion. 

Buddha also gave a warning to his followers wh^ he said : 

He who is not generous, who is fond of sensuality, who is disturbed 
at heart, who is of uneven mind, who is not reflective, who is not of 
calm mind, who is discontented at heart, who has no control ov^ hit 
senses — such a disciple is far from me, though he is in body near me. 

The attainment of salvation is by the perception of self 



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ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS. 89 

through charity, purity, self-sacrifice, self-knowledge, dauntless 
energy, patience, truth, resolution, love, and equanimity. The last 
words of Buddha were these: 

Be ye lamps onto yourselyes; be ye a refuge to yourselves; betake 
yourself to an eternal voyage; hold fast to the truth as a lamp; hold 
fast as a refuge to the truth; look not for refuge to anyone besides 
yourselves. Learn ye, then, that knowledge which I have attained and 
have declared unto you, and walk ye in it, practice and increase in or- 
der that the path of holiness may last and long endure for the blessing 
of many people, to the relief of the world, to the welfare, the blessing, 
the joy of gods and men. 



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OLIVER COWDERY- 

BY ELDER SAMUEL W. RICHARDS. 



[It was announced in the prospectus of the Era for Volume II, that 
we would publish a series of letters on the Early Scenes and Incidents 
IN THE Church, from the pen of Oliver Cowdery. Before proceeding 
with the letters it is thought proper to present to our readers the fol- 
lowing article on Oliver Ck)WDERY, by his personal friend, Elder Samuel 
W. Richards, who, as it will be seen from the article itself, possessed 
exceptional opportunities for learning much concerning this remarkable 
man who was so closely associated with the Prophet Joseph Smith. — 
Editor.] 



Among the most interesting and important events ever re- 
corded in history, are those connected with the coming forth of 
the dispensation of the fullness of times from the heavens to the 
children of men in our day, in which the heavens were opened and 
God, Jesus Christ, angels, and departed spirits of holy men united 
in one grand effort for the final and complete redemption of fallen 
humanity. 

One of the first recipients of the Godly authority necessary 
to the accomplishment of such a glorious work was he whose name 
appears at the head of this article. 

Oliver Cowdery was bom in the town of Wells, Rutland 
County, Vermont, October, 1805. About 1825 he removed to the 
State of New York, and was employed as clerk in a store until the 
winter of 1828-9, when he taught school in the town of Manches- 
ter, Ontario County, New York. There he became acquainted with 
the family of Joseph Smith, Sr., who sent children to his school, 
and Oliver went to board with them. 



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OLIVER COWDERY. 91 

While here he learned of Joseph Smith, the younger, having 
found plates containing ancient records of the history of the early 
settlers of this, the American continent, and revealed to him by a 
heavenly messenger. This so engaged his attention and occupied 
his mind that he could not be satisfied until he made a visit to the 
now reputed Prophet, which he did at Harmony, Pennsylvania, on 
the fifth day of April, 1829. 

The Prophet Joseph immediately recognized him as the person 
he had been praying, for to be sent by God to assist him as scribe, 
in the translation of the records he had found, preparatory to its 
publication in the English language. Only two days after this, 
their first meeting, they commenced translating the Book of Mor- 
mon. Joseph was the translator by aid of the Urim and Thiunmim, 
and Oliver was the scribe who wrote the words as they were spoken 
by the translator. He not only wrote the first copy of the trans- 
lation, but made another copy before it was sent to the printer. 
This was deemed necessary because of determined efforts being 
made to obtain the^nanuscript, by parties opposed to the young 
Prophet's declaration of its being a divine record, brought forth 
and translated by the gift and power of God. 

During the translation, incidents occurred which proved to 
Oliver's mind that it was a divine work; as, for instance, when, on 
the 15th of May, 1829, he with the Prophet Joseph went into the 
woods to pray, John the Baptist descended in a cloud of light, 
and ordained them to the Priesthood of Aaron, and promised that 
soon the Melchisedek Priesthood would be conferred upon them; 
that Joseph should be the first and Oliver the second Elder in the 
Church of Christ, to be organized with the full powers of both 
Priesthoods which were to be in the Church. 

In the following month of June, 1829, a revelation was given 
through the Prophet Joseph, declaring that Oliver had received "the 
same power and the same faith, and the same gift like unto him," 
and if he (Oliver) would testify of the things he had seen and 
heard, he was promised "the gates of hell shall not prevail against 
you; for my grace is sufficient for you, and you shall be lifted up 
at the last day." 

That he did testify of the plates found, and of their trans- 
lation by the gift and power of God, as commanded, to the latest day 



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92 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

of Us life, tiiere are many witnesses; and that, too, nnder many 
trying ordeals when it was thought his faith was not strong in that 
which he had declared to all the world. 

It also fell to tiie lot of Oliver Gowdery, in company witii 
David Whitmer, to search out the first Twelve, on whom should be 
conferred the powers of the Melchisedek Priesthood, which Joseph 
and Oliver had received by the administration of Peter, James, and 
John, and by ordination under their hands, that they should be 
Apostles, and become fecial witnesses of Jesus Christ to all tiie 
world. 

Oliver CJowdery, by virtue of tiie Priesthood conferred upon 
him, was the first to administer tiie ordinance of baptism, and to 
preach the first public Gospel sermon in this dispensation of God 
to man. His experience and labors were of that divine character 
which could never be forgotten, and after years proved that th^ 
were to him as though engraven with an iron pen upon the rock, 
never to be obliterated. 

Soon after the organization of the Chupch in 1830, he was 
called with others to fill a mission to the Lamanites on the western 
border of Missouri, after which he returned to Ohio where the 
Church was being established. 

In December, 1831, the revelations which the Prophet Joseph 
had received up to that time, were by Oliver Cowdery, then Church 
Historian, sent up to Missouri witii money for publication. 

In July, 1834, Oliver was sent as a special messenger from 
Missouri to Ohio on matters of importance relating to the affairs 
of the Church there, about the time of their being driven and per- 
secuted by their enemies. Being then in harmony with the 
Prophet Joseph, they both entered into covenant with the Lord to 
pay tithing, November 29th, 1834. 

On April 3rd, 1836, he was favored, with the Prophet Joseph, 
to witness the marvelous manifestations which occurred in the 
Elrtland Temple, when they saw the Lord standing upon the 
toeastwork of the pulpit, and received from Him the declaration 
that their sins were forgiven them, and that they were clean in 
His sight. Immediately after this, also appeared in succession 
Moses, Elias, and Elijah, each delivering up the keys and powers 
of their several missions and dispensations to Joseph and Oliver, 



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OLIVER COWDERY. 98 

4iiid while standing in their presence declared the time had come 
for the taming of the hearts of the fathers to the children and 
the children to the fathers, lest the whole earth be smitten with a 
curse; and the keys of this dispensation were committed to them 
by the several administrators who had held them in former dispen- 
sations. 

Oliver, who was now, and had been, General Church Recorder, 
removed to Missouri, September 17th, 1887. 

Before leaving Kirtland, however, he was, with others, ap- 
X>ointed Assistant Counselor to the First Presidency, and as such 
went to the Saints in Missouri. While spending the winter there 
with the Saints his course of life proved to be such that on the 
12th of April, 1838, he was charged with misconduct before the 
High Council and by them excommunicated from the Church. But 
few in the history of the Church or of the world have ever been 
favored with such intimacy with prophets, angels, and Jesus Christ 
Himself, as Oliver had; which makes it more marvelous that his 
iunbition, without proper restraint, should lead him, or cause him 
to be led where he must be severed from the fellowship of the 
Saints. 

Without apparently making any effort to recover his standing 
or even visit tiie Prophet Joseph, he removed to Ohio, where he 
spent his time mostly in the study and pursuit of law practice, and 
other practices of a literary character, as he could not, with the 
knowledge he had, think of connecting himself with any of the 
religious sects of the day. This position he occupied until after 
the Prophet's death and the removal of the Saints from Nauvoo to 
the mountains in 1847. 

In 1848, a yearning which he had for the society of those 
with whom he had once been so familiar, caused him to visit Eanes- 
ville, Iowa, where Elder Orson Hyde, then President of the Twelve 
Apostles, was residing, and make application for a reunion with the 
<3hurch, which was granted by his being baptized and duly ad- 
mitted into the Church by Elder Hyde officiating. 

Soon after this, with the view of joining the Saints in Salt Lake 
Valley the next season, he, with his wife, desired first to visit her 
brother, David Whitmer, then living in Richmond, Missouri. 
For this purpose in the winter month of January they started on 



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94 IMPROVEMENT ERA, 

the journey by team, but were overtaken by a severe snow storm 
which compelled them to seek shelter, which they obtained with 
the writer of this article, then temporarily residing in the upper 
part of that State. Here they found it necessary to remain some 
length of time on account of the great amount of snow which had 
fallen completely blockading the road, and for a time preventing 
travel by teams. 

This detention of nearly two weeks' time was extremely in- 
teresting and made very enjoyable to both parties participating in 
the social and intellectual feast so unexpectedly provided. 

I had but the fall before returned from my first mission to the 
British Isles, and was in the spirit of inquiry as to all matters of 
early history and experiences in the Church, and soon found there 
was no reserve on the part of Oliver in answering my many ques- 
tions. In doing so his mind seemed as fresh in recollection of 
events which occurred more than a score of years before as though 
they were but of yesterday. 

Upon carefully inquiring as to his long absence from the body 
of the Church, he stated that he had never met the Prophet Joseph, 
after his expulsion from the Church, while he lived, apparently 
feeling that the Prophet could with equal propriety enquire after 
him as for him to visit the Prophet, and as his pride would seem- 
ingly not allow him to become a suppliant without that inquiry, it 
was never made; while he felt quite sure that had he ever met the 
Prophet there would have been no difficulty in effecting a recon- 
ciliation, as a feeling of jealousy towards him on the part of his 
accusers had entered largely into their purpose of having him re- 
moved, which he thought Joseph must have discovered after go- 
ing up to Missouri. 

In what had transpired with him he now felt to acknowledge 
the hand of God, in that he had been preserved; for if he had 
been with the Church he would have undoubtedly been with Joseph 
in his days of trial and shared like fate with him; but being spared, 
he now desired to go to the nations and bear a testimony of this 
work which no other man living could bear; and he decided to go 
to the Presidency of the Church and offer his services for that 
purpose. 

This indeed seemed to be his only ambition, and he was now 



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OLIVER COWDERY. 95 

going to visit his wife's brother, David Whitmer, and prepare to go 
to the mountains and join the body of the Chnrch the f ollovnng 
summer and nnite with them. For some cause this was not per- 
mitted, and he died in Missouri among relatives, before realizing 
the intent and purpose he had cherished of again testifying of the 
great work and dispensation which he had been instrumental with 
the Prophet in opening up to the world. 

To hear him describe in his pleasant but earnest manner the 
personality of those heavenly messengers, with whom he and the 
Prophet had so freely held converse, was enchanting to my soul. 
Their heavenly appearance, clothed in robes of purity; the influence 
of their presence so lovely and serene; their eyes that seemed to 
penetrate to the very depths of the soul, together with the color 
of the eyes that gazed upon them, were all so beautifully related 
as to almost make one feel that they were then present; and as I 
placed my hands upon his head where these angels had placed 
theirs, a divine influence filled the soul to that degree that one 
could truly feel to be in the presence of something that was more 
than earthly; and from that day to this — ^now almost fifty years 
ago — ^the interest of those glorious truths upon the mind has never 
been lost, but as a beacon light ever guiding to the home of their 
glory for a like inheritance. 

Before taking his departure he wrote and left with the writer 
of this the following statement, which we believe to be his last living 
testimony, though oft repeated, of the wonderful manifestations 
which brought the authority of God to men on earth: 

TESTIMONY. 

''Whfle darkness covered the earth, and gross darkness the 
people; long after the authority to administer in holy things had 
been taken away, the Lord opened the heavens and sent forth His 
word for the salvation of Israel. In fulfillment of the sacred 
scriptures, the everlasting Gospel was proclaimed by the mighty 
angel (Moroni) who, clothed with the authority of his mission, 
gave glory to God in the highest. This Gospel is the 'stone taken 
from the mountains without hands.' John the Baptist, holding the 
keys of the Aaronic Priesthood; Peter, James, and John, holding 
the keys of the Melchisedek Priesthood, have also ministered for 



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96 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

those who shall be heirs of salvation, and with tiiese administra- 
tions (»rdained men to the same Priesthoods. These Priesthoods, 
with their authority, are now, and must continue to be, in the bodj 
of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Blessed is 
the Elder who has received the same, and thrice blessed and holy 
is he who shall endure to the end. 

''Accept assurances, dear brother, of the unfeigned prayer of 
him who, in connection with Joseph the Seer, was blessed with the 
above mimstrations, and who earnestly and devoutly hopes to 
meet you in the Celestial Glory. 

"Oliveb Cowdery. 
"To Etder Samuel W. Richards, January 18tt, 1849." 

Thus, by the foregoing testimony which he bears, as his last 
written, and virtually his dying testimony, is secured the promise 
made to him by the Lord in the early part of his career, that ''the 
gates of hell should not prevail against him; and he should be 
lifted up at the last day." 

He went to his rest March 3rd, 1850, entitled to a glorious 
resurrection and crown of eternal life, such as the Lord, the 
righteous Judge, shall give to all those who keep covenant with 
Him. 



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GIFTS OF THE GOSPEL* 

BY SAMUEL L. ADAMS. 



'The blind receive their sight." Matt, xi: 5. 

Editor op the Era: 

Dear Brother: Some time ago, a gentleman by the name of 
W. T. Morgan, wrote through the Deseret News, asking for testi- 
monies of the truth of Mormonism by actual receivers of the same, 
as he wished to correspond with them. 

I wrote him an account of my first outward personal experience 
in what is called ''Miracles," which occurred when I was about six- 
teen years of age, while I was an apprentice boy. The said Mor- 
gan has never replied to me. It is over twelve months since I 
wrote— September 24, 1897. 

Should what I said to him be of any use to you it is at your 
service. Samuel L. Adams. 



St. George, Utah, Sept. 24, 1897. 
W. r. Morgan: 

Dear Sir: I this day saw and read your letter in the Deseret News, 
and I decided to write you; should my subject please you, you may call 
again. 

I am sixty-four years of age, reared till nineteen in England. Since 
then I have made Utah my home, coming here on the third day of Sep- 
tember, 1852. My early life was spent in helping to build up this then 
forbidding country; this will account for my lack of education. But 
heaven be thanked I have been blessed with a portion of the Spirit of 
God, and a good memory, and through these aids I am prepared to prove 
the truth of what is called "Mormonism.^ I united myself with the 



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98 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Church at the age of fifteen, and from that time to this I have witnessed 
the hand of God moving everywhere. I was told that if I would embrace 
the Gospel with an honest heart I should know the truth of the doctrine 
myself. This I surely sought to do. I was baptized in a river, as Christ 
bur Savior was, and came up out of the water, and hands were laid upon 
me for the gift of the Holy Ghost; and I bear record that that gift came 
upon me. My eyes were opened to see the things of God; my tongue to 
speak forth His praise. I sought the gifts of the Spirit, and the gift of 
faith came upon me; when I was sick, I would call for the Elders of the 
Church, and was healed by the power of God. 

I will relate one special circumstance. I took a severe cold in my 
eyes, (bear in mind I was an apprentice boy) and my eyes were both 
blood-shot, and for several days I was compelled to give up my worL I 
became totally blind in one eye, and the other was so nearly blind that I 
had to be led wherever I went. This brought me to receive abuse and 
taunts from my shopmates. I was the youngest of three apprentices. It 
was my duty to listen to the morning bell, and go down and open the doora 
to let the men in to work; this I failed to do for several days. One Thurs- 
day evening I asked my bed-fellow to lead me to a Mormon "night meet- 
ing." He did so, and on my return I called at the home of Brother and 
Sister Stokes, two members of the Church, where two Elders were 
going to sleep for the night. When I arrived at the house, my guide 
left me at the door, as he thought it was getting very late. (Bear in mind 
my eyes were two balls of blood in appearance, and felt as though a hand- 
ful of sand had been thrown into them.) I was suffering greatly, and it 
was near 11 o'clock. I, trembling, said to those Elders, will you anoint 
my eyes and pray for me? They cheerfully consented. Elder Clark 
anointed me, and Elder Hodgert was mouth in prayer. While their hands 
were upon my head, the sore, sandy feeling all left my eyes. Being late, 
I just thanked them and left for home. I had a joyful heart, I could see 
the gas lights in the street lamps, but I did not realize my true condition 
till half past five the next morning. That night I got my ears boxed by 
the mistress of the house where I lived who was waiting at the door for 
my coming home. She followed me through the hallway to the foot of 
the stairs, telling me of my conduct, being unable to work and being out 
at this late hour, and it raining and damp. I did not say a word but 
made for bed. Morning came, the bell rang, and I went down to answer 
the door; the first man I saw said, ''Hello! Sam, are you better?" Isaid^ 
''I feel so." I went back into the house and struck a light in front of a 
large mirror, when to my joy I saw a pair of eyes as clear of blood as 
they ever were in my life. I went into the shop to my vise, lit my gas 



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GIFTS OF THE GOSPEL. 99 

and started to work. At 8 o'clock, a man that worked two vises from me 
came in to work, and putting his right hand upon my left shoulder he pulled 
me around, and looking me full in the face, said: "Hello! those Elders 
of Beelzebub have been performing a miracle upon you, have they?** With 
that be kicked and cuffed me till my friend and bed-fellow stepped up 
with a rod of steel in his hands, and declared he would protect me. ''And 
are you a Mormon, too?*' he asked. "No,** replied my friend, ''but if I 
could learn as much in six years as he has learned in six months, I would 
be baptized tonight.** And that night he was baptized. 

Now, my friend, this was the beginning of outward signs and mir- 
acles to me; and I bear record before God, that mine has been a life of 
miraculous events, from that day to this. The evidences to prove Joseph 
Smith a Prophet of God are not few, but legion. 

I am only one of many thousands in many countries, who are able to 
tell such things, and bear record from whence they come. And in the 
language of the Savior, I say to you, "If any man will do his will he shall 
know of the doctrine, whether it be of God, or whether I speak of myself .*' 

Trusting this will find a lodgment in your heart, I will close, pray- 
ing God that you may never rest at ease till you have obtained the for- 
j^venees of your sins, and the Holy Ghost, the Comforter, for your guide. 

I am yours truly, 

Sauuel L. Adams. 



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WHAT AGNOSnoSM IS* 

BY W. H. LAMA8TER, OP INDIANAPOLIS. 



[A review of this article will appear in the next number of the 
Era by one of the EdUors.] 

The first human thinker in his ignorance of things around and 
about him inquired of the whence and the whither. Men are bom 
ignorant even of their own individual existence. They emerge as 
it were out of a world of ignorance and enter through gradi^^l 
processes of evolution into another of more or less knowledge. 
Whatever though may be their cravings or their ambitions to know, 
there must ever lie before and above them a still higher and a 
grander and a more elevated plane of knowledge. Men therefore 
being natural bom agnostics, they must by reason of their own 
particular environments and limitations be forever restrained from 
acquiring even that amount of knowledge they might desire. With 
finite minds, as well as with everything else finite, there are always 
certain well-defined boundary lines to which they may go, but no 
further. Nature has no pets upon which it may be seen bestowing 
an unlimited amount of knowledge. Its bounties whatever they 
may be are given, even if plentifully, with a saving hand. 

That men may acquire more wisdom and knowledge does not 
necessarily make them any less agnostics. A Spencer, a Huxley or 
a Darwin may be great philosophers and scientists, and still there 
is much even in their particular studies they do not know, and so 
therefore they are in spite of themselves agnostics. 

The word agnostic is derived from the Greek one agnostos, and 
when translated into the English language means 'Sinknown,'' ''not 
knowing,'' "ignorant of." Gnosis with the Greeks signified knowl- 



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WBAt AGNOSTICISM IS. 101 

6dg6y and 80 tiffnjosfm^ haTing a privatiye ''a,'' wcndd cotiseiGpiently 
iti€d;& a Want of knowledge. Hence an agnostic as contradistin- 
gt&Iied from a Greek gnostic — one who knows — ^is one who does 
n(yt know. 

Agnosticism as an api^lied theory or doctrine may tiierefore 
be said to be one which neither asserts nor denies the existence of 
the infinite, the absolute. Or, it may be defined as a ^'theory of the 
unknowable which assumes its most definite form in the denial of 
the possibility of any knowledge of God." And so the agnostic 
may be said to be one who does not claim or profess to know of 
tiie existence of a supreme being called God. 

Again, an agnostic may be said to be ''one who holds that the 
eidstence of anything beyond and behind natural phenomena is 
unknown, and (so far as can now be judged) unknowable, and espec- 
klly that a first cause and an unseen world are subjects of which 
we know nothing.'' And so the word agnostic might very well 
stand as the alitithesis of the one gnostic, and might therefore be 
uded to designate him who regards phenomena of all kinds as l^e 
result of unknown or unknowable causes. 

Prof. Huxley, the inventor of the English word "agnosticism," 
says of it that it is not a negative creed, nor even a creed of any 
kind, "except in so far as it expresses absolute faith in the valid- 
ity of a principle which is as much ethical as intellectual;" and 
he adds that "this principle may be stated in various ways, but 
they all amount to this: that it is wrong for a man to say that he 
iili (Certain of the objective truth of any proposition unless he can 
produce evidence which logically justifies that certainty." It is 
upon such points as this one that the Christian and the agnostic 
come to the forks in their religious road. 

To state the proposition more tersely we will say that while 
CSiristianity is willing to rest on "faith" alone in arriving at any 
one or more objective religious truths, agnosticism demands 
something more — ^it demands evidence of the highest character 
bef (»re accepting as very truth any kind of a religious belief or 
dogma. Hence we find Christianity standing for a bare and empty 
faith and agnosticism for the strongest and the most indisputable 
of testimony. And so it must be admitted that as between the 
Christian and the agnostic there is an impassable gulf. 



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102 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

And again, Christianity resting as it does on a belief in the 
supematursd, agnosticism is founded only upon the natural; while 
the one is dependent upon what is called a divine revelation, the 
other relies on vision. So therefore as between Christianity and 
agnosticism there must forever remain that degree of antagonism 
which can never be obliterated or destroyed. 

The fundamental conception then of Christianity being a 
belief in the supernatural, if it be a logical one, we might very nat- 
urally expect to find in it its own verity. What evidence have we 
though of any such verity ? 

Now it is to be conceded that it is among the possibilities of 
the human mind not only to conceive but also to believe; and yet 
it is not to be denied that there are also certain boundary lines 
within which it may both conceive and believe, atfd beyond them 
it can not go. That being true might we not inquire, how is the 
human mind — ^it being fijiite — either to have a conception or a 
belief about things infinite? The hxmian mind we know to be limited, 
and consequently, as Sir William Hamilton says, it ''can know only 
the limited, and the conditionally limited." Therefore as concern- 
ing things of the infinite (admitting there be an infinite) the human 
mind can have neither a conception nor a belief of any kind what- 
ever. 

Christianity being founded upon a belief in an infinite God, in 
order that it should rest in the most perfect safety from any and 
all agnostic attacks, it must be able to present that belief in such 
a garb and such a one only as may be seen and realized as a veri- 
table truth by the finite human mind; and so it might be well to 
inquire: How is that to be done? It will not be denied that human 
beliefs, as well as everything else about the human mind, are 
relative. And if that be true, how is finite man to have any con- 
ception of, much less any real foundation whatever for, a belief 
in the existence of an infinite God? 

Mr. Herbert Spencer says that ''the Infinite, the Absolute, to 
be known at all must be classed," and adds, for it even "to be pos- 
itively thought of, it must be thought of as such or such — as of 
this or that kind;" and he then inquires, "Can it be like in kind 
to anything of which we have sensible experience?" and wisely 
answers, "Obviously not." We must therefore admit then if there 



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WHAT AGNOSTICISM IS. 103 

is an infinite God that we as finite beings can know nothing what- 
ever of His existence. 

Again, Mr. Spencer says, 'It is manifest that, even if we 
could be conscions of the absolute, we could not possibly know 
that it is the absolute; and, as we can be conscious of an object 
as such, only by knowing it to be what it is, this is equivalent to 
an admission that we cannot be conscious of the absolute at all," 
and so he concludes, as he should do, that what we ignorantly call 
the Infinite, the Absolute, is but a term expressing no object of 
thought whatever. 

It is therefore upon this question — the one involving the 
existence of an infinite God — ^that Christianity and agnosticism are 
first seen to diverge. Christianity relying upon what it is pleased 
to call a divine revelation, says there is an infinite God; while 
agnosticism, having no other guide but reason, says, '1 don't know." 
Hence upon the one hand we find the Christian professing to have 
a knowledge of the first and the final causes of the tmiverse, and 
particularly of this world and of the beings in it; while upon the 
other is to be found the agnostic confessing his ignorance of all 
such things. 

Webster has the following definition of agnosticism, and one, 
too, which agnostics themselves, so far as I know, are willing to 
accept, viz.: That it is '"that doctrine which, professing ignorance, 
neither asserts nor denies; specifically in theology, the doctrine 
that the existence of a personal deity can be neither asserted nor 
denied, neither proved nor disproved, because of the necessary 
limits of the hxmian mind (maintained by Hamilton and Mansel) or 
because of the insufficiency of the evidence furnished by psychical 
and physical data to warrant a positive conclusion (as taught by 
Spencer and his school) opposed alike to dogmatic skepticism and 
to dogmatic theism." 

To assert, as does the theist, that there is an infinite God, is 
but saying that he is able to know that there is such a being. 
Bare and empty assertions of the existence of any being or thing, 
and without some sort of evidence in support of them, are neither 
pardonable nor even excusable in any one. Therefore, the theist, 
whether he be a Christian or any one else, if he says there is an 
infinite God he should be able to establish such declaration with 



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104 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

evidence the most trustworthy and indisputable. Now, osn hie do 
it? and if so, what is going to be the character of his proof? 

The Christian relies on faith and that alone for his belief in 
the existence of an infinite God, and if asked to define what faith 
is, he answers that it is ''the substance of things hoped for, the 
evidence of things not seen.'' This all may meet the requirements 
of theology, but philosophy demands something more logical and 
reasonable in order to satisfy it of the existence of any being 
either finite or infinite. 

Agnosticism being unwilling to accept faith as an infallible 
guide in reaching anything like a reasonable belief in the existence 
of an infinite God, it must not be expected that it is going to step 
beyond the knowable in its search after the first or final causes of 
things; neither will it claim even the right to know the unknow- 
able either in what is called the supernatural or natural order of 
things. The agnostic is therefore satisfied whatever may be the 
objective point in his investigations, whether pertaining to tiie 
natural or the supernatural, to keep within the boundary lines of his 
own mental powers and capacities. The Christian may claim the 
right, as he often does, to turn on his ''search light" of faith, and 
to explore even the invisible and the unknowable, but the agnostic 
never does. 

Catholic theology at least teaches that "a God understood 
would be no God at all," and yet it would, it seems, apprehend one 
as being not only personal and intelligent but also self -existent; 
still whatever, though Christian theology, whether Catholic or Prot- 
estant, may teach concerning the existence of the Infinite, the 
Absolute, it does not hold or maintain that it may be "perfectly 
known;" and so it might be after all that Prof. Huxley was not 
very far wrong in asserting as he once did that "with scientific 
theology, agnosticism has no quarrel." 

We read in the Christian scriptures themselves, "Canst thou by 
searching find out God? Canst thou find out the Almighty unto 
perfection?" And again, that "no man can find out the work that 
God maketh from the beginning to the end." Agnosticism must 
therefore be acknowledged to have existed, if not as a formulated 
doctrine, at least as a practical idea among men throughout all 
past ages. 



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WHAT AGNOSTICISM IS. 105 

Agnosticidm has not only characterized modem thought but 
also the highest and the grandest of ancient as well. The first of 
the Greek philosophers, commencing with the physicists under 
Thales, the mathematicians under Anaximander and Pythagoras, and 
the eleatics under Xenophanes and Zeno, while confining themselves 
in their inquiries to speculations concerning the natural order of 
things, were practically agnostics. In fact it was left to the last 
of those schools to lay the foundations of that skeptical philosophy, 
which afterwards so revolutionized Greek thought, by boldly pro- 
claiming their ignorance of the first and final causes of things; and 
while Anaxagoras was the first of the Greek philosophers to 
announce his belief in a Supreme Intelligence as the primal cause, he 
was nevertheless willing to acknowledge that there still remained 
much of it all that he did not know. 

It might here be well to note that as Democritus affirmed the 
Anaxagorian doctrine of a "Personal Prime Principle" he has been 
justly styled the real founder of both ancient and modem agnosti- 
cism. Others though, since him, like Bacon, Huxley and Spencer, 
have builded anew on the foundation he had laid and have reared a 
more imposing agnostic strocture than it was ever in the power of 
his mind to conceive. 

As man is a finite being, and limited in knowledge as well as 
he is in everything else, there will ever be something of which he 
can know nothing whatever. It must therefore be the infinite 
being, if any at all, who is able to understand and to know all 
things. The finite one being circumscribed and limited, his knowl- 
edge must necessarily be also circumscribed and limited, and there- 
fore he is, his desires and his ambitions to the contrary notwith- 
standing to know all things, an agnostic. 

While again, the very fact of men's power to increase in 
knowledge and wisdom is evidence sufficient even of itself to prove 
that there is also a power within them, if exerted, to know some- 
thing they do not know. They are thus compelled, whatever may 
be their professions to the contrary, in the most practical sense to 
be agnostics. 

Agnosticism being the antithesis of Christianity it must there- 
fore stand for that philosophy and that only which inspires men to 
inquire into and to investigate the hitherto unknown even in the- 



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106 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

ology. Hence it might be denominated that branch of philosophy 
which will accept nothing as true, and particularly that pertaining 
to religious creeds and beliefs, not in harmony with men's reason 
and observation. 

Again, agnosticism, unlike Christianity, claims to have no 
knowledge of what is called the unseen world or the future state 
of mankind, and yet it is always willing to inquire and to know if pos- 
sible what is and what is not in the beyond of this life for all men. 
Whatever though may be the extent of its inquiries, they must be 
along scientific lines; and whatever maybe the amount of its knowl- 
edge, it must be gained through such channels and such only as the 
best philosophy may devise. Agnosticism will take nothing as true 
without some reasonable proof, even if it should be labeled a ''thus 
saith the Lord." 

With what is called divine revelation agnosticism has nothing 
whatever to do except it be to attack after the most scientific 
methods the weakness of its very foundation stone. It must, there- 
fore, as it does, dispute every claim that Christianity makes in favor 
of the doctrine of the divinity of the Jewish and Christian Scrip- 
tures. Neither does it stop with these scriptures, but others, 
whether they be those of the Vedas or the Zend-Avesta, the Koran 
or the Book of Mormon, it weighs and measures in the scales of 
science, and one and all of them it pronounces to be the produc- 
tions of finite men instead of an infinite God. 

And yet whatever may be the antagonism of agnosticism to any 
form of so-called revealed religion it still is ever ready to accept 
religious truth wherever it may be found. It is therefore religious 
truth, and it alone, it seeks to find, and whether it be locked up in 
creeds, or in dogmas, or fioating as it were on the breeze of free 
human thought, after finding it, it utilizes it for man's good and 
for man's glory. 

To sum up: agnosticism inquires, explores and investigates 
the unknown, and having for its objective point the highest truth, 
it will accept nothing whatever as truth unless there is that amount 
of evidence which will justify its certainty. It puts no reliance 
whatever in any blind religious faith; but reaches out and lays hold 
on that religious belief, if any at all, which reason upholds. Neither 
will it accept any religious doctrine or belief as either logical or 



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WHAT AGNOSTICISM IS. 107 

true unless it meets every demand of both science and philosophy. 
I will only add that true religion wherever found, and whether 
it be the one of Brahma or Bnddha, Mohanuned'or Christ, will suffer 
no injury from agnosticism. The philosophy of inquiry, or even 
one of skepticism, never has and never will destroy a religious 
truth. That being so, the Church of Christ instead of — as it is 
often seen doing — denouncing the agnostic, should welcome him as 
a harbinger of a grander and a more holy religion. It is indeed 
he who, above all others, is pointing to a new and better way. 



PROM THE ARABIC. 



The mom that usher'd thee to life, my child, 
Saw thee in tears, whilst all around thee smiled. 
When summoned hence to thy eternal sleep. 
Oh, may'st thou smile, whilst all around thee weep. 



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A VOICE FROM THE SOIL. 



BEING A STUDY IN SCIENCE AS A WARRANT OP FATEH. 

BY JOHN A. WIDTSOB. 



[The following letter from Prof esdOr Widtsoe is sach an appropriate 
preface to his very valoable paper, ''A Voice From the Soil," that we 
publish it as such, and it adds much to the value of the paper. — Editon.] 

Von Kendell, Unterb Earspule 14, 

GoTTiNGEN, Germany, 

October 12, 1898. 
Editors Improvement Era, Salt Lake City, Utah: 

Dear Brethren: I have been a careful reader of the Improvement 
Era since its first appearance, a year ago, and have found real enjoy- 
ment in the study of the articles it has contained. Its evident 
enthusiastic spirit of helping the young men of Zion in every possible 
way has encouraged me to send the enclosed article. 

I have come into frequent contact with the class of young people, of 
our advanced schools, who are just beginning the study of modem 
science. To these young people the numberless phenomena of nature 
confuse the mind, and any theory suggested by the teacher or by books 
is eagerly seized as a means of clearing the mist. The real meaning of 
a scientific theory is forgotten, or not understood; the theories become 
supreme, and the apparently intangible nature of faith and the princi- 
ples depending upon it is magnified. To the thinking boy, brought up in 
the fear of the Lord, comes a stage when there is a desperate effort to 
reconcile science and religion; but the task is made difficult for want 
of deep scientific knowledge and a mind trained in discrimination; and 



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A VOICE FROM THE SOIL, 109 

-often the faith of the boy is weakened for a season. Of course, there is 
no real conflict between science and religion; and no reconciliation is 
needed except by the drifting mind. Yet as long as science is what it 
is today, and the teachers of science half-tanght, this condition will exist 
in our schools. My experience as a student and teacher in the Church 
and State schools of Utah has impressed this fact deeply upon my mind; 
I have myself gone through the critical period when science itnd religion 
seemed to rise up against one another; and can sympathize keenly with 
every young person who is in the same condition. 

In my study of science and the gospel I have ever found that the 
conflicts l^etween them were due to insufficient knowledge, on the part of 
science — science is imperfect; the gospel, as far as we know it, is perfect. 
My testimony is that the study of modern science furnishes countless 
evidences for the divinity of the gospel. I have also found that a little 
guiding will set maty a doubting student back into the channels of cor- 
rect thought. Often have I seen the value of the last part of "A New 
Witness for God" in this respect. Such are the thoughts that prompted 
me to select a humble subject in science, and to arrange it in a way to 
indicate how it may be a strengthener of faith. It is but one out of a 
thousand. 

In writing the accompanying paper, three objects have been kept in 
view: 1 — ^To let science confirm the gospel; 2 — ^To teach some useful 
facts of science without making the didactic purpose too evident; and 
3 — ^To set the mind to thinking. 

* * * With the sincere hope that the Era may be as useful, 
to all who love the gospel, this year as it was last year, I am 

Ver yrespectfully, 

John A. Widtsoe. 



A VOICE PROM THE SOIL. 

To a Mormon there is, in all his experiences, a Mormon point 
of view. Let his work be of any nature, physical or mental, with 
men or with books, it will in some way connect itself with his 
religious beliefs. The unique missionary system of our Church causes 
every man, who is at all devout in his belief, to prepare himself for 
defending and explaining his beliefs. In this preparation he seeks 
for material wherever he goes and does not confine himself to the 
Holy Scriptures or to the inspired writings of the latter-day prophets. 



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110 IMPRO VEMENT ERA. 

There is a finn belief in the heart of every thinking member of this 
Church that, were our knowledge perfect enough, every phenomenon 
in nature would be a testimony to the truth of the gospel. 

It is not surprising, therefore, that the young men of the 
Church, who devote themselves to a study of modem science, should 
find within its domain evidence upon evidence confirming in a 
decided manner the inspired nature of the latter-day work. In a 
recent study of the soils of Utah, the writer had occasion to bring 
together a number of historical and natural scientific facts which 
added another testimony to the truth of the gospel of Christ as 
understood by the Latter-day Saints. 



" the defenced city shall be desolate, and the habitation for- 
saken, and left like a wilderness/' — Isaiah^ xxvii: 10. 

It is a fact, which has impressed itself upon all readers of 
history, that countries which have been the homes of the most 
powerful and cultured nations, are now great stretches of the veri- 
est desert. No country teaches this truth better than the extensive 
valley of the Mesopotamia which looms giant-like in the dawn of 
history. Upon its plain and highlands, the great nations of an- 
tiquity acted the tragedies of their existences; like the schoolboys' 
snow-man, they rose, with vast proportions, in a day; and fell ere 
the setting of the next sun. In this district, advanced and retreated 
with wonderful precision, as it appears to us so many ages re- 
moved from the time of action, the Chaldeans, the Babylonians and 
the Assyrians; here the Modes and Persians achieved the victories 
that made them famous; and here came all the great generals of 
old to crown their successes. A hundred populous cities clustered, 
in the lower part of the valley, around Babylon the great, the most 
marvelous city of any past age; a hundred cities were in the upper 
half, with Nineveh, also magnificent and great, as their center. 
From Mesopotamia come evidences of art — ^painting, sculpture, 
music, literature and architecture — the indication of a higher civfl- 
ization. Still, today, even the sites of many of the great cities are 
lost, and Mesopotamia is a stretch of barren land. 

To the west of Mesopotamia is the valley containing the prom- 
ised land of Palestine — ^it, also, has fallen from its former splendor^ 



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A VOICE FROM THE SOIL. Ill 

and is a desert compared with the days of its greatest prosperity. 
Still further west and south lies the land of Egypt, in the valley of 
the Nile. It was the fostermother of science, and the shaker of 
empires. It, too, has fallen; and a blight has come upon the soil, 
until it bears the appearance of a sandy waste. Over the sites of 
other famous nations of antiquity, in Europe and Asia, hovers, today, 
the spirit of desolation. 

The same story is told on the American continent. Peru, the 
land of the Incas, once populous, powerful, wealthy, is today largely 
a wilderness. Mexico, the Aztec home, is now a vast desert, in 
spite of the evidence, through the discovered ruins of mighty cities 
and gigantic temples, that it was once the home of a strong people. 
Central America tells a similar story. It seems to be a general 
. fact that wherever a large people lived formerly, there, today, a 
desert often occurs. 

However, these countries are deserts only because human effort 
is no longer applied to them; by proper treatment the lands would 
again be raised to the flourishing condition that prevailed in their 
prosperous days. Intrinsically the soils are extremely fertile, but 
are dry and require the application of water to make the fertility 
suitable for the use of crops. The soils of Babylon, Assyria, Egypt, 
Peru and Mexico, raise crops of wonderful yields when properly 
irrigated; and there is abundant proof that in former days irriga- 
tion was practiced in these countries on a scale far larger than in 
Utah or in any other country of the present day. 

Many of the old irrigation canals of Babylon still exist, and 
prove the magnitude of the practice, there, of the art of irrigation. 
The old historians, also, agree in explaining the ingenious devices 
by which whole rivers were turned from their courses to flow over 
the soil. In Egypt, likewise, irrigation was more commonly prac- 
ticed in the past than it is today; though even now a large portion 
of the soil of that country is made to yield crops by the artificial 
application of water. In Peru, Central America, and Mexico, the 
irrigation canals that remain from prehistoric days are even more 
wonderful as feats of engineering and as evidences of a popu- 
lous and enlightened condition of the country than the massive 
temples and extensive cities that are also found. In the construc- 
tion of these canals every precaution, apparently, was taken to have 



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112 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

the water applied to the lands in the right manner, and to reduce 
the loss to a minimum. In some places immense canals remain, that 
are tiled for miles, on sides and bottom, in order to render them 
water-tight, and thus prevent any loss by seepage. 

Instead of saying, then, that the countries where most great 
nations have lived are now deserts, we may as well say that most 
great nations have lived in countries where irrigation was necessary: 
in fact, that history indicates that a dense population, and high 
culture, usually go hand in hand with a soil that thirsts for water. 
What can science, the great explainer, say on this subject? 

n. 

"Science moves, but slowly, slowly, moving on from point to point." 
—LoekdeyHaU. 

A plant feeds in two ways — by its leaves, and by its roots. * 
The leaves feed from the air; the roots from the soil. In the air 
is found a colorless, heavy gas, known as carbon dioxide, which is 
made up partly of the element carbon, or charcoal. When an 
animal or a plant is burned with a low heat, it first chars, showing 
the presence of charcoal; then if the burning be continued, it 
disappears, with the exception of the ash, as a colorless gas, car- 
bon dioxide. Since animal and vegetable matters are constantly 
being burned upon the earth's surface, naturally the air contains a 
perceptible quantity of carbon dioxide. The leaves of a living 
plant, waving back and forth, draw into themselves the carbon 
dioxide with which they come into contact, and there break it up 
and take the carbon away from it. The carbon thus obtained by 
the leaves is built into the many ingredients of a plant, and carried 
to the parts that are in greatest need. The plant is able to do 
this by virtue of the peculiar properties of the green coloring 
matter in all its leaves, leaf green; which acts, however, only in 
the presence of bright sunlight. Since one-half or more of the 
dry matter of a plant is carbon, the importance of the leaf-air- 
feeding of a plant may be understood. 

The water which a plant contains and the incombustible por- 
tions, the mineral matters or ash, are taken directly from the soil 
by means of the roots. The old idea that vegetable mould and 
other carbonaceous matters are also taken from the soil by the 



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A VOICE FROM THE SOIL. 113 

roots has been shown to be erroneous. The mineral portions 
of a plant are of the highest value to the life of the plant — ^with- 
out them, in fact, it languishes and dies. If a soil on which a 
plant is growing contains, for instance, no iron, the leaves become 
pale, soon white, and finally they lose the power of appropriating 
carbon from the air. If potash is absent from the soil, the plants 
growing upon it will develop in a one-sided way and finally die. 
It has been found by careful experiment that seven mineral sub- 
stances must be found in every soil, if it shall support the life of 
plants, namely: (1) Potash; (2) lime; (3) magnesia; (4) oxide of 
iron or iron rust; (5) sulphuric acid or oil of vitriol; (6) phos- 
phoric acid, and (7) nitric acid or aqua f ortis. The fertility of 
any sofl or soil district is determined by the quantity of these in 
dispensable ash ingredients contained by it. 

All soils are produced by the breaking down of the mountains 
under the influence of weathering. The broken down rock is 
washed into the hollows and lowlands by the rains and floods of 
melted snow, and there forms soil. Soil may, therefore, be defined, 
in a general way, as pulverized rock. Nearly all rocks contain the 
elements above enumerated as being essential to a plant's life; and 
nearly every soil will, consequently, be in possession of them. 
Rocks, however, in being subjected to the action of weathering^ 
undergo other changes than mere pulverization. The potash, lime 
and other plant foods held by a rock are in an insoluble condition, 
and can not be taken up with any ease by the plant roots. As the 
rock is pulverized in the process of weathering, it is also made 
more soluble, and the juices of the plant roots can then absorb 
the needed foods with greater facility. This process of making 
the soil more soluble, continues while time lasts, and every year 
will find the soil more soluble than the year before, if there are 
no opposing actions. Therefore, the fertility of a soil is deter- 
mined not only by the quantity of plant food it contains, but also 
by the condition of solubility the soil constituents are in. 

According to the facts above given, it would be fair to infer 
that a soil becomes more fertile with every year that passes. This 
woxdd be the case were it not for opposing tendencies. First, the 
crops grown upon a soil remove yearly considerable quantities of 
mineral plant food. This alone would not seriously affect the f er 



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114 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

tility of a soil did not other forces act in conjunction with it. 
The most important canse of lowering the fertility of soils is 
the loss of plant food due to drainage. In districts of abundant 
rainfall, as, for instance, the Eastern United States, sufficient rain, 
falls to soak the soil thoroughly and to drain through and go off 
as drainage water. The water, in passing through the soil, will 
dissolve, as far as it can, the soluble ingredients, including the 
plant foods, and carry them away into the rivers and finally into 
the ocean. This action, continued for many years, will rob the soil 
to feed the ocean; in fact, the saltness of the ocean is due, largely^ 
to the substances washed out of the soils. Most of the poor soils, 
of the world have been rendered infertile in this way. If, on the 
other hand, only a small quantity of rain falls upon the soil — bh 
amount sufficient to soak the soil without draining through — ^the 
water will gradually be evaporated back into the air, and there 
will be no loss of plant food. In such a district the soils, if they 
are treated right, become richer year by year, even though sub- 
• jected to tillage. 

In every rainless district, or in every district where the rain- 
fall is so slight as to render irrigation necessary, the soils would 
be expected to be richer than in a place of abundant rainfall. 
Leaving out of consideration differences due to local conditions,, 
this has been verified by the study of soils from many parts of the 
world. The soils of an arid district contain more soluble plant 
food than those of a humid district, and, with proper treatment, 
will not only raise larger crops, but remain fertile much longer. 
They will also bear harsher treatment, closer cultivation, and are in. 
every respect superior to the water-washed soils of a humid 
country. A recent study of the soils of Utah has shown that the 
fertility of our soils is exceedingly high, and that they will endure 
long and close cultivation; that is, that because of the peculiar 
climatic conditions of the State, they can support bountifully a 
large population. 

Several years ago an eminent student of climate and soils 
threw out the suggestion that in the facts just discussed rested 
the explanation of the historical datum that the great nations of 
antiquity on this and on other continents sought for their abodes the 
rainless, arid stretches of the world. A large, active population^ 



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A VOICE FROM TEE SOIL. 115 

-which do6B not depend on other peoples for its support, must of 
necessity possess the most fertile lands, which are found only in 
districts of limited rainfall. In the whole history of the world, 
the great granaries of the world have been located on the arid 
stretches; and on onr continent, the great West, largely arid, is 
becoming the source of the food staples of the nation. Utah is 
the heart of the arid region of North America; her soils are heavy 
with wealth of plant food. If the time come that her valleys be 
filled with people, crowding in from the nations of the earth, her 
soils, responding to the better treatment which science is develop- 
ing day by day, will display their strength, and feed the worlds 
should the demand be made. 

m. 

"Therefore will I make solitary places to bud and blossom, and to 
bring forth in abundance, saith the Lord." — Doctrine and Covenants. 

Sixty years ago the facts of plant feeding, as just outlined, 
were practically unknown. The erroneous ideas of the preceding 
century still held full sway. In 1840 Ldebig published his treatise 
on agricultural chemistry which threw a faint light on the relation 
of the plant and the soil. During the twenty years following, the 
indispensable nature of some of the plant foods was ascertained ; 
and it is only within the last ten or fifteen years that the superi- 
ority of arid districts over humid ones, for the purpose of support- 
ing man, has been demonstrated. Even today it is a new light 
which has not been fully received. 

In 1842 Joseph the Prophet wrote: "I prophesied that the 
saints would continue to suffer much affliction and would be driven 
to the Rocky Mountains * * * and some of you will live to 
go and assist in making settlements and build cities and see the 
saints become a mighty people in the midst of the Rocky Moun- 
tains." Why did Joseph Smith speak of the Rocky Mountains as a 
gathering place for his people? Was it sunply because the place 
was far off and offered, apparently, good security? If so, he 
builded better than he knew. But what prompted Brigham Young 
to plant his cane by the shore of an alkali lake and say. Here we 
shall remain? That certainly was not for security only. Perhaps he 



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116 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

was tired of wandering? Tkoogh he may have been flo» yet he 
was not the man to give up when near 8<Hnething beti;^. Perh^)B 
he thought the valley fair, and the blue mountains may have rested 
his eyes? Was that tiie motive of setUement? He, too^ builded 
better thanhe knew. Certain it is that these two men who hiaton- 
cally hold the responsibility for bringing the Latter-day Saints 
here, did not know, by the world's learning, that the valleys of Utah 
were filled with the richest soil, waiting only to yield manifold to 
the husbandman ; for the world did not yet know, and had no 
means of predicting it. These men were not scientists* They had 
no laboratories in which, by long hours, over long drawn fires^ and 
among a hundred fumes, to draw out for themselves the lanr 
of the fertility of arid soils, which has but recently become the 
property of modem science. It is not likely that the records of 
a lost learning, unknown today, taught them this fact. Though they 
had had such records, they were unlettered men, and the ancient 
tongues would have been dead indeed to them, had they attempted 
an interpretation by their own efforts. Why then, did they bring 
the people here? Was it a chance move? A blind effort, acting 
out the desperation that comes from long persecution? If an ele- 
ment of chance entered into the location in the valleys of Utah, it 
was akin to wisdom. 

And it was wisdom of the highest kind; at which the world 
ever stands in reverent wonder; inspiration from the living God. 
The logic that science, itself, applies to facts in the deduction of 
its laws, makes it impossible to believe that the settlement of the 
pioneers in the Salt Lake Valley was a chance move. Nothing 
from the point of view of human wisdom, encouraged the pioneers 
to remain in Utah — ^they were in the center of a desert; and the 
leaders were urged by many of the company to go on, for there 
were fairer climes to the west or the south, or on the islands of the 
sea. But the leaders were possessed of a wisdom higher than that 
of men, and founded an empire on the wastes of the Great Amer- 
ican Desert. 

Now, let every reader of this paper consider these wonderful 
facts: Of the vast possibilities of agriculture in Utah being the 
same with those of the countries where the great nations of the 
world have lived; of a people, claiming that the nations shall in 



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A VOICE FROM THE SOIL. 117 

the future flee to it for safety, making its home in a place which 
1)08806808 the capabilities of supporting the nations; and of the 
choice of that country when it was named a desert; when science, 
the world's knowledge, did not dream of the fertility of that des- 
ert any more than it was able to give a correct explanation of the 
fertility of the valley of Mesopotamia: and every honest heart 
will recognize the unseen hand of the God of Israel, guiding the 
people of God to the destined end. 



AUTUMN DAYS. ■ 

Rustle, rustle little leaves, 

O'er the chilly ground, 
Tell us that the winter-time 

Is coming 'round. 
Tell us that the birds are gone, 
With their mirthful, merry song, 
But they will not tarry long, 
WiUthey? No. 

Ah, the sad, sweet autumn days. 

Sad yet fair; 
With their gold and bronzine leaves 

Flying everywhere — 
Little messengers are they 
Speaking to the cold, dark clay. 
Of the death of summer days 
For awhile. 

Blow across the hills, oh winds. 

Blow, blow — 
Tell us of the winter days. 

Of the snow 
And the icy river-bed. 
Where the frosty fairies tread. 
By the hoary snow-king led 
To and fro. 



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118 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Dreary winds, oh dreary winds. 

Haste away 
Over hill and dreamy dell, 

Brown and gray; 
Tell the flowers on yonr way. 
Tell the blasts that 'round you stray, 
Of the coming winter days 
Now so near. 

Playful little mountain streams. 

Swiftly run 
With a message to the sea. 

Where the sun 
Soon will smile so coldly down, 
On old Winter's chilly frown, 
While he sits in snowy gown 
On his throne. 

Little stream, oh little stream. 

As you go. 
Tell the fish along your way, 

So they'll know 
That the winter-time is near, 
Then they all will disappear. 
For old Winter's face they fear, 
That we know. 

But we love you. Autumn days, 

For you seem 
To our weary laden hearts, 

A grateful dream; 
Treading 'neath your sky of gray. 
We forget, the while we stray. 
Welcome, welcome autumn days. 
Once again. 

Nina Winslow Eckart. 
Salt Lake City, Nov. 1898. 



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THE MORMON POINT OF Vffi W IN EDU- 

CATIOR 

BY B. H. ROBERTS. 



The title of the subject implies that Mormons holds a differ- 
ent point of view as to education than that which is received in the 
world. 

This can not be as to education itself. The whole world agrees 
that education is not reading, writing, or arithmetic — nor even 
higher mathematics, chemistry and languages added. Everybody 
concedes that it is the proper training and full development of the 
whole man — ^physically, mentally, and spiritually, the latter includ- 
ing moral development or education. 

If there is anything distinct in the Mormon point of view in 
education it must be in respect of which of the three great depart- 
ments of man's education is placed first, or emphasized. And when 
it is taken into account that the Mormon people are connected with 
the greatest religious movement of this or any other age — a move- 
ment which clahns for itself nothing less than being the dispensa- 
tion of the fullness of times — ^in which all things in Christ will be 
gathered into one — ^it will not be difficult to forecast what depart- 
ment of education Mormonism makes of first importance. 

Essentially a religious people and charged with the evangeliza- 
tion of the world to their faith, it can not be otherwise than that 
the words of Solomon will be the key to their point of view in edu- 
cation — 'The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge;" and 
they might not object to the marginal rendering of the passage — 
'*The fear of the Lord is the principal part of knowledge." Or in 
the words of Job, ''Behold the fear of the Lord, that is wisdom; and 
to depart from evil is understanding." 



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120 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Moreover, the conception which Mormonism teaches of man — 
the fact that it regards man's spirit as verily the offspring of Deity, 
and that that spirit had an existence before it tabernacled in the 
flesh; that man's spirit is by nature inmiortal, a spark struck from 
the blaze of Deity himself — ^would further incline Mormons to re- 
gard the proper spiritual development, or spiritual education of 
man, as being of first importance. 

It should further be observed that as it is taught in Mormon 
theology that the spirit of man is by nature immortal, and had an 
existence before this present one, so is it taught that this life is a 
probation — one of the departments in fact of God's great university, 
through which men are destined to pass in the course of their eternal 
and progressive existence. In which, though I would not disparage 
the value of book lore, and what commonly passes in the world for 
polite education — ^yet are there more important matters than book 
learning and a mastery of the curriculum of our academies and imi- 
versities. Even these more weighty matters, however, are, never- 
theless, in the way of education, but relate more especially to the 
spiritual and moral development of man than to his mental training. 

In other words, it is of first importance, from the Mormon point 
of view in education, that the student be taught the truth about 
himself, his own origin, nature, and destiny; his relationship to the 
past, to the present, to the future; his relationship to Deity, to 
his fellow-men and to the universe. And then from this vantage 
ground of ascertained relationships he is in a position to go forth 
conquering and to conquer until all things are subdued under his 
feet — except, as it is said of Christ, Except him which doth put all 
things under man. And when all things shall be subdued unto man, 
then shall man also be subject unto God, that God may be all in alL* 

I pray you think for a moment what effect these doctrines must 
have upon a people's views of education: 

Man's spirit, the offspring of Deity — ^not in any mystical sense, 
but actually; as much so as any child on earth is the offspring of his 
parents! 

In a pre-existent state, as a spirit, man lived through long ages — 



♦I Cor. xv: 27, 28. 



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THE MORMON POINT OF VIEW IN EDUCATION 121 

how long we do not know. But in that pre-existent state he lived 
and doubtless learned much of the universe. 

Then there came a time, when, in order for further develop- 
menty the spirit must tabernacle in flesh and learn the lessons that 
a probation in a world of sorrow, trial, pain, sin, sickness and death 
has to teach. That man might learn to love truth, by seeing it in 
contrast and in conflict with ^ror. That he might learn to love vir- 
tue, by seeing it in contrast and conflict with vice. That be might 
learn to appreciate everlasting life, by coming in contact with and 
submitting for a moment to death. That he might learn to walk 
by faith through the midst of doubt; make probability the basis of 
action, rather than absolute knowledge; and learn to trust the wis- 
dom and goodness of God, where the Divine Providence can aot be 
followed in absolute certainty, and by the light of reason. And 
above all, to demonstrate his fidelity to God in all the variety of 
trying circumstances in which he may be placed in this life; that he 
might prove himself worthy of that eternal and exceeding weight of 
glory t^t is prepared of God for all those who by patience and 
well-doing shall fill the measure of their creation in this life. 

View also, I pray you, the Mormon doctrine of man's future 
existence as well as his past existence, and the purposes of his pres- 
ent life. In Mormon doctrine the resurrection of man, that is, the 
resurrection of his body, and its union with the spirit, is no myth; 
the future life is to be no land of shadows and unreality. But it is 
to be an existence where we shall live in all the warmth and full- 
ness of life; where we shall eat and drink, even as the risen Bedeemor 
did; where we shall see, and hear, and feel, and make use of all the 
faculties and senses of the mind, and experience and enjoy all the 
sentiments of the heart ; where we shall stand each in his own identity 
— knowing and being known; where we shall build and inhabit; visit 
with our friends and be visited by them in return; where we shall travel 
from sphere to sphere — ^from one planetary system to another — ^from 
one universe to another (if you will pardon the apparent error of 
speech) ; where we shall learn something of the beginniugless past, and 
something of an eternal future; something of worlds that have been, 
and worlds yet to be ; where we shall look upon matter organized into 
innumerable suns and planetary systems ; and where we shall see it roll- 
ing and tumbling in reckless, heaving, shapeless chaos, covered with 



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122 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

blackness, waiting to be spoken, some day, into order and organized 
into worlds to be inhabited by the children of the Grods. Man's future 
existence, according to Mormon doctrine, contemplates all this, and 
more. It teaches that man in his future life will associate in coun- 
cils with exalted men who have long since passed over the pathway 
that now may be new to his feet; he will learn by association 
with them the wisdom of the ages; and acquire and learn to exer- 
cise creative powers and the mighty science of government as it 
exists with the Gods. He will not only learn but in his turn will 
teach those less advanced than himself; and thus, learning on the 
one hand from those more experienced and wiser than himself; and 
on the other teaching those not so far advanced as himself, man 
stands, according to Mormon doctrine, in the midst of eternal pro- 
gression — a son of God, mingling with the Gods, and conjoint-heir 
with them in all that is, whether past or present of that which is to 
come. 

Look upon man then in this light, as Mormon doctrine reveals 
him, and what is likely to be the Mormon point of view in educa- 
tion? Unquestionably the very broadest view possible. It will 
lift all thoughts of education far above the mere utilitarian notion 
of education. It will not insist on reading, merely because it may 
be a prevention against being taken in; on writing, that one may 
sign checks and bonds and write business letters; on arithmetic, 
that one may cast up accounts and compute interest; on chemistry, 
that one may keep a drug store. Education to the Mormon must 
ever mean more than this severely commercial or utilitarian view 
of it. 

The Mormon point of view in education will regard man's past 
and man's future, and will arrange its curriculum of instruction 
with reference to both that past and future. And it will and does 
emphasize the spiritual — which also includes the moral — education 
of man. Hence it is that the Church provides academies and 
colleges where theology, that is to say, the science which teaches 
the relationship of Deity and man, and the science of right-living, 
is made a prominent feature in the course of studies. 

And yet I would not have my readers think that the Mormon 
point of view in education emphasizes the spiritual education of 
man to the neglect of his intellectual and physical education. Nor 



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THE MORMON POINT OF VIEW I^ EDUCATION. 123 

do Mormons regard intellectual and physical education in less 
esteem than other people do. It is not a case of esteeming intel- 
lectual and physical education less, but of esteeming spiritual 
education more. I think no other people are more impressed with 
the importance of mental and physical development than are the 
Latter-day Saints. ^ It was their great prophet Joseph Smith who 
was the first to teach that ''a man is saved no faster than he gets 
knowledge, and if he does not get knowledge, he will be brought 
into captivity by some evil power in the other world, as evil spirits 
will have more knowledge, and consequently more power,than many 
men who are on earth.*^ 

He was the first to say: 'It is impossible for a man to be 
saved in ignorance."t 

The first to say, so far at least as I know: '^Whatever princi- 
ples of intelligence we attain unto in this life, it will rise with us in 
the resurrection; and if a person gains more knowledge and intelli- 
-gence in this life through his diligence and obedience than another, 
he will have so much the advantage in the world to come.'^j: 

This is said of knowledge in general, and evidently applies, 
Aot only to knowledge of facts either moral or intellectual, but also 
to an application of this knowledge of facts to conduct, that is, 
to applied knowledge, either of an intellectual or moral character. 

Looking at the scope of knowledge in the field to which Mor- 
monism invites — ^nay, commands — its devotees to enter, one must 
be struck with the comprehensiveness of it; for it seems to me 
that it covers every possible source from which knowledge can be 
obtained. You will find warrant for what I say in a revelation 
given on the 27th of December, 1832. It is true this revelation 
was given to a number of elders about to engage in the ministry, 
but they were only commanded to learn that which they were 
expected to teach to the world and to the Saints, hence indi- 
rectly we may say that it is an admonition that applies to all the 
Saints, as well as to the Elders of the Church. Following is the 
passage: 



* Millennial Star Vol. xix, p. 321. 
t Doctrine and Covenants Sec. 131: 6. 
t Doctrine and Covenants Sec. 130: 18, 19. 



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124 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

''And I give unto yon a commandment that you shall teaeh 
one anoth^ the doctrine of the kmgdom; teach ye diligently, and 
my grace shall attend you, that you may be instructed more per- 
fectly in theoiy, in principle, in doctrine, in the law of the goi^, 
in all things that pertain unto the kingdom of God, that are expe- 
dient for you to understand; of things both ii^ heaven and in the 
earth; things which have been, things which are, things which 
must shortly come to pass; things which are at home, things which 
are abroad; the wars and the perplexities of the nations, and the 
judgments which are on the land, and a knowledge also of countries 
and kingdoms. * * * And as all have not faith, seek ye diligently 
and teach one another w<»ds of wisdom, yea, seek ye out of the 
best books words of wisdom, seek learning even by study, and also 
by faith.'^ 

I think I may safely challenge any one to point out a broader 
field of knowledge than is here indicated. It includes all spiritual 
truth, all scientMc truth, all secular knowledge — ^knowledge of 
the past, of the present, of the future; of the heavens, and of the 
earth. A knowledge of all countries, their geography, languages, 
history, customs, laws and governments — everything in fact that 
pertains to them. There is nothing in the heights above or the 
depths below that is not included in this field of knowledge into 
which the commandment of (rod directs his servants to enter. 
I may claim for it that it includes the whole realm of man's intel- 
lectual activities. And the doctrine that whatever principles of 
intelligence man attains unto in this life will rise with him in tiie 
morning of the resurrection — this doctrine that nothing acquired 
in respect to knowledge is ever lost, must forever form the most 
powerful incentive to intellectual effort that possibly can be con- 
jured up by the wit of man. So that, referring to the acquirement 
of knowledge, and intellectual development, Mormonism at once 
both indicates the broadest field and fimiishes the grandest incen- 
tive to intellectual effort. 

In respect of physical development or education, we may also 
say that Mormonism affords the strongest incentives to its highest 
attaumient. Teaching as it does that the body is to be the 



* Doctrine and Covenants Sec. 88: 77-79, 118. 



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THE MORMON POINT OF VlhW IN EDUCATION. 125 

eternal tabernacle of the spirit of man; that the identical body 
through which the spirit has manifested itself in this life shall be 
raised firom the dead and again be inhabited by the spirit; teach- 
ing, in fact, that ''the spirit and the body is the soul of man," and 
that ''the resurrection from the dead is the redemption of the 
soal,'' it can not but follow that where such views are held in 
respect to the resurrection of the body and its eternal reunion with 
the spirit, the most lively interest will be felt for its develop- 
ment or education, and for its proper preservation. In pursuance 
of this, God has given a revelation commonly known among us as 
the Word of Wisdom, that has for its direct object the preserva- 
tion of the body from those ill effects which follow from the use 
of tobacco, wine, strong drinks and the excessive use of meats; 
and gives us the unbounded assurance that if in addition to keep- 
ing the commandments of God we also observe this word of coun- 
sel or wisdom, then the body will perform to the uttermost the 
functions assigned to it. Those who fulfill these conditions we are 
told shall run and not be weary, shall walk and not faint; and 
further, the destroying angel shall pass by them as in the case of 
the children of Israel and not slay them. Nor is this all; but the 
mind reding in the delight of union with a tabernacle so pre- 
served shall, in responsive sympathy, "find wisdom, and great 
treasures of knowledge — even hidden treasures." That means, as I 
view it, not the mass of knowledge that others have learned and 
written in books, or that lives in traditions, but it means access to 
the greater mass of knowledge not yet made known to man, but 
waiting to be revealed for the increased blessing of our race. 

And now at this point I think I am prepared to say what per- 
haps at first I could not have said, viz., that while undoubtedly one 
of the distinctive features in the Mormon point of view in educa- 
tion is to regard the spiritual, including the moral, education of 
man as of first importance — emphasizing that — ^yet another, a 
broader distinctive characteristic, and one that includes the first 
one pointed out and perhaps all others, is that in the Mormon point 
of view in education all departments in education, intellectual and 
physical alike, should be sanctified by being overshadowed by the 
spiritual. That is, both mental and physical education should have 
a dash of spiritualism in them. All educational effort should be 



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126 IMPRO VEMENT ERA. 

xmdertaken and pursued with reference to their effect upon man, 
not as a being whose existence terminates with the grave, but who 
ia to live forever and who may, if he will, become a conjoint heir 
with Jesus Christ to all the thrones, principalities, powers, and 
dominions that the Father hath. This, as I view it, is the Mor- 
mon point of view in education — it has regard not only to the 
preparation of man for the duties and responsibilities of the 
moment of time he lives in this world, but aims to prepare him for 
eternal life in the mansions and companionship of the Gods. 



PAST AND FUTURE. 

WRITTEN FOR THE ERA BY JAMES INGEBRETSEN. 



In the misty shades of twilight, out upon the ocean beach, 

Where the murm'ring of the billows mingle not with human speecb,- 

Long I wandered, lost in thinking, on that lonely ocean strand. 
Seeking solace from the waters sporting on the wavy sand. 

There before me was the prospect of the boundless, restless sea; 
Instigating dreamy fancies of the Past and Is-to-be: 

Quoth I: "In the slimy contents of thy water-covered bed. 
Are there skillful genii can relate the secrets of the dead? 

"Grant that one may come and tell me of the wonders that have been- 
Tell to me the mystic stories of the changes he has seen." 

Then arose a shape fantastic, vestured not in earthly dress, 
Chiird me with a subtle terror that my nerves could scarce repress. 

Game a voice, so deep, sepulchrs^l, all my being stood aghast! 
"Mortal, listen to the promptings of the hoary-headed Past!" 

Now a mixed, discordant mutt'ring fell upon my straining ears. 
Shaping here and there a sentence from the leaves of ancient years.. 

But no tale could I distinguish, till the voice had reached the end. 
Where the misty Past and Future with the living Present blend. 



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PAST AND FUTURE. 127 

'"Spirit," quoth I, "of the hidden chambers of the days of yore,' 
Finite mind cannot detect the meaning of thy musty lore. 

'Tell me of the coming epochs, of the days that are to be; 
Show my soul the future records; take the Past back to the sea." 

Silence reigned upon the waters, and the shape was wrapped in gloom. 
Bat again I heard the accents of a voice as from the tomb. 

Long I looked, intent, expectant, for some strange, mysterious form; 
But instead, the darkness deepened, like the blackest clouds of storm. 

And I looked in vain for Future; only Darkness there amassed; 
And the only voice I heard there was the accents of the Past: 

''Mortal, fix thy wand'ring mind upon the ever living now; 
Let thy curious inclination to the active Present bow. 

"You can only judge the future by the whisp'rings of the past, — 
Judge the next occurrence only by the one that happened last. 

"As the pages of the past are torn, and blurred, and darkly dim. 
So the record of the future cannot yet be clearly seen. 

"Work and struggle while the flying moments of to day remain; 
Shun the crooked paths and by-way; seek but for the narrow lane.' 

Truth the only light to guide you 'mid the darkness of the way, 
Truth, the Spirit of our Father, leading to the brighter day.' 



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PROGRESS OF THE WAR 

BETWEEN SPAIN AND THE UNITED STATES OP AlffiRICA. 



(CONTINUBD FROM PAGE 66, NO. 1.) 

vn. 

For some time im expedition to Porto Rico had been contem- 
plated by the military authorities at Washington, and when Santiago 
fell it .was immediately decided that a military force should be sent 
to take possession of that valuable island. Accordingly on July 2l8t 
the main body of the military expedition destined for Porto Rico 
sailed from Guantanamo Bay under command of General Miles. The 
invading army was conveyed to its destination by the MasBochusdU^ 
Dixie, GloueesteTf Oincinnati, Annapolis, Wasp, Yale and Cohmbia. 
The troops numbered about 3,400 men, including four light batteries 
of the Third and Fourth Artillery, and Battery B of the Fifth Artil- 
lery. The landing was effected at Guanica, a port on the southern 
coast of Porto Rico, fifteen miles west of Ponce. 

Only slight resistance was offered by the Spaniards, consisting 
of a skirmish between the GUmcester^s launch crew and a small 
force of Spanish troops. The Americans then occupied the place 
under General Miles, and the stars and stripes were raised amid 
great enthusiasm, the inhabitants professing loyalty to the United 
States. 

After effecting this landing and the capture of Ponce, the 
invading army marched across the island north in the direction of San 
Juan, situated on the north coast of Porto Rico, as that was the 
army's objective point. But little resistance was offered, the invad- 



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PROGRESS OF THE WAR. 129 

ers being generally welcomed by the inhabitants, who had grown 
tired of Spanish tyranny. At Coamo there was a slight resistance, 
but the Americans captured the town after killing three Spanish 
officers and nine privates. There was also an artillery fight near 
AibonitOy one American officer was killed and four privates wounded, 
after which the place surrendered. 

In the meantime the invading army was drawing near San Juan, 
when further hostilities were stopped by the arrival of the news 
that the peace protocol had been signed at Washington and orders 
given to stop fighting. 

MOVEMENTS IN THE PHILIPPINES. 

Meantime some interesting events were taking place in the 
Philippine Islands. On the 22nd of July Aguinaldo, the Philippine 
insurgent leader, having grown insolent, proclaimed himself dictator 
of the Islands. On July 29th the American troops who had been 
quartered at Cavite, were moved forward in the direction of Manila 
as far as Malate. On the 31st of July they were attacked in the 
night by Spanish troops, who were repulsed with great loss. It was 
at this battle that the Utah troops, especially those in Battery A, 
Captain Richard W. Young commanding, distinguished themselves. 
Following is a detailed account of the fight sent from Manila via 
Hong Eong, on August 9th. It will be seen from the report that 
the arrival of several American expeditions, which had been sent to 
Manila, had made the Spaniards desperate. The story of the battle 
begins with an account of the forces under Greneral Greene moving 
up from Cavite to Malate: 

"Gen. Greene's force, numbering 4,000 men,'had been advancing and 
intrenching. The arrival of the third expedition filled the Spaniards with 
rage, and they determined to give battle before Camp Dewey could be 
reinforced. The trenches extended from the beach three hundred yards 
to the left flank of the insurgents. 

"Sunday was the insurgent feast day and their left flank withdrew, 
leaving the American right flank exposed. Companies A and E of the 
Tenth Pennsylvania and Utah battery were ordered to reinforce the right 
flank. 

"In the midst of a raging typhoon, with a tremendous downpour of 
rain, the enemy's force, estimated at 3,000 men, attempted to surprise 



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130 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

ifae camp. Oar pioketB were driven in and the trenches aasanlted. Tte 
Inrave Pennsylvania men never flinched, bat stood their ground under a 
withering fire. 

** The alarm spread, and the First California regiment, with two com- 
panies of the Third artillery, who fight with rifles, were sent ap to rein- 
force the Pennsylvanians. The enemy were on top of the trenches when 
these reinforcements arrived, and never was the discipline of the regulars 
better demonstrated than by the work of the Third artillery under Cap- 
tain O'Hara. Nothing could be seen but flashes of Mauser rifles. Men ran 
right up to the attacking Spaniards and mowed them down with regular 
volleys. 

UTAH BATTERY COVERED WITH GLORY. 

"The Utah battery, under Capt. Young, covered itself with glory. 

'^he men pulled their guns through mud axle deep. Two guns were 
sent around on the flank and poured in a destructive enfilading fire. The 
enemy was repulsed and retreated in disorder. Our infantry had exhausted 
its ammunition and did not follow the enemy. Not an inch of ground 
was lost, but the scene in the trenches was one never to be forgotten. 

"During the flashes of lightning the dead and wounded could be seen 
lying in blood-red water, but neither the elements of heaven nor the 
destructive power of man could wring a cry of protest from the wounded. 
They encouraged their comrades to flght and handed over their cartridge 
belts. 

"During the night the Spanish scouts were seen carrying off the dead 
and wounded of the enemy. The American dead were buried next day in 
the convent of Maracaban. 

"On the night of August Ist the fighting was renewed, but the 
enemy had been taught a lesson and made the attack at long range with 
heavy artillery. 

''The Utah battery replied and the artillery duel lasted an hour. One 
man was killed. He was Fred Springstead, First Colorado, and two men 
were wounded. 

"On the night of August 2nd the artillery duel was renewed. Two 
men were badly wounded and are this morning reported dead, which 
brings the total dead to thirteen, with ten in the hospital mortally hurt. 

"Gen. Greene issued this address to the troops: 'Camp Dewey, near 
Manila. — ^The Brigadier-General commanding desires to thank the troops 
engaged last night for gallantry and skill displayed by them in repelling^ 
such a vigorous attack by largely superior forces of Spaniards. 

" 'Not an inch of ground was yielded by the Tenth Pennsylvania infant 
try and Utah artillery stationed in the trenches. 



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PROGRESS OF THE WAR. 131 

" 'A iMbttalion of the Third artillery and First regiment California 
in&ntry moved forward to their rapport through a galling fire with the 
ntanost intrepidity. The conrage and steadiness shown by all in the 
oigagement is worthy of the highest commendation/ ^ 

Notwithstanding the fierceness of the battle and the prominent 
part the Utah troops took in it, there were none killed or wonnded. 

The press dispatches throughout the country all spoke in the 
highest terms of the bravery and eflSciency of the Utah battery^ 
and of the admirable way in which Captain Young handled his men» 
The New York World of the 11th of August, in speaking editorially 
of the part taken by the Utah troops, said: 

''Our latest State has borne its share in adding to the glory of the 
nation. In the battle of Malate the Utah light artillery, whose guns 
were dragged through deep mud to send shrapnel into the Spaniards' ranks^ 
showed itself deserving of all honor. Utah has had its troubles in the 
past, but when she sends such a contribution to the nation We wipe out 
the memory of all troubles.'' 

On the 7th of August, Admiral Dewey and General Merritt 
joined in demanding the surrender of Manila, which, however, was 
refused, and preparations for taking the city by storm were at once 
made, and on August 13th, the fleet under Admiral Dewey and the 
troops under General Merritt made a simultaneous attack on the 
city of Manila. The troops led by Generals McArthur and Greene 
carried the Spanish works with a loss in killed, missing, and 
wounded of about fifty men. The navy sustained no loss whatever. 

After six hours' hard fighting the Spanish authorities sur- 
rendered the city with about 7,000 prisoners. The following are 
the terms of capitulation: 

First — ^The Spanish troops, European and native, capitulate the city 
and defenses, with all honors of war, depositing their arms in the places 
designated by the authorities of the United States, and remaining in the 
quarters designated and under the orders of their officers and subject to 
control of the aforesaid United States authorities until the conclusion of 
the treaty of peace between the two belligerent nations. All persons 
included in the capitulation remain at liberty; the officers remaining in 
their respective hoxoes, which shall be respected as long as they observe 
the regulations prescribed for their government and the laws in force. 



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132 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Second — ^The officers shall retain their side arms, horses and private 
property. All public horses and public property of all kinds shall be 
turned over to the staff officers designated by the United States. 

THiRD-^Complete returns in duplicate of men by organizations and 
full lists of public property and stores shall be rendered to the United 
States within ten days from this date. 

Fourth — ^All questions relating to the repatriation of officers and 
men of the Spanish forces and of their families and of the expenses which 
said repatriation may occasion, shall be referred to the government of 
the United States, at Washington. Spanish families may leave Manila at 
any time convenient to them. The return of arms surrendered by the 
Spanish forces when they evacuate the city, or when the Americans evacute. 

Fifth — Officers and men included in the capitulation shall be sup- 
plied by the United States, according to their rank, with rations and 
necessary aid, as though they were prisoners of war, until the conclusion 
of •a treaty of peace between the United States and Spain. All the funds 
in the Spanish territory and all other public funds shall be turned over 
to the authorities of the United States. 

Sixth — ^This city, its inhabitants, its churches and religious worship, 
its educational and business and its private property of all descriptions 
are placed under the safeguard of the faith and honor of the American 
army. 

Military government was immediately proclaimed by General 
Merritt. Thus the city of Manila, together with the whole group 
of the Philippine Islands, were at the disposal of the American gov- 
ernment. 

The disastrous events which had overtaken the Spanish gov- 
ernment in this war with America, and the singular immunities from 
the accidents of war on the part of the Americans, compelled the 
Spanish to take into consideration the necessity of suing for peace; 
and accordingly on the 25th of July a message was drawn up by 
the Spanish government addressed to the government at Washing- 
ton proposing an armistice for the purpose of drafting terms upon 
which peace with the United States could be arranged. The day fol- 
lowing, through M. Jules Cambon, ambassador of France to the 
United States, Spain opened negotiations looking toward the estab- 
lishment of peace. For some time there was diplomatic fencing on 
the part of Spain to obtain the most advantageous terms upon which 
peace could be secured, and her representatives manifested a dis- 



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PROGRESS OF THE WAR. 133 

position to resort to the dilatory tactics for which Spanish diplo- 
macy is famous; but the American government was not in a mood 
to yield too much; and at last, on the 12th of August, the 
peace protocol was signed, at 4:23 o'clock in the afternoon. Secre- 
tary Day representing the United States and M. Cambon, the French 
ambassador, representing the Spanish government. The following 
conditions of the peace protocol were officially announced: 

First — ^That Spain will relinquish all claims of sovereignty over and 
title to Cuba. 

Second — ^That Porto Rico and other Spanish islands in the West 
Indies, and an island in the Ladrones, to be selected by the United States, 
shall be ceded tb the latter. 

Third — ^That the United States will occupy and hold the city, bay 
and harbor of Manila, pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace which 
shall determine the control, disposition and government of the Philippines. 

Fourth — ^That Cuba, Porto Rico and other Spanish islands in the 
West Indias shall be immediately evacuated, and that commissioners to 
be appointed within ten days shall within thirty days from the signing of 
the protocol meet at Havana and San Juan respectively to arrange and 
execute the details of the evacuation. 

Fifth — ^That the United States and Spain will each appoint no more 
than five commissioners to negotiate and conclude a treaty of peace. The 
commissioners are to meet at Paris, no later than the 1st of October. 

Sixth — On the signing of the protocol, hostilities will be suspended 
and notice to that effect will be given as soon as possible by each gov- 
ernment to the commanders of its military and naval forces. 

As soon as the peace protocol was signed, the president of the 
United States issued the following proclamation: 

By the President of the United States of America— A Proclamation. 

Whereas, By a protocol concluded and signed August 12, 1898, by 
William R. Day, Secretary of State, of the United States, and his excel- 
lency, Jules Cambon, Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary of the Republic of France, at Washington, respectively represent- 
ing for this purpose the government of the United States and the gov- 
ernment of Spain, the United States and Spain have formally agreed upon 
the terms on which negotiations for the establishment of peace between 
the two countries shall be undertaken; and. 

Whereas, It is in said protocol agreed that upon its conclusion and 
signature, hostilities between the two countries shall be suspended and 



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184 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

notice to that effect shall be given as soon as possible by each goveni- 
ment to the commanders of its militarj and naval forces — 

Now, therefore, I, William McKinley, President of the United States, 
do in accordance with the stipulations of the protocol declare and proclaim 
on the part of the United States a suspension of hostilities and do hereby 
command that orders be immediately given through the proper channel 
to the military and naval forces of the United States to abstain from all 
acts inconsistent with this proclamation. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal 
of the United States to be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington, this 12th day of August, in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-eight, and of the Inde- 
pendence of the United States the one hundred and twenty-third. 

William McKinley. 

Orders were sent to the American commanders everywhere in 
the field to cease fighting, the blockades of Havana, Porto Rico and 
Manila were raised, and the war between America and Spain may 
be said to have closed. 

Peace conmiissioners were appointed by the respective gov- 
ernments to draw up the final treaty of peace, and settle all the 
terms upon which it was to be granted. The peace commissioners 
on the part of America are: Mr. W. R. Day, late Secretary of 
State; Mr. Whitelaw Reid; Senator Gray; Senator Prye; Senator 
Davis; and Mr. Moore was made Secretary. 

The peace commissioners appointed on the part of Spain are: 
M. Eugene Montero Rios, president; General R. Cerero; M. J. de 
Gamica; M. W. Z. de Villaurrutia; and M. Buenaventura Abarzoza. 

This peace commission is now holding its sessions in Paris. 
When its labors shall have been accomplished the results will be 
published in the Era; and with that^ the extended series of articles 
on the War between Spain and the United States will be closed. 



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EDITOR'S TABLE. 



Quite recently there appeared in the St. Louis Globe-Democrat 
an account of the closing up of the affairs and discharging the 
receiver of the New Icarian Community, and formally declaring the 
Community imd all its affairs ended. The order was entered by 
Judge H. M. Lowner in the district court at Coming, Iowa. Mr. 
Bettannier,f ormerly a member of the conmiunity, was the receiver so 
discharged. 

The Globe-Demoeraty in giving its account of the closing up of 
the affairs of this Community, speaks of it as|''the most long-lived, 
and undoubtedly the most nearly successful of all the experiments 
ever made in the western hemisphere with pure communism''; and 
it refers to the founder of the society, Etienne Cabet, as a ''scholar, 
historian, socialist and philimthropist, who two generations ago was 
stirring all France with his socialistic and conmiunistic writings imd 
who contributed much toward inciting the revolution of 1848, of 
which he was afterwards the historian.'' 

Our chief interest in the closing up of this Icarian Conmmnity's 
affairs, and its formally going out of existence lies in the fact that 
it is an institution which at one point of its history touched ''Mor- 
monism." That is, soon after the Latter-Day Saints evacuated 
Nauvoo, the Icarian Society went there under M. Cabet, and pur- 
chased much of the property held by the saints and for a time tried 
the experiment of their qrstem in that favored land. It failed, of 
course, as it subsequently did at Cheltenham, in Missouri; and finally, 

as above stated, at Coming, Iowa. 

******* 

This attempt on the part of M. Cabet and his associates to 
found communistic societies here in America is but one out of many 
efforts made by well-meaning philosophers and philanthropists to 



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136 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

bring to pass the betterment of human affairs. They have seen and 
deplored the evils of our modem system of economics, and have 
sought with such wisdom as they were masters of to set humanity 
right. 

Of these, some have suggested co-operative methods in trade, 
in manufactures, in conunerce, and other labor, with an equal dis- 
tributioli of profits, as not only securing the conservation of energy 
but also as a more equitable basis of economics than our present 
individual and competitive methods. Many attempts have been 
made to carry out these principles in practice, and for a time, in 
several instances, as in the case of the Icarian Society, partial suc- 
cess has been attained. In the end, however, human greed, weak- 
ness, or individual necessity, real or imagined, together with inabil- 
ity to make the system universal — a condition necessary to the sys- 
tem's success, accordmg to the claims of its advocates — have proven 
too much for these attempts at co-operation, and the several enter- 
prises have either drifted into the hands of a corporation, become 
the concerns of individuals, or else have been absolutely abandoned. 

Others seeing the failures of voluntary attempts to secure the 
benefits of the co-operative system,'have advocated the enlargement 
of the powers of the state to the extent of consigning to it the man- 
agement of all industry; so far taking control of the individual as to 
compel him to work, according to his capacity, imd remunerate him 
according to his wants. 

Others have gone even further than this, and proposed not 
only to make the individual a creature of the state, in relation to 
the matter of labor and wages, but to control him in all the rela. 
tions of life, even invading the domestic relation to the extent of 
abolishing the marriage institution and all domestic government 
founded on paternal authority. These last two suggestions, with 
various amplifications, are classed as socialism and communism 
respectively. The former has many advocates in nearly all civil- 
ized countries, especially in Germany and France, where they wield 
a political influence of considerable potency. The latter, commun- 
ism, since the abortive efforts of Robert Owen, in England, of St. 
Simon and Fourier, in France,and M. Cabet — the disciple of Fourier — 
at Nauvoo, may be considered as relegated to the graveyard of 
impracticable theories which from time to time have engaged the 



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EDITORS TABLE. 137 

/attention of philosophical minds with a bent for speculation in 
human affairs. 

But bad as our modem system of economics may be, with 
all its manifest absurdities in the waste of energy, the unfair- 
ness in the distribution of the products of industry, still mankind 
has, so far, preferred to endure its known evils and incongruities 
rather than to trust their fortunes to the proposed systems of the 
socialists and communists. 

It is a problem too difficult for human wisdom to solve — this 

setting the world right in respect of the matters above referred 

to. It is a world that has gone astray, it will be God who will set 

it right, — ^when it is righted; and he in his own good time and 

way will reveal such truths and give to humanity such powers as 

will enable it to accomplish the needed reformation. 

* * * * * * * 

An interesting incident occurred in the experience of the late 
President John Taylor which is also connected with this same 
Icarian Society. 

Among the many interesting people whom Elder Taylor met 
while on his mission to France in 1850-1, was M. Erolokoski. He 
was a disciple of M. Fourier, the distinguished French socialist, 
and a gentleman of some standing, being the editor of a paper 
published in Paris in support of Fourier^s views. He was also an 
associate of M. Gabet, and knew all about the affairs of the 
Icarian Society at Nauvoo. At his request Elder Taylor explained 
to him the leading principles of the gospel. At the conclusion of 
that explanation the following conversation occurred: 

M. Krolokoski. — "Mr. Taylor, do you propose no other plan to 
ameliorate the condition of mankind than that of baptism for the 
remission of sins?** 

Elder Taylor. — "This is all I propose about the matter." 

M. Krolokoski.— '*Wel\ I wish you every success ; but I am 
afraid you will not succeed.'' 

EMer Taylor. — "Monsieur Erolokoski, you sent Monsieur 
Cabet to Nauvoo some time ago. He was considered your leader 
— the most talented man you had. He went to Nauvoo, shortly 
after we had deserted it. Houses and lands could be obtained at 
a mere nominal sum. Rich farms were deserted, and thousands of 



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138 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

us had left our houses and furniture in them, and almost everj- 
thing calculated to promote the happiness of man was there. 
Never could a person go to a place under more happy circum- 
stances. Besides all the advantages of having everything made 
ready to his hand, M. Cabet had a select company of colonists. 
He and his company went to Nauvoo — ^what is the result? I read 
in all your reports from there — published in your own paper here 
in Paris, a continued cry for help. The cry is 'Money, money!' 
*We want money to help us carry out our designs.' While your 
i^lony in Nauvoo with all the advantages of our deserted fields 
and homes — that they only had to move into — ^have been dragging 
out a miserable existence, the Latter-day Saints, though stripped 
•of their all and banished from civilized society into the valleys oi 
the Rocky Mountains, to seek that protection among savages — 
among the peau rouges as you call our Indians — ^which Christian 
•civilization denied us — there our people have built houses, enclosed 
lands, cultivated gardens, built school houses and have organized 
a government and are prospering in all the blessings of civilized 
life. Not only this, but they have sent thousands and thousands 
of dollars over to Europe to assist the suffering poor to go to 
America, where they might find an asylum. 

"The society I represent, M. Krolokoski," continued Elder 
Taylor, "comes with the fear of God — the worship of the Great 
Eloheim; we offer the simple plan ordained of God, viz: repentance, 
baptism for the remission of sins, and the laying on of hands for 
the gift of the Holy Ghost. Our people have not been seeking 
the influence of the world, nor the power of government, but they 
have obtained both; whilst you, with youi philosophy, independ- 
ent of God, have been seeking to build up a system of communism 
and a government which is, according to your own accounts, the 
way to introduce the Millennial reign. Now, which is the best, 
our religion, or your philosophy?" 



BOOK-COMPANIONS. 



The old adage, "A man is known by the company he keeps,** is 
80 commonly used that it may be considered hackneyed; and 



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EDITORS TABLE, 139 

therefore by writers of delicate tastes, and sticklers for the nice 
obderraace of roles of composition, would be avoided. But it so 
aptly expresses a great moral trath that we nse it despite its being 
so conmionly employed. Back of the tmth expressed in the above 
adage is the great principle expressed in another homely old say- 
ing, ''^ds of a feather flock together." But to state the prin- 
ciple in more dignified diction: light seeketh light; intelligence 
cleaveth unto intelligence; virtue delights in virtue, and seeks her 
own; and persons possessing intelligence and the qualities of refine- 
ment and virtue, by a law of their nature that is as eternal as the 
Gods, are drawn together by that natural aflSnity they possess. 

Then the converse of the last statement is true. Ignorance 
cleaveth unto ignorance; wickedness delights in wickedness; cor- 
ruption seeketh corruption and revels in its baseness; and as the 
pure in heart rejoice in the companionship of those of like nature, 
so the corrupt, the vile, the wicked, take pleasure only in the asso- 
ciation of those of like vicious natures as themselves. 

When you undertake to violate these truths by bringing 
together dements that have no afiSnity for each other, or persons 
that have no sympathies in common — say a wise man and a fool — 
you learn at once how absolute the truth is that says, like cleaveth 
imto like. 

It may be relied upon, then, as a general truth, that a man is 
known by the company he keeps. Indeed, so generally is the maxim 
accepted as true, that people with a proper degree of self-respect 
are very cautious as to the company they keep, and are also par- 
ticular as to the kind of companionship formed by their sons and 
daughters. All this is eminently proper. It is something that 
every parent who understands the force that associations have in 
forming the character of mankind, and who has a proper solicitude 
for the welfare of his offspring, will carefully look after. 

But while parents, as a rule, are careful in the selection of 
ordinary associates for their sons and daughters, there is a class of 
companions they allow them to select at their own sweet pleasure; 
they are often met by accident, and some of them of the most 
vicious natures. They are capable of poisoning the very well- 
springs of life, and making moral shipwreck of careers which, but 
for these unhappy associations, might have been useful to their 



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140 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

fellow-men, and a crown of glory to their parents. And yet parents 
and guardians neglect to use any influence in relation to the selec- 
tion of these companions alluded to, although they will have a won- 
derful influence — either for good or evil — in forming the charac- 
ter of those which nature or law has placed under their watch- 
care. The companions we refer to are books. Books are nothing 
but companions, and as a man is known by the companions he con- 
sorts with, so also may he be known by the books which he reads; 
and though these companions may be regarded as silent ones on 
first thought, still you have but to look at them and they speak; 
their influence for weal or woe will be found as potent as the 
influence of our ordinary associations in life, and should be selected 
with just as much care. Yet how neglectful — criminally neglect- 
ful — are parents in the selection of books for their children! 
* * * * * * * 

An old Spanish proverb says, ''falsehood travels with a hun- 
dred legs; the truth with but one." In like manner it would appear 
that all evil is more readily presented to poor humanity, to tempt 
it and lead it astray, than good is to influence it in seeking all that 
is purest, noblest and best in life. But a few years ago the only 
cheap literature thrown off by the press was that usually known as 
'*yellow-backed," which consisted for the most part of hair-raising, 
blood-curdling Indian stories or sea tales, which ordinarily produced 
a species of insanity in the minds of the constant readers of this 
''dime-nover trash. The boys all wanted to be Indian scouts and 
trappers, with long Kentucky rifles, slouched hats, fringed buck- 
skin breeches and hunting shirt of the same material, drawn 
together at the waist with a wide belt bristling with shooting irons 
and bowie knives; and their feet incased in neatly fitting moccasins, 
etc., etc. They had no relish whatever for following the plow or 
harrow in the spring time, or gathering the harvest in the autumn, 
or attending to the studies of the school room in the winter. Their 
brains were fired with visions of life on the plains; their hearts were 
throbbing with intense desire to hunt down the wily savages of the 
forest and prairie, or track to his retreat the villainous renegade 
who had spirited away some beautiful maiden, and arrive just in 
time to rescue her from a fate worse than death, etc., etc., just as 
"Wild Bill," "Buffalo Bill," "Ned Buntline," "Big Mouthed Jim" and 



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EDITORS TABLE. 141 

tacoree of others had done, according to the tales of the novels. 
This bosh they read unnerved them for any of the natural and use- 
ful pursuits of life. They fed on the feverish trash, and wasted 
the precious period of youth — that youth in which so much might 
have been done in the way of preparation for the realities of life. 
Equally destructive to the noble sentiments of the heart and 
mind is the driveling love tale published in the sensational story- 
papers that are spread out on the stationer's counter to attract the 
«ye of the unwary. But the poet Cowper has so aptly expressed 
the mischievous effects of this kind of literature on the mind of 
the maiden, that we quote it here for the consideration of our 
readers: 

**Ye writers of what none with safety reads, 
Footing in the dance that fancy leads; 
Ye novelists who mar what ye would mend. 
Sniveling and driveling folly without end; 
Whose corresponding misses fill the ream 
With sentimental frippery and dream. 
Caught in a delicate, soft, silken net 
By some lewd Earl or rake-hell Baronet — 
Ye pimps, who, under virtue's fair pretense 
Steal to the closet of young innocence; 
And teach her unexperienced yet and green 
To scribble as you scribbled at fifteen; 
Who, kindling a combustion of desire 
With some cold moral think to quench the fire: 
Though all your engineering proves in vain 
The dribbling stream ne'er puts it out again. 
0, that a man had power, and could command. 
Far, far away, these flesh flies from the land; 
Who fasten without mercy on the fair, 
And suck and leave a craving maggot there; 
Howe'er disguised the inflammatory tale. 
And covered with a fine spun specious veil. 
Such writers and such readers owe the gust 
And relish of their pleasure all to lust." 
****** 

We have quoted the Spanish proverb about a lie traveling 
with a hundred legs, and the truth with but one; but for all that 



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142 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

the trath not unfrequently overtakes the lie, tnd puts it to open 
shame. And in like manner flie trashy, worthless literature that 
the press flooded the country with in its first triiunphs of produc- 
ing cheap reading matter, is being overtaken; the press is giving 
the productions of the foremost minds in the republic of letters 
to readers, and at rates that are as cheap as the dime novel has 
been or is now. 

The triumphs of the steam printing press, owing to the 
improvement of the machinery, and the manner of its manipula- 
tion, place the works of the masters— historians, philosophers, 
statesmen, poets and writers of the best classes of fiction within 
the reach of all. There is no family, however humble its circum- 
stances, but may have in its possession now the wiurks of mast^ 
minds in the various departments of literature. 

Books, then, being so cheap that all parents can at least 
furnish their children with a small collection, it is more binding 
upon the parents to see to it that these book-companions, these 
silent yet powerful associates, are of the best quality, and they 
ought to be just as cautious in their selection as they would be in 
selecting the society in which they prefer their children to move. 

Another thing should be considered in this matter of select- 
ing book-companions for the young. In society you cannot expect 
the young to relish always the gra^e conversation of old philoso- 
phers and scientists as they struggle with their weighty hypothe- 
ses. They may listen to their expositions of various subjects both 
with pleasure and profit, but {^ter a season they will want a 
change. They will want more lively associates, and lighter things 
to think about. Well, it is so in reading. You cannot expect the 
young to always pore over the stately pages of Gibbon; discuss 
political questions with Macaulay; or religious ones with Adam 
Clark or the first Christian fathers; or delve into the intricacies of 
the law with Blackstone or Greenleaf ; or of philosophy with 
Newton, Bacon, or Spencer. The young will want to break away 
from such authors at times, and listen to the pleasant tales of 
Washington Irving; hear the half weird legends of Scotland as 
sung or related by Scott; or wander out in the spring time, sum- 
mer or autumn with Thompson, or read the adventure of Tam 
O^hanter with Bums, or laugh with Dickens at the dilemmas 



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EDITORS TABLE. 145 

of the unfortunate Mr. Pickwick, or follow the meanderingB 
of Nicholas Nickleby. They may want to do all this, but only let 
the parent see to it they have a Scott, Bnms, Thompson, Dickens, 
Co^ii^)er, a Milton or a Shakespeare for companions, and you give 
to them some of the noblest associates, who will appeal to all that 
is noblest, purest and most god-like in their own natures — com- 
pimions that will call into play the noblest sympathies of their 
hearts until virtuous sentiments wiU become living, active princi* 
pies within them. 



REBATE ON SUBSCRIPTIONS TO THE STAKES. 



At the meeting of the General Board of Y. M. M. I. A. held 
on the 19th of October, a resolution was adopted providing that 
to every stake where the subscriptions to Volume IL of the Era 
should reach five per cent, of the Latter-day Saint population 
a sum equal to twenty-five cents for every fully paid-up 
subscription taken within the stake, should be presented to the 
Stake Board to be devoted by them to Mutual Improvement pur- 



This action will give one more demonstration that the Era is 
not a private enterprise, conducted in the interests of any man or 
corporation of men, but solely in the interests of the great cause 
of Mutual Improvement; and indicates the intention of the Gen- 
eral Board to devote any profits that may arise from the publica- 
tion of the magazine to Mutual Improvement purposes. We call 
attention to this fact in order that the officers of associations, 
called to devote more or less time in furthering the interests of 
the Era, may know that they are working for the general cause 
and not for the advantage of private individuals. 

The General Board decided that the above percentage should 
apply to stakes which last year succeeded in securing the per- 
centage of the population named on their subscription list; and 
accordingly a sum of money has been forwarded to the following 
stakes: Alberta, Canada; Eanab, Utah; Juarez, Mexico; Morgan^ 



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144 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Utah; San Juan, Utah; St. George, Utah, and St. Johns, Arizona, 
each of which met the conditions above described. 

The money sent to Alberta Stake was returned to the General 
Board with the statement that the superintendency of Alberta 
Stake had decided "to contribute the same to the General Board 
for the purpose of supplying the missionaries with Volume II. of 
the Era,*^ but the Stake Superintendencies are at liberty to make 
such use of the rebate to their stakes as they may see proper, so long 
as it is devoted to Mutual Improvement interests in some one or 
other of its branches; such as meeting the necessary expenses of 
the Stake Boards, or aiding the Mutual Improvement Associations 
within the respective wards of their stakes. In this matter Stake 
Superintendencies are at liberty to use their own judgment, the 
limit being only that the money be carefully used for the general 
cause of Mutual Improvement. 

It is both hoped and believed that this arrangement will cause 
the officers of the associations to work with renewed zeal for the 
wide circulation of our magazine, which is calculated to accom- 
plish so much good among the youth of the Church of Christ 



NOTES. 



It is not enough that, in following his occupation, the worker inci- 
dentally helps the world along; what is required is that he desires to do 
it, plans to do it, and finds a large part of his reward in the consciousness 
of having done it. 

Mental differences are legion.* No two minds run in the same chan- 
nels, or think exactly each other's thoughts. Truth is many-sided, and 
multitudes of men and women stand still viewing continually but one of 
her phases. Did they but move around her, changing their respective 
attitudes, they would appreciate one another far better. 

Aged people have a claim on the young, a claim for delicate con- 
sideration, for tender care, for unfailing reverence. Each new genera- 



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hOTES. 145 

tion is apty as it comes joyously to the front, to look down with a slight 
condescension on the one which is withdrawing from the active scene; 
bnt the looking down should be looking up, for the old have borne and 
suffered, endured and triumphed, in order that the path for their suc- 
cessors may be easier. 

We can brood upon our troubles until they become unbearable, or 
we can dwell upon our blessings until our hearts are melted into thank- 
fulness. We can ponder the faults of our neighbors until we are imbued 
with disapproval and contempt, or we can muse upon their redeeming 
qualities till the kindly sympathies of our nature assert themselves. 

There are times when silence is golden, and there are times when it 
is the basest alloy. There are times when it stands for truth and gener- 
osity; and there are times when it stands for a mean and selfish lie. 
When justice calls us to proclaim a fine performance, a noble deed, an 
heroic achievement, and to reveal to the world the man who has fairly 
earned the forthcoming meed of honor and gratitude, then silence is 
a sin. 

Perform a kind action, and you will find a kind feeling growing 
within you even if it was not there before. As you increase the number 
of your kind and charitable interests, you find that the more you do for 
others the more you love them. Serve them, not because they are your 
friends, not because they are interesting, not because they are grateful 
— serve them for the simple reason that they are your brethren, and 
then you will very soon find that a fervent heart keeps time with 
charitable hands. 

'^e repentance of the understanding^ is seldom enjoined and seldom 
felt, but it would often be a most salutary and beneficial experience. 
Let a man, for example, on discovering that he has decided unwisely in 
some more or less important matter, instead of consoling himself with 
the reflection that he acted up to the best light that he then had, and is 
therefore blameless, reflect upon the mental obligations that must have 
accompanied the decision, and ask himself whether he might not have 
trained his judgment to a better degree of sagacity, so as to have ren- 
dered the error impossible. It will be strange indeed if in such an 
investigation he finds nothing of which to repent. 

"That boy must be bom in very unfortunate circumstances," says a 
sensible writer, ' Vhose father and mother could not, if they chose, do 



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146 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

more for his moral training than a schoolmaster, who has perhaps fifty 
to attend to, without the parental interest in any of them." It is just 
this moral education that belongs specially to the home, and that, if 
neglected there, can never be obtained elsewhere, which is the only 
trustworthy safeguard that society can have against much of the vice 
and crime which corrupt and demoralize her. Parents who trust to the 
schools to inculcate this are shirking their own most solemn obligations, 
and have no right to expect their sons and daughters to grow up into 
upright and honorable men and wome^. 

Porto Rico, the fourth in size of the Greater Antilles, and now one 
of the many provinces possessed by the United States, Hes 70 miles west 
of Hayti, and it is about 1,000 miles, as the crow flies, from Havana to 
the harbor of San Juan (Porto Rico). It forms an irregular parallelo- 
gram, 108 miles long and 37 miles broad; its area is 3,550 miles, which 
is less than that of the island of Jamaica. The inhabitants of Porto 
Rico numbered, in 1877, 813,937, the negroes being over 300,000. San 
Juan, the capital, has about 28,000 inhabitants. It is on the north-east 
shore of the island. The harbor is one of the finest in the West Indies, 
being large, sheltered, and capable of accommodating any number of 
the largest ships, having anchorage in it from three to seven fathoms. 

Some European countries have huge standing armies even in time of 
peace. Russia heads the list with 858,000 men, or nine per 1,000 of her 
population. Next comes Germany, with 580,000, which is 13 per 1,000; 
while France has 512,000, or 14 per 1,000. The Austrian army is 380,- 
000, or 10 per 1,000; Italy, 300,000, also 10 in the 1,000; England, 
230,000, six per 1,000; Spain, 100,000, equally six per 1,000. Belgium's 
army comprises 31,000 men, or eight in the 1,000; and little Switzer- 
land musters actually 131,000, or 45 per 1,000. France and Russia 
united can muster in time of peace between them 1,400,000 men, in time 
of war 9,700,000. The Triple Alliance in time of peace can bring 
together 1,192,000, or 7,700,000 in war-time. The huge European 
armaments called armies on a peace footing cost about $1,100,000,000 a 
year to keep up. 

The following statistics on marriages, births and deaths in some 
leading European countries can scarcely fail to be of interest: For 
1,000 marriageable persons of both sexes, there are in France 45 
marriages; in Holland, 49; in Italy, 50; in Austria, 51; in England and 
Denmark, 52; and in Germany, 53. On an average in France there are 
163 births per 1,000 married women from 26 to 50 years of age; whereas 



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NOTES. 147 

there are 270 in Germany, 269 in Scotland, 261 in Belgium, 251 in Italy, 
250 in England and Austria, 240 in Sweden and* Ireland, and 236 in 
Switzerland. The average mortality in France is lower than in any 
other country. It is put at 22i per 1,000, whereas it is 35 per 1,000 in 
Russia, 28 in Italy, a little over 22i in Sweden, and close on 23 in 
Germany. 

In all true education the amount of knowledge communicated, how- 
ever important it may be, is an entirely subordinate matter compared 
with the mental desires that are aroused and the mental power that is 
stored up. Ck>uld there be a youth who found no difficulty in the tasks 
assigned him he would miss the grandest opportunity which education 
has to offer — ^that of strengthening the mind by the continual stress 
and strain of effort. Perhaps one reason why dull and backward boys 
sometimes develop into distinguished men is that they have had so many 
difficulties to overcome that the discipline has intensified their powers 
and deepened their natures. The quick-witted child, to whom study is 
easy, often loses this opportunity; and possibly this fact may afford a 
partial answer to the oft-repeated query, "What becomes of all the 
promising children?" At any rate, it should be an encouragement to 
those who have the training of dull minds to know that the very efforts 
their possessors are obliged to make beyond their companions may enable 
them to overtake, and perhaps even eventually to surpass them. 

In all the armies of the world, says a writer in a contemporary, 
musical war signals are considered not only useful, but absolutely indis- 
pensable. Every one is familiar with such expressions as ''drumming up 
recruits," ''drumming out deserters," and so on. Zoller, the African 
traveler, says that "among all savage and half -civilized races song and 
dance are considered as indispensable aids to military training as drilling 
and drumming in our armies." The marvelous precision with which 
these primitive races execute their war songs and dances has been com- 
mented upon by many admiring explorers; and, as the value of perfect 
drill and co-operation are well understood, music, which supplies the 
r^ularity of rhythm, is seen to be of paramount importance. When 
our armies parade, they always do so to the measured beat of military 
band or drum and fife. A military writer says that the drum in the 
army is used "especially for inspiring the soldiers under the fatigue of 
march or in battle." This function of military music reminds one of the 
primitive custom of singing in order to facilitate work. It is recognized 
by the greatest authorities. Lord Wolseley, f or.instance, wrote not long 



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148 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

ago that "troops that sing as they march will not only reach their desti- 
nation more quickly and in better fighting condition than those who 
march in silence, but, inspired by the music and words of national songs, 
will feel that self-confidence which is the mother of victory." 



m LIGHTER MOOD. 



A workman, who was repairing the roof of one of the highest band- 
ings in Dublin, lost his footing and fell, but, striking a telegraph line, he 
managed to grasp it. "Hang on for your lifeP shouted a fellow-work- 
man, while some of the spectators rushed off to procure a mattress on 
which he could drop. He held on for a few seconds, when suddenly, with 
a cry, "Sthand from undher," he dropped and lay senseless in the street 
He was brought to the hospital, and on his recovery was asked why he 
did not hold out longer. "Shure, I was afraid the wire wud break," he 

replied feebly. 

* * * 

They were at a picnic. "You see," he explained, as he showed her the 
wish-bone of a chicken at luncheon, "you take hold here and I'll take hold 
here. Then we must both wish a wish and pull, and, when it breaks, 
the one who has the bigger part of it will have his or her wish gratified.** 
"But I don't know what to wish for," she protested. "Oh, you can think 
of something," he said. "No, I can't," she replied; "I can't think of any- 
thing I want very much." **Well I'll wish for you!" he exclaimed. "Will 
you really?" she asked. "Yes." "Well, then there's no use fussing with 
the old wish-bone," she interrupted, with a glad smile. "You can have 

me!" 

« * * 

The following anecdote bears witness that from of old Spain has 
been more or less foolish on the subject of "honor:" 

When the Duke of Wellington was co-operating with the Spanish 
army in the Peninsula against Napoleon, he was desirous on one occasion^ 
during a general engagement, that the general commanding the Spanish 
contingent should execute a certain movement on the field. He com- 
municated the wish to the Spaniard personally, and was somewhat taken 
aback on being told that the honor of the king of Spain and his army 



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IN LIGHTER MOOD. 149 

wonld compel a refusal of the reqaest unless Wellington, as a foreign 
officer, graciously permitted to exist and fight on Spanish soil, should pre- 
sent the petition on his knees. The old duke often used to tell the story 
afterwards, and he would say, "Now, I was extremely anxious to have 
the movement executed, and I didn't care a twopenny dash about getting 
on my knees, so down I plumped r 

* * * 

During the present era of good feeling between Great Britain and the 
United States it is not amiss to call attention to the following bond 
between the two governments: 

'The desk used at the White House, Washington, by the President of 
the United States is interesting in itself, apart from its connection with 
the ruler of a nation, for it is a token of the good-will existing between 
two peoples. Although occupying so prominent a place in the official 
residence of America's chosen governor, it is not of American manufac- 
ture. It was fashioned in England, and was a present from the Queen to 
a former President. It was made from the timbers of H. M. S. Resolute, 
which was sent in search of Sir John Franklin in 1852. The ship was 
caught in the ice, and had to be abandoned. It was not destined, how- 
ever, to go to pieces in frozen waters. An American whaler discovered 
and extricated it in 1855, and it was subsequently purchased and sent to 
Her Majesty by the President and people of the United States as a token 
of good-will and friendship. In an English dockyard the Resolute was at 
last broken up, and from her timbers a desk was made, which was sent 
by Her Majesty "as a memorial of the courtesy and loving-kindness which 
dictated the offer as a gift of the Resolvie!* At this desk, itself a repre- 
sentative of the kindly feeling of both nations, the President does the 

greater part of his writing. 

* * * 

We are happy to note that the people of England are taking kindly 
to '!Mark Twain." By which, of course, we mean, they are taking kindly 
to his humor; and the British press is glad to repeat his droll stories. 

Michael Davitt, the Irish leader, has published a book under the title 
"Life and Progress in Australia," where the author has spent some time. 
On his journey from Melbourne to New Zealand he was fortunate enough 
to have "Mark Twain" for a fellow passenger, and he enlivens some of 
the passages of his book with two or three capital anecdotes related on 
the voyage by the great humorist. The Irish leader found "Mark Twain" 
easily approached. He says: 

There is absolutely no "side" hitched on to his genius. The kindliest 
of smiles and of laughing, good-natured gray eyes make you immedi 



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150 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

ately welcome. You are made to feel at once that you are in the presence 
of a man whom fame or fortune could not deprive of his natural disposi- 
tion to make you laugh away the worries and troubles of the moment 
Mark Twain is not parsimonious with his talent. He entertained us in 
the smoking room of the Maroroa with some capital anecdotes, whicb 
however, cannot be done justice to in the re-telling. It is in the art of 
telling a story where the mirth and merit lie, and Mark Twain's yams in 
anyone else's narration is worse than leaving the Prince of Denmark out 
of "Hamlet." 

Nevertheless, even with this princely omission, the yams are amus- 
ing enough. Two of them were at the expense of some friends and the 
custom house of New York. 

Some of the boys had made up their minds to play a trick on Mark. 
They each planted their smuggled cigars among his small baggage and 
awaited results. They knew he would not deny possession of such wares 
when questioned,and they all crowded around him when the customs officers 
came up. They counted upon his being compelled to pay up for the cargo. 

"They stood around when the critical moment arrived and were 
ready to explode with laughter at my expense. This is how it ended: 

"The customs officer — Tour name, please?' 

"'Mr. Clemens.' 

"'Are you Mark Twain?' 

"'Yes.' 

" 'Then pass on.' 

"So," said Mark, laughing at the recollection of the incident, "I was 
neither asked to pay nor to lie, and I had all the cigars to myself, for 
you may be sure I did not deliver any of them to those who tried to play 
that little game on me." 

On another occasion he encountered a much more exacting customs 

official at the same port. 

"I had nine parcels from Liverpool," he explained, "and I badly 
wanted to get them through without their being opened. I gave the 
number and was asked to open some of them. 

" 'Weil, I am Mark Twain,' I pleaded, 'and you surely don't suspect 
me of harboring any evil against Uncle Sam?* 

" 'But we have a duty to perform.' 

" 'Yes, of course, but the custom regulations don't say, in teaching 
the mles of duty, you must rummage and upset Mark Twain's personal 
effects when he comes back to the land of his birth?' 

" *We are sorry, but we have no alternative.' 

" 'Did you,' I cut in, 'compel General Sherman to open his trunks 
when he came back, a short time ago?' 



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IN LIGHTER MOOD. 151 

" 'Oh, we couldn't trouble General Sherman. You know he is' 

" 'No, you can allow General Sherman to pass, a man whom I made 
famous, and you stop me! You give a pass to the pupil and you deny the 
same right to the master; F 

"Official to customs officer — liet his go;* and I got my nine parcels 
through all right." 

Mark Twain gave the Irish leader an infallible remedy for insomnia, 
with which the latter was sorely afflicted. 

'1 suffered much from that malady years ago," said Mark. 'It does 
not trouble me now, though my work is still heavy and more exacting as 
the years steal on. I began the search for a cure by drinking a glass of 
beer on going to bed. This gave a little relief for a short time. Then I 
exchanged my beer for a little prescription of two ounces of whisky. 
This worked the desired cure. It proved the real remedy — so much so that 
I began to like my medicine. The two ounces of Scotch grew into five 
ounces. Then the trouble began again. It was the old story of taking 
too much of a good thing. The five ounces sent me off all right, and 
brought about a kind of angelic sensation in my head, but in a couple of 
hours sleep would leave me, and the old trouble came back to stay all 
night I then sought another remedy and found it — ^yes, sir, an infallible 
remedy. I got hold of it by accident. It was a child's German grammar. 
I began to read it on lying down. I never got through a single page at a 
time. Sleep came along and never gave the grammar a chance. Try it, 
and you will find it a dead certain cure. I tried hard to induce the late 
General Grant to adopt it, but I could not succeed. Otherwise he might 
not have died so soon." 



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OUR WORK. 



THE "PAR EAST IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION. 



AN INTERESTING ACCOUNT OP THE ORGANIZATION OP AN IMPROVE- 
MENT ASSOCIATION AT MANILA, PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 



Manila, P. I., Sept. 20, 1898. 
To the Improvement Era, Salt Lake City, Utah: 

The Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association of the "Far 
East" sends you greeting. The June number of your issue came to us 
two weeks ago, and found us just beginning our work. We received the 
Era with welcome, and return our thanks for the favor you have con- 
ferred by placing those valuable pages before us. In return we furnish 
a few notes treating on our organization, and the hopes we have for its 
usefulness. 

Before we left San Francisco, the advisability of an organization 
for our young men was suggested to the writer by Elder E. H. Nye, 
president of the California Mission; and also by Captain R. W. Young. 
While on our ocean voyage, and before we reached Honolulu, Captain 
Young called me to his state room, and, showing me a letter he had re- 
ceived from Apostle Young, written by direction of the Council of the 
Apostles, advising some kind of organization, he suggested that the 
matter of organizing a Mutual Improvement Association be taken up at 
once. Acting on his suggestion. Elders Willard Call and Jos. J. Holbrook 
and myself, all from Bountiful, began to discuss the subject with our 
companions in Battery A. All whom we approached, with one or two 
exceptions, seemed highly pleased with the idea, and gave their names as 
wishing to join when the organization should be formed. The number 
of names thus secured was thirty-seven. 



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OUR WORK. 



153 



No opportunity whatever offered for our meeting aboard the 
crowded vessel. When we landed at Camp Dewey, little better oppor- 
tunity was afforded. The campaign before Manila began soon, taking a 
considerable part of our number to the front every day, and, though the 
time for a meeting was settled on two or three times, we were prevented 
from meeting. Our opportunity came with our first Sunday evening 
in Manila, August 22nd. 

We were given ample quarters in the Cuartd Meisie, with a large 
vacant room to spare. In that room a few of us met (the number was 
not very great, mail having just arrived from home), and exchanged 
views on the subject of an organization. In compliance with the sug- 
gestion of Captain Young, which was approved by the Council of the 
Apostles, it was decided that our organization should be termed a Young 
Men's Mutual Improvement Association, following in organization, and 
as nearly as possible in work, those organizations at home. A president 
was elected but further organization was postponed for one week to 
allow more to be present. 

The next Sunday our pleasure was again our misfortune. The 
recruits had just arrived and the opportunity which that afforded for the 
war-scarred (not war-scared) veterans to tell the tales of pleasure, 
work, and narrow escapes, proved more enticing than church, and the 
tent we had pitched for meeting purposes (Battery B was now occupying 
our meeting room) was by no means full. Nothing daunted, we again 
^)ostponed the election of officers and proceeded with the discussion of 
Acts, 1st chap., the lesson prepared for the evening. We had a very 
interesting meeting, and, when we parted to meet the following Sunday 
evening, all felt that success was assured. During the week we talked 
the matter up among some of the influential men in both batteries, and 
at our next meeting we were much gratified to see our tent packed. The 
whole of our short session was taken up in the election of officers, and in 
that connection some timely advice from Captain Young proved very 
valuable. Following is a list of officers as finally selected: 
President, Geo. A. Seaman, Battery A, Bountiful, Utah. 

First Counselor, Godfrey J. Bluth, Battery B, Ogden, Utah. 
Second Counselor, Nephi W. Otteson, Battery B, Manti, Utah. 



Secretary, 
Treasurer, 
Librarian, 

Program 
Committee, 



Nelson Margetts, 

Barr W. Musser, 

Stephen Bjamson, 

r Chas. R. Mabey, 

] Dr. H. A. Young, 

( Don C. W. Musser 



Battery A, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Battery B, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Battery B, Spanish Fork, Utah. 

Battery A, Bountiful, Utah. 

Battery A, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Battery B, Salt Lake City, Utah. 



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154 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Godfrey J. Blath leaves for home aboard the hospital ship on the 
22nd inst. 

The committee 'met the evening following the election of officers, 
and in its deliberations, in which it was assisted by Captain Young, it 
was decided that at each meeting a subject from the "Acts of the Apos- 
tles" should be treated upon by some member of the association; and 
also that, as we might be able to secure lecturers, a secular subject of 
interest be given. Songs, recitations, etc., are to form an interesting 
diversion. Already we have had interesting talks from Sergeant D. H. 
WqIIs on 'The Philippines," and Don Musser on "A Moslem Tradition." 

Corporal Geo. S. Backman, a student of Spanish, proffered his ser- 
vices as a teacher to the association if it wished to organize a Spanish 
class as an adjunct to the association. We accepted his generous offer 
and met last night for the first time. 

Following the example of our parent associations we have extended 
invitation and welcome to all, whether they are Latter-day Saints or 
not. They praise our liberal views that will admit them to member- 
ship, and already several have applied for membership. The Spanish 
class offers an inducement to them to join us. We expect to get 
in touch with Utah men in all the commands, and to that end a com- 
mittee is to be appointed to look them up and invite them to join us. 
We have ample room now, as a large hall has been reserved for meeting 
purposes and as a library room. 

While we have many disadvantages to contend with, we hope by 
assiduous labor to do some good by diverting the minds of some from 
gaming and other idle practices, that are so apt to accompany the eaae 
and laziness of barrack life, and shall seek to center them upon more 
holy things. 

Your Brother in the Gospel, 

Geo. a. Seaman, President of the Association. 
Battery A, Utah Volunteers. 



MUTUAL IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION OFFICERS TO BE 

SET APART. 



At a meeting of the General Board of Y. M. M. I. A., held on the 
9th of November, the following recommendation was passed: 

"This Board recommends that all officers of Mutual Improvement 



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OUR WORK. 155 

Associations be blessed and set apart by the presidents of stakes and 
l>ishops of wards or under their direction." 

In accordance with this resolution the General Board desires that 
whenever stake officers are chosen they be blessed and set apart by 
the stake president, or under his direction; and when ward officers are 
chosen they are to be set apart by the bishop of the ward or by some- 
one acting under his direction. The brethren of the General Board feel 
that when a young man is called to be an officer in these associations he 
gains strength from the blessings of his brethren, and they desire that 
any young man chosen for these positions should have all the help possi- 
ble for the performance of his labors. 

It was also decided by the General Board, at the above meeting, that 
the young men who have been called to act as missionaries among the 
members of the associations be set apart previous to leaving for their 
fields of labor; and some time ago a letter instructing the young men 
called on missions to apply to the president of their respective stakes to 
be set apart before leaving their homes to commence their labors, was 
sent out, and we trust that it reached the brethren in time for them to 
receive the blessings of their president. 



AS TO MUSIC. 



The following suggestion comes from a correspondent in Richfield 
relative to music for the associations: 

Dear Brother: 

An idea has occurred to me, and I hasten to give the same to you* 
We have no n^usic of our own suitable for the Young Men's Mutual 
Improvement Associations, that is, for devotional exercises. How would 
it be if you were to induce some of our own musicians to compose or 
arrange pieces for male voices suitable for this purpose and publish them 
in the Era; publishing one piece in each number? This would make the 
Era our Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association glee book, and 
we need one very much. Geo. M. Jones. 

Our correspondent makes a splendid suggestion, and we may say that 
we have had this matter in mind for some time; and as soon as we can 
get to it, it is the intention to furnish the associations with something 
of this kind through the Era. 



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156 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

A WORD TO MISSIONARIES. 



By the time this number of the Era reaches the hands of onr 
officers and members of the associations the Y. M. M. I. A. missionary 
work will be well under way. Quite a number of brethren have 
been called by the General Superintendency to engage in this work, 
and most of them are now in their respective fields of labor. We^ 
desire to say to them on behalf of the committee having the work in 
charge that we sincerely hope that the instructions contained in the letter 
already sent out to them will be carefully followed; but in addition 
to what is there said for their instruction, we desire to say further that 
this season's missionary work should differ from that of last year in this 
particular: that, whereas the objective point last year in the main seems 
to have been to induce the great number of young men who were not 
connected with the associations to become members; we desire now to 
urge that the objective point shall more especially be to convert them to 
the truth of the gospel. The missionaries will find that many of our 
young men who have a standing in the associations, are not really estab- 
lished in their faith in the great latter day work, and we are anxious that 
all should be done that can be done to ground them in that faith. 

The membership of the associations was very much enlarged by the 
missionary efforts of last seasoji; but many of those who gave in their 
names to become members of the associations failed to become actually 
interested in the work of mutual improvement. It was decided at the 
last annual conference of the associations that the enrollment of names 
should be preserved; and that no one should be dropped from the enrolled 
membership but for cause. The fact that a young man has his name 
among the enrolled members of an association should be made a basis of 
missionary work with him. Our brethren charged with the duties of 
seeking out the youth of Israel and converting them to the truth of the 
great latter-day work, should call upon all those who have failed to 
become real members of the associations, and should strive earnestly for 
their conversion both to mutual improvement effort and to the gospel. 
None should be allowed to escape; and not only should our missionary 
brethren labor with them, but the local officers and members of the asso- 
ciations should also bring to bear upon them their personal influence and 
give them encouragement to persevere in the good work of the Lord. 

We urge upon our missionaries to take plenty of time, and not be in 
too great a hurry to cover a large field in their operations, but to do 
their work thoroughly as they go. 



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OUR WORK. 157 

One other thing we would also urge— don't mistake timidity for 
humility. We want to see our missionaries humble, of course. It is one 
of the first elements necessary to their success. But humility of soul is 
not incompatible with boldness of action in the matter of discharging a 
duty; and it does not always follow that a timid man is necessarily a prop- 
erly humble man. Be humble, brethren, but be bold also and fearless: you 
cannot succeed in the work assigned you unless you are bold as well as 
humble. You are sent to call the wayward sons of Zion to repentance — 
search them out, let none escape, and when you find them deliver the 
message to them without fear and in the power of God. Remember 
you bear the priesthood of God, you have the truth and are especially 
commissioned to teach the same; and thus equipped there should be no 
timidity in your movements. When you go to a settlement, seek out the 
authorities of the ward, both the bishop and the president of the associa- 
tion, put yourselves at their disposal, procure a list of delinquent mem- 
bers of the association and those who have so far refused to identify them- 
selves with this great cause of improvement, and then seek them out and 
begin your work. Hold such public meetings as you may find convenient 
and as may be agreeable to the local authorities. Make arrangements 
wherever possible for "cottage meetings," get as many of the careless 
and indifferent ones as you can to attend, sing with them, pray with 
them, and get them to pray; preach to them, converse with them, answer 
their questions, disperse their doubts, silence their fears, help them to 
shake off their indifference, and lead them to God and righteousness in 
faith. 

Finally, brethren, the Lord be with you! 



OUR COURSE OF STUDY. 



We desire to call attention to this year's course of study provided 
for in our Manual for 1898-9, "The Apostolic Age." Under this title we 
have given our young men a subject that is in every way worthy of their 
attention. It has already been stated, perhaps a number of times, that 
the chief object of mutual improvement is to beget faith in the hearts of 
our young men in God's great latter-day work; and it may seem by some 
that by starting for this objective point by devoting one year's study to 
the life of Jesus Christ, and following that by another year's study of 
the "Apostolic Age," and the last subject, perhaps, with one that will 
. treat on the interim between the close of the "Apostolic Age" to the 



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158 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

opening of the 'Dispensation of the Fullness of Times," which began 
with the revelations of the Lord to Joseph Smith — all this, we repeat^ 
may seem a round-about way in which to reach our really objective 
' point; but we are confident, nevertheless, that all this is necessary to the 
right understanding of that great dispensation which later on is to occupy 
our attention, and the best efforts of the Mutual Improvement Associa- 
tions. We urge our young men, therefore, to their very best effort in 
studying the ''Apostolic Age," and ask them to be especially thorough in 
their study of this period of development and decline of that institution 
founded by the personal ministry of Jesus and the apostles. 

The most valuable records to consult with reference to the events of 
that age are to be found in the "Acts of the Apostles," and the epistles of 
the New Testament; and, indeed, these are about the only authoritative 
documents that can be consulted with any degree of assurance that they 
are not mixed with error. After the documents of the New Testament 
come the writings of the "Apostolic Fathers" and the "Apologists" of the 
second century. These include the epistles of Clement, of Rome; Ignatius, 
of Antioch; Polycarp, of Smyrna, and the epistles of Bamabus. Perhaps 
the most accessible works containing these epistles and much other early 
Christian literature are a series of works called "Primers of Early 
Christian Literature," edited by Prof. George P. Fisher, and pub- 
lished by D. Appleton & Co., New York. After these works, for the 
benefit of those who desire to enter deeply into a consideration of this 
interesting period of the Church, we recommend "Eusebius' Ecclesiastical 
History," which treats of the first three centuries of church history by 
one who was very close to the events which he relates. We also recom- 
mend Canon Farrar's "Early Days of Christianity," "The History of the 
Christian Church," during the first ten centuries, by Phillip Smith, under 
the title of "The Student's Ecclesiastical History,*" "The History of Chris- 
tianity," by Henry H. Milman, generally published in two volumes; "The 
Life of Paul," by Conybeare and Hawson, and, of course, Mosheim's "Eccle- 
siastical History" and Milner's "History of the Church." 

None of these works are expensive, and, in the main, can be procured 
through our Salt Lake book-dealers, especially through Cannon & Sons 
of Salt Lake City; and while it may be true that our young men cannot 
undertake to purchase all of them, still any one of those recommended 
would be of great assistance, and perhaps each association could secure 
them as works of reference for the association. In that event the bind- 
ings ought to be especially good, and the books would then be an excel- 
ent start toward an ecclesiastical library that would be of great value,, 
not only in the present manual course but in others that are to follow. 



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EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 

BT THOMAS HULL, SECRETARY OF THE GENERAL BOARD OF T. M. M. L A. 



October \Wt: The United States takes formal possession of the 
island of Porto Rico. The following dispatch is received at the war 
department from General Brooke: 

San Juan, Porto Rico, 
Oct. 18, 1898. 
Secretary qf War, Washington: 

Flags have been raised on public buildings and 
forts in this city and sainted with national salutes. 
The occupation of the island is now complete. 

Brooke. 
20th: Utah day at Trans-Mississippi Exposition. A speech of wel- 
come is made by the president of the Exposition and responses by Gover- 
nor Wells, and by Lorenzo Snow, George Q. Cannon, and Joseph F. Smith, 
Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

22nd: An outbreak of bubonic plague resulting from experiments 
with the plague bacillus in a bacteriological establishment causes a panic 
in Vienna, Austria. 

23rd: Serious race trouble occurs in the eastern part of Tennessee 
resulting from an attempt to arrest a negro who had had trouble with 
his employer, a white man. One white deputy and nine negroes have 
been killed. * * * A peace jubilee opens in Philadelphia, Pa. 

24th: The Supreme Court of the United States hands down a deci- 
sion in which the railway trust known as the Joint Traffic Association is 
held to be an illegal organization. ♦ ♦ ♦ The Second Volunteer Cav- 
alry, Torrey's Rough Riders, is mustered out of service. ♦ ♦ ♦ Gen- 
eral Wesley Merritt, United States army, and Miss Williams, of Chicago, 
are married in London, England. 

25th: The time limit for the evacuation of Cuba is extended until 
January 1st, 1899. ♦ ♦ ♦ The French ministry resigns. 



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160 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

29tli: The first annual meeting of the Sons and Daughters of Utah 
Pioneers is held at Prove, Utah. ♦ ♦ ♦ Col. George E. Waring dies 
in New York City of yellow fever. He returned October 25th from 
Havana, Cuba, where he had been sent by the United States government 
as special commissioner to ascertain the exact sanitary condition of the 
city. ♦ ♦ ♦ The French court of cassation decides to grant a revi- 
sion of the Dreyfus case and give Dreyfus a new trial. 

31st: The United States peace commissioners at Paris present to 
the Spanish commissioners their decision to retain the Philippines and 
reimburse Spain for expenditures for the betterment of the island. 

November ^h: The Spanish peace commissioners refuse to accept 
the proposition of the Americans in relation to the Philippines. 

5th: By the collapse of a theatre building in course of erection in 
Detroit, Michigan, fifteen workmen are killed and many injured. * * ^ 
Word is received at the Navy department that the crusier Ittfavla Maria 
Teresa which was one of Cervera's squadron and which had been raised 
by Naval Constructor Hobson, was lost on November first in a heavy gale 
about thirty miles north -of San Salvador, while on her way to New 
York. 

6th: An explosion of gas followed by fire in the National Capitol 
at Washington does great damage to the central eastern portion of the 
building. * * * A fire breaks out in the great snow sheds of tiie 
Southern Pacific Railway in the Sierra Nevada Mountains and several 
thousand feet of sheds are destroyed. Great delay will be occasioned 
thereby to the traffic over that portion of the road. 

8th: B. H. Roberts is elected as Utah's representative to Congress, 
and Robert N. Baskin is elected to the Utah Supreme bench. * * * 
Theodore Roosevelt is elected governor of New York. ♦ ♦ • The 
wrecking company which had the contract in hand for raising tiie 
Maria Teresa receives word that she is ashore at Cat Island about thirty 
miles south-west of where she was supposed to have foundered. 

10th: Serious trouble occurs between negroes and whites in Wil- 
mington, N. C, over an editorial derogatory of white women, published 
by a negro newspaper. The publishing house is destroyed and eight 
negroes killed and others wounded. 

11th: The National W. C. T. U. Convention begins in St. Paul. 
Minn. 

14th: Word reaches Skaguay, Alaska, that on October 16th, Daw- 
son City, in the Klondike country, was partially destroyed by fire. The 
loss is estimated at $500,000. 

15th: Mrs. Lillian M. Stevens, of Maine, is elected president of the 
W. C. T. U. 



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IMPROVEMENT ERA. 



Vol. n. JANUARY, 1899. Na 8. 



MANILA 



AND THE PART TAKEN BY THE UTAH BATTERIES IM 
ITS CAPTURE. 

BY MAJOR RICHARD W. YOUNG. 



I had formed in my mind a picture of Manila very different 
from the original. The picture you are not interested in. The 
city itself is extremely interesting. It fronts on the bay now 
chiefly famous as the scene of Dewey's great victory, and stretches 
back from the shore for several miles on both sides of the Pasig 
river. 

It contains several hundred thousand inhabitants, of whom 
about 16,000 are Spanish soldiers, several thousand are Ehiropeans 
engaged in civil pursuits, many thousands are Chinese, and the 
balance are natives. But do not jump at the conclusion that the 
natives are worthless savages. Nearly all speak Spanish. They 
furnish the clerks, tradesmen and artisans of the city. They read 
and write. They are very cleanly in their attire, the men in their 
suits of white, and the women in their picturesque and modest 
costumes. The sound of guitars, harps and violins greets your ears 
as you pass through their streets at night. Despite the enervating 



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162 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

infltience of a tropical sun, they are ceaselessly energetic and 
industrious. The men with sticks across their shoulder from the 
ends of which depend great loads, and the little women with large, 
round baskets on their heads, actually trot through the merciless 
sunshine to and from their busy markets. The children are bright 
and quick. Many already salute you with '^ Good morning,^' or 
''How de do," pronounced with all the grandeur and politeness of 
their erstwhile Spanish masters. In the evening, a company of 
these black-headed, short-cropped, straight, quick, good natured, 
bare footed, sometimes pantless, little fellows will march by in 
military order with sticks for guns, carrying a United States and 
insurgent flag, and performing military evolutions with surprising 
accuracy. One cannot help becoming attached to these sunny 
little boys and girls, so polite to the stranger and so forbearing in 
their conduct with each other. 

Around the city in all directions, forming its suburbs, are the 
native districts. Many of the poorer natives still live in their na- 
tive huts, constructed on stilts about five feet high, with floors of 
split bamboo, well ventilated, walls and roofs of dried leaves, and 
sliding doors and windows also of thatch. A fixed bench or so 
along the wall constitutes all the furniture; a mat made of straw, 
folded away during the day and spread on the bamboo floor at night, 
furnishes bedding; a pottery receptacle for charcoal is their stove, 
and the neighboring river their bath house and laundry. The women 
bathe with a sort of Mother Hubbard, fastened around the body 
under the arms, the men with a breech cloth, and the children 
with — a playful spirit. 

Passing through this fringe of native huts, you reach the very 
picturesque wooden hoitoes of the Spanish order of architecture, — 
overhanging roofs, overhanging upper stories, with great sliding 
windows opening the whole side of the house, and lower stories with 
strong doors, reserved for the servants or used as store rooms or 
stables; all try to live above the malarial or otherwise dangerous 
vapors that hover near the ground. Up the river are found the 
splendid summer palaces of the governor-general, the palace of 
Admiral Montojo and other public and private residences, having 
one front on the shaded street and the other overlooking the pic- 
turesque Pasig, down whose current are forever floating a species 



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MANILA. 163 

of green plant resembling the lily in shape. At the mouth of the 
river a long jetty has been thrown out on the north side and a 
breakwater on the south. North of the stream is Binondo, the 
business district. Along the water front are great warehouses, 
and stretching back are many streets lined with busy places of 
trade. The stores and shops are mostly kept by the Chinese and 
natives, except on the Escalta, the chief street, where hotels, 
jewehy stores, soap and perfume shops, tailoring establishments. 
Blast Indian bazars, saloons, beer halls (with native string bands) 
and what not, jostle each other in a profusion and magnificence 
but little dreamed of by me. Why, the comer of the Escalta and 
Calle Nueva, the street that leads to the bridge of Spain, is as busy 
and crowded as Broadway at Pulton street. The street is fre- 
quently jammed and the services of several officers are constantly 
required to keep the crossing passable. Below the bridge the river 
is packed with steamers and all kinds of craft. Canals run all 
over the city, and are used extensively in the commerce of the 
place. Street cars, propelled by the small native horses, traverse 
the principal streets. Great churches lift their picturesque fronts 
on many a street and square, and on the Sabbath day they are 
crowded by the devout natives in their clean and airy costumes. 
Bells, mostly jangling and out of tune, ring forth at all hours of 
the day. 

But the most interesting portion of the city. Old Manila, I have 
omitted to mention. It is a walled city of the middle ages in spirit, 
though more modem in point of fact: walls twenty feet high with 
crenelated tops, through the openings of which frown multitudinous 
bronze cannons, mostly of another age. Behind the walls, a succes- 
sion of casemates, the roofs of which furnish a broad rampart just 
below the top of the walls; in front of the walls, moats crossed by 
draw bridges, and capable of being filled with water on a moment's 
notice; in front of the gates, outer works of defense; in the north- 
'west comer, the Citadel, the fort of San Sebastian, frowning high 
over the entrance to the river with the vaulted dungeons below 
even the level of the sea; the whole constmcted strictly according 
to the man who corresponds in the Art Militaire to Hoyle in — 
well, in! 

Within the city, barracks and barracks, great cathedrals and 



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164 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

churches, colleges and schools, monasteries and convents, palaces, 
courts ecclesiastical, arsenals, etc. In this interesting portion 
of the city are now confined the Spanish army captured by the 
Americans — good enough looking fellows, but worn down by years 
of fighting and jaundiced and invalided by the climate — ^now living 
in churches or anywhere that refuge can be had — the victors hav- 
ing occupied their barracks. 

Of the rest of the country we know little and have seen lees. 
The situation has been such here, owing to the very strained rda- 
tions between our own forces and those of Aguinaldo, that the 
troops have been kept quite closely at home. 

Of the doings of the Utah artillery there is probably no need 
to say much. No doubt some of my comrades have written full 
accounts of our part in the capture of Manila to our local news- 
papers. In brief outline our record is as follows: The call for 
iaroops — Utah's patriotic response in offering almost twice as many 
as were required; the muster-in, May 9th; the early departure 
for San Francisco; the embarkation for Manila, Battery A on the 
Cohm and Battery B, half on the Chma and half on the Zealandial 
the day at Honolulu; the visit to the Ladrones; the meeting of the 
Boston, at the north end of Luzon, with news of the battle at 
Santiago, and of the approach of Gamara's fleet; the arrival, July 
16th, at Cavite; the disembarkation, July 20th, at Camp Dewey — 
the only dry ground in the midst of miles of flooded rice fields and 
swamps, at a distance of two and one-quarter miles from the Span- 
ish lines; the men compelled to carry their baggage, guns and 
ammunition ashore through surf more than waist-deep; the recon- 
noitering of the ground in front of us along the insurgent trenches, 
which in spots had been pushed up close to the enemy's works; 
the constant ''ping" of the Spanish Mauser bullet and the occasional 
crash and explosion of a shell during these expeditions; the putting, 
July 29th, of two of Battery A's guns in two insurgent embrasures 
not far from the beach; the failure of the revolutionists to hold 
our right that and the succeeding night, and the splendid, but 
missed, opportunity to drive our weak advanced lines into the sea; 
the bringing forward of two of Battery B's guns, July 31st, and the 
placing of them and the two guns of Battery A in new positions 
about two hundred yards in front of our first position; the vigorous 



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MANILA. 165 

night attack of the Spanish with cannon and small arm, lasting for 
two honrs and forty minutes, on the night of the 31st, during which 
our four guns fired nearly two hundred rounds mostly of shrapnel 
at point blank range; the uncertainty in the darkness of the Span- 
ish movements and intentions; the terror in the camp for fear that 
the stories brought back by the first few stampeded soldiers were 
correct and that the troops had been wiped out; the rushing for- 
ward of reinforcements; the stretchers coming back with the dead 
and wounded; the renewal of the attack nearly every night for a 
week, the Utah troops being the only troops present in every 
engagement; the extension of our lines to our right so as to include 
in our front a strong Spanish block house known as No. 14; the 
whole country flooded with rain, which fell almost incessantly, our 
trenches being ditches and our guns standing in a foot of water; 
the order for the combined naval and army attack, August 13th; 
the construction of emplacements for all of our other guns and the 
moving of both batteries forward on the 13th; the grand and 
impressive moving out of Dewey's ships; the first gun from the 
Olympia, followed by rapid firing from other ships and from our 
own guns; the splendid marksmanship of our gunners, who, at one 
thousand and fifty yards on the left knocked blocks from the solid 
wall of Fort St. Anthony or sand bags from the earth-works near 
by, at every shot, and who, on the right, destroyed block house No. 
14 in a dozen shots; the attack of the infantry; the feeble response 
of the enemy, driven out by the artillery fire; the raising of our flag 
on St. Anthony at 11:10 a. m.; the vigorous scrap on the right' of 
the line — the complete capture; the surrender of the Spaniards, 
including a company of palace guards, with medieval uniforms and 
battle axes; the quartering of the American troops in Spanish 
barracks and houses; the luck of the Utah troops in getting into a 
commodious barrack; the praises of all of the work of the Utah 
batteries; the general concensus of opinion that of all the troops 
engaged none had done better nor so much work as our own organ- 
izations; the arrival of the recruits; the occasional call to arms to 
quell a rumored outbreak by the insurredos; the hum-drum of 
barrack life; the desire to get home; the uncertainty of the future 
caused by the rumors that five thousand more soldiers and two 
battle ships were on their way here — such is the story of our 



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166 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

service^ told in headlines, as a newspaper man would say. The 
record is an honorable and a prominent one. 

No citizen of Utah need hesitate to investigate the part of 
the Utah boys in the campaign against Manila, nor will he have 
occasion to blush when he learns it in detail. 



DUTY. 



SELECTED. 

There's a pathway through life with a stem-sounding name, 
And some tread it bravely to honor and fame, 
And some tread it bravely wherever it goes. 
Unmindful of thorns, in the hope of a rose. 

And sometimes this path through the wilderness leads. 
Where the foot of the wayfarer winces and bleeds, 
And sometimes it climbs to the summits of snow. 
While sunshine lies warm in the valleys below. 

But this thing is certain — who follows the track 
That Duty has marked for him, ne'er looking back. 
Who takes to it, sticks to it, sunshine or shade, 
Shall never regret him the choice he has made. 

For, though it be stony and though it be steep. 
It groweth a flower whoso findeth may keep. 
And all who along it will faithfully wend. 
Shall light on this flower ere they come to the end. 

Its name is True Happiness; blest is the lot 
Of him who fares on till he comes to the spot 
Where, blushing, it greets him; his effort is crowned 
With a flower that shall bloom for him all the year round. 



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THE ICELAND REPUBUC AND ITS LEGAL 

SYSTEM* 



BY JOHN THORGEIRSON. 



It is a well known fact that in Iceland was a regularly estab- 
lished republican form of government, which existed from the 
atter part of the ninth century to 1270 A. D. There are at 
present several vellum manuscripts extant, which contain, at least 
in part, the laws of Iceland as a republic. The most important 
one of these is a book of tanned calf -skin called Konungsbok (the 
King's Book), which is in the Royal • Library of Denmark. It was 
presented to King Prederik HI, in the year 1656, by Brynjolf 
Sveinson, who was then bishop of Iceland. The book is thirteen 
and one-half inches long, nine and one-fourth inches broad, and has 
one hundred and eighty-six pages. 

According to the investigation of the most reliable antiqua- 
rians it appears to have been written about the middle of the 
thirteenth century. It is well preserved, and the leaves are yet 
white and glossy. 

Dr. William Finsen, one of the leading Icelandic archseologists 
and barristers, issued some time ago an accurate and critical edi- 
tion of this valuable work. It is in two volumes and is divided 
into fifteen parts or divisions. First is the ecclesiastical law, which 
takes up eighteen pages of the vellum; second, rules of order, 
which occupies forty-two pages; third, military and criminal law, 
sixteen pages ; fourth, on weights and measures, comparative 
value of gold, silver, etc., seven pages; fifth, the authority and 



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168 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

duties of the president, two pages; sixth, the power and duties of 
congress (Althing), thirteen pages; seventh, laws of inheritance 
and family rights, twelve pages; eighth, law regarding the pro- 
viding for the poor and indigent, eleven pages; ninth, law regard- 
ing engagements, marriages, etc., twenty-eight pages; tenth, 
regarding real estate, etc.,* thirty-three pages ; eleventh, on 
rents, eleven pages; twelfth, on legal proceedings, etc., fourteen 
pages; thirteenth, on the civO division of the land, four pages; 
and fifteenth, on miscellaneous formulas and laws, consisting of 
fifteen pages, which completes the vellum King's Book. 

It was in the year 874 A. D. that Ingolf, the first settler in 
Iceland, arrived, and during the sixty years following the emigration 
was so heavy that it is regarded that at the end of that period 
Iceland had as great a population as she has ever had, it being 
estimated that about that time the inhabitants numbered no less 
than one hundred and fifty thousand. 

Prior to 927 the civil affairs of the land were in a very unset- 
tled condition, yet judiciary districts had been established here 
and there by those who resided in different localities. It was in 
the year 924 that a man by the name of Ulfljot was. selected and 
sent to Norway, by the assistance of the best legal lights in that 
country, to draft a brief code of laws for the purpose of estab- 
lishing Iceland on a firm basis as an independent republic. Hav- 
ing spent three years at this, Ulfljot came back. Then a man by 
the name of Grimm was sent out to select a suitable place to 
hold the national congress; he chose the world-famous place, 
Logberg, by the river Oxara, where the leading men of the land 
met in a council in the summer of 927 A. D., and adopted the law 
that Ulfljot brought, honoring him by unanimously electing him 
the first president of the Icelandic Republic. How much of this 
first law is preserved is unknown with the exception of the ofllcial 
oath and a few other unimportant matters which are preserved in 
the Sagas. The majority of the inhabitants were of the Asa faith. 
The administration of the oath was as follows: The man who was 
to take the oath was required to take two witnesses with him and 
go up to the altar and there take a gold ring that must not weigh 
less than two ounces, and was provided and placed on the altar for 
that purpose. It had first to be dipped into the warm blood of an ox. 



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THE ICELAND REPUBLIC. 169 

Putting it on his hand, he said, '^I call so and so as the first witness, 
and 80 and so as the other witness, that I perform an oath by this 
ring, a lawful oath, so help me Freyr, Njordur and the almighty god, 
that I will so prosecute, defend, testify or render judgment, as I 
know to be the most right, the most truthful and in the nearest 
conformity to the law. And to do according to law every and all 
legal duties that will be required of me to do, while I am at this 
court." 

In connection with this I wish to explain that this almighty 
god spoken of in the oath was Odin, and the other two were also 
among the chiefeet of the Norse — Icelandic gods. It is also worth 
mentioning that in those heathen times, and according to the 
heathen law, perjury, murder, and taking a woman by force, 
w^e such gross crimes, that those committing them could not be 
ransomed. Any man found guilty of any of those crimes forfeited 
his life, and his property was confiscated by the state; a porticm 
•f the property was however used to pay damages to the wronged 
one, and the heirs of the guilty party lost all their natural rights. 

At the session of the first national congress, a general as 
well as local form of government was adopted for the whole land 
bat it was not till about A. D. 960 that the organization was com- 
pleted, when the whole land was divided into thirty-nine chieftain- 
ships. Three chieftainships formed one judicial district. Three 
judicial districts formed one judicial quarter, except in the northern 
quarter, where there were four. Each quarter was entitled to 
twelve representatives to the national congress, each of them 
selecting two counselors, whose duty it was to assist the repre- 
sentatives. These counselors had the right to discuss and debate in 
congress, but could not vote. The place where the assembly met 
was in the open air. In the plain Thingvoll three benches were 
put up in a hollow square. On the middle bench the people's repre- 
sentatives sat, while the two counselors of each sat one on the 
front bench in the front of his master, and the other behind. Each 
new law had to be read aloud before all present for three suc- 
cessive years in congress (Althing), and if during that time no 
successful objection was made thereto, it became a statutory law. 
Any one present had a right to make objection to the new law 
(nymali), and any objection or anjrthing of that kind must be taken 



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170 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

notice of no matter though the objector was not a member of 
congress. The president of the Icelandic Republic presided in the 
AUhing like the vice-president of the United States does in the 
senate. During the earlier years of the republic, it appears that 
a [two-thirds majority was required to carry a measure, but in 
later years a majority was sufficient, no matter .how smalL The 
place itself where the Althing (the national congress) met was 
called Lawyard. The number of men that had a seat there were 
forty-eight representatives, ninety-six counselors and the president. 
But after A. D. 1000, when Christianity was lawfully established 
as the national faith, the two bishops had their seat also, which 
made the number altogether one hundred and forty-seven. AUhing 
met every year in the month of June, and was about two weeks, 
or hardly that long, in a session. Going home, the representatives 
and their counselors were required by law to hold meetings in 
every specified [locality, and read to the people all new laws and 
amendments to laws that were passed at that session of AUhing, 

To more fully explain how the legislative system was worked 
I shall have to cite the passing of a few important statutes. It 
was but shortly after the establishment of the AUhing that it was 
noticed through the movements of the sun that a year of three 
hundred and sixty-four days was too short. To regulate this a 
man by the name of Thorstein Surt — it is not said whether he was 
a member of congress or not — proposed to add one week to the 
summer every seventh year, which was unanimously passed. 

The most remarkable case of lawmaking was in the year 1000, 
when Christianity was established by law as the national religion. 
It was during the session of the AUhing the year before that 
Hjalti Skeggason, one of the foremost men in the land, was found 
guilty of blasphemy against the gods, due to some cause not 
recorded. He said: 

'*To fear the gods I folly see — 
Preya appears a wretch to me." 

Freya was the goddess of marriage and one which was highly 
adored; and for making such a remark about her he was exiled. 
Hjalti went to Norway that fall and went to King Olaf Triggvason, 
who was a very zealous Christian. Hjalti was baptized the next 



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THE ICELAND REPUBLIC. 171 

spring into the Christian church, and was sent by King Olaf as a 
missionary to Iceland. 

Among the early settlers in Iceland were not a few who came 
from the British Isles, who had been reared in the Christian faith. 
But it appears that the majority of settlers were heathens, or rather 
of the Asa faith. All those in authority seem to have belonged 
to the latter class. Hjalti came to Thingvoll while Althing was in 
session, and got permission to deliver a sermon at Logberg. 
Every year a vast number of men and women were present during 
the session of Althing^ and this time was no exception. Hjalti's 
sermon put a new life into those who had been reared in the 
Christian faith, which caused them to rebel and secede from the 
heathens, and elect a man by the name of Hall for their president. 
He was a close relative to Duke Rollo, the founder of Normandy. 
All the men were armed, but no fighting was done. On being elected 
by the adherents to Christianity, President Hall called his people 
together and required from their hands unlimited authority to act 
in their behalf, and made them, by a most sacred oath, obligate 
themselves to be satisfied with whatever he saw fit to do, regard- 
ing this most important question. This being done, he went to the 
real president, whose name was Thorgeir, and resigned his author- 
ity to him. This being done. President Thorgeir went to his booth 
and forbid any one to disturb him for a day and a night. On the 
morning of June 24th he called the people together, explaining to 
them the great national difficulty that confronted them, saying, 
among other things, "If we are not all governed by the same law 
our peace, security and freedom are gone, for which our fathers 
and mothers left their native lands, and came here to establish." 
He reminded them that the disunion of the peoples of Norway, 
Denmark, Sweden and England, paved the way for absolute mon- 
archy and thraldom. '*To avoid this, here in this land," he said, 
*Ve must all be governed by the same law, and the same men. I 
therefore, for the security of our freedom, national unity and inde- 
pendence, advise that we adopt Christianity to be our national 
faith, cease worshiping idols and offering sacrifices to them, and 
we each and every one of us, young and old, men and women, be 
baptized into the Christian faith." 

Having before he began his speech secured the promise of 



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172 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

the assemblage to abide by his decision, and being sustained in 
his opinion by the majority of the congressmen, as well as many 
of the leading men of the land, Christianity was then and there 
adopted by law, and made the national faith of the Icelandic 
Republic. So much at the present in regard to the legislative 
Gfystem. I shall now proceed to give a brief account of the judi- 
cial one. 

As before stated, about 960 A. D., the land was divided into 
regular judicial districts; the chief divisions being four quarters, 
respectively called the southern, western, northern, and eastern 
quarters. Each quarter again was divided into three judicial 
districts, except the northern one, which, due to geographical 
condition and the wishes of its inhabitants, was divided into four; 
each of those consisting of three chieftainships. One of the duties 
of the chieftains was by and with the consent of the people of their 
respective districts to select twelve jurors; the whole number 
being according to law thirty-six. The verdict of a majority was 
a legal decision. From those courts appeals could be made to the 
quarter courts, where were also thirty-six jurors or domsnrfud — 
doom-namers — as they were called. The law also provided that a 
preliminary hearing could be had in every locality; and to secure 
which the party aggrieved had a right to call together, without 
any previous notice, a committee of five, nine or twelve men in his 
immediate neighborhood; a decision by whom, in many casee, 
according to the law, could be final. 

Besides those districts and quarter courts, it was also pro- 
vided by law that at Thingvoll, where the national congress met» 
four courts, also called quarter courts, were established, which 
were both courts of appeal, and where such .cases should be tried 
when the parties to the suit resided in two or more judicial quar- 
ters. How the jurors for those courts were selected, and how 
many it took to constitute the court is not agreed upon by those who 
have written about the subject. Dr. Konrad Mauree says thirty- 
six; Dr. William Finsen clauns it was only nine. According to the 
meagre account given in Kings Book and the Sagas, it seems that 
thirty-six was the right number, nine from each quarter; and that 
there were certain places and probably certain days appointed for 



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THE ICELAND REPUBLIC. 173 

tiie different quarter courts to be held; but the same thirty-six men 
served as jurors in all places and in all cases. 

It was in the year 1005 that through the subtilty and trickery 
of the lawyers, several important cases could not be settled, 
which came near causing bloodshed and anarchy. The greatest 
barrister and legislator in the republic at that time was a man 
named Nial Thorgeirson, who doubtless was one of the people's 
representatives. When the Althing met the next summer, there 
was a good deal of discontent among those who the year previous 
could not get their rights because of the alleged defects of the 
judicial system; and that discontent came near resulting in a 
general uproar and lawlessness. Several of the more cool-headed 
<»i68 went to Nial to confer with him, and seek his advice, saying 
that lawlessness would be imavoidable if some remedy could not 
be provided. A great many did not lay their grievances before 
the courts^ saying it was useless, as the only way to settle one's 
difSculties would be by force of arms. The account of this is 
recorded in the 97th chapter of the Saga of Nial Thorgeirson, where 
he is represented as saying of the proposition of resorting to 
arms: ^'That must not be done, and it is unbecoming not to have 
laws in the land. Yet you have considerable cause to be discon- 
tented, and the responsibility is with us who know the law, and 
are the makers thereof. Hence my advice is that we, the law- 
makers, come together and see what can be done." 

They then went to the law-yard. Nial addressed himself to 
Skapti Thoroddson, who at that time was the president, and the 
members of congress, saying: "I wish to call your attention to 
the fact that our judiciary affairs are getting to be in a dreadful 
shape; if we shall bring our cases mto the quarter courts, and 
through chicanery a decision is impossible, to me it seems the 
best plan that a fifth court be established, where those cases that 
can not be brought to a finish in the quarter courts, can be 
heard, and a decision rendered." 

Says Skapti: "How are you going to get officers to sit in 
that court, seeing that already three dozen jurymen have been 
selected out of each quarter of the land to sit in the quarter 
courtsr 

'1 see how that can be done," says Nial, "select the best men 



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174 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

out of each quarter, allowing them to join any district that suits 
them." 

"That suits me," says Skapti, *l)ut what cases are to be tried 
at that court?" 

"Disturbances and disorder at the law-yard shall be tried there. 
All perjury and false charges. All the cases that cannot be 
brought to an end in the quarter courts, and all bribes, whether 
paid or received. In this court shall be all the strongest oaths, 
and two men as vouchers to follow every oath who shall on their 
honor guarantee the truthfulness of the swearer. Every case 
shall be handled here as in the quarter courts, with the exception 
that there shall be forty-eight jurors in the fifth court. Of tiiose, 
the plaintiff shall withdraw, or object to, six,and the defendant the 
other six. If the defendant does not withdraw any, then the 
prosecutor or plaintiff shall withdraw twelve; but if he does not 
withdraw any, then the case shall be lost; as the number of the 
jurors shall not be more than thirty-six. It shall belong to con- 
gress to decide what is a law, as also to grant special privileges or 
exceptions. But if a man who is personally interested in the case 
there under consideration, regards his right infringed upon by 
this granting of special privileges or exceptions, he shall have the 
right to make a lawful objection before the congress, and then 
such privilege or exception shall be void." 

President Skapti Thoroddson then laid this proposition before 
congress, and it was carried. This took place in the year 1006 
A. D. In the fifth court, as well as in others, a simple majority 
no matter how small, ruled. One of the chief causes that cases 
could not be settled in the quarter courts, was a tie which some 
lawyers and influential men caused by money and trickery. 

According to law the plaintiff or prosecutor was first, the 
person injured, then his or her nearest relatives; then the 
chieftain (Godi) of the district where the person injured resided. 

In the earliest part of the republic, women were lawful 
prosecutors as well as men; but on one occasion in an important 
suit where women were prosecutors, the prosecution was so weak, 
that injustice prevailed. Next year it was made a law that 
women should not be acknowledged legal prosecutors, but they 
could select a man to represent their interest at law; but if they 



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THE ICELAND REPUBLIC. 175 

did not avail themselves of these privileges, it was the duty of 
the chieftain of that district where the wronged woman resided, 
to see to it that her legal interest was duly represented. The 
right for the parties to a suit, to settle it between themselves in 
a friendly manner, was reserved by law except in case of murder, 
perjnry, rape, and suchlike crimes. 



NATURE. 



I heard a voice, as 'twere of one cast down 

By bitter agony, — and thus he spake: — 

*1 do impeach thee. Nature! that thou hast 

In causeless malice made me woe-begone. 

Thou gavest mind to torture me; — the hopes. 

By thee first taught to bloom, bloom'd but to fade; 

The feelings that, like honey in the flower, 

Imparted to my heart its fragrance, turn 

To bitterness;— and, haply to keep pace 

With this vile sinking of my nobler part, 

My very energies of limb decay. 

And sadder — feebler than my fellow-men — 

I grope my way through life, — a friendless ghost. 

That sits on graves, or stalks among the tombs. 

Therefore, my voice is raised — I stand erect — 

And ere I die, I do impeach thee. Nature.^ 

He spoke, and there was silence. Then I heard 
The merry voices of ten thousand birds 
Who sang their morning psdans to the sun; 
And through the forest glades the deer awoke. 
And shook the dew drops from their antler'd brows; 
And glorious flowers upon the mountain side 
Drank in the day-light; and in silver streams 
Gold-mantled fish went darting everywhere; 
The mighty ocean murmur'd as a child 
Its mother lulls to rest; the skies look'd down 
In blue serenity, as if they smildd; — 
And to the dark impeachment of that man 
No other answer mighty Nature made. 

Henry G. Bell. 



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ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS- 

ni. 

HINDUISM. 

BY SWAMI VIVEKANANDA 



(Prom the daily reports qf the Parliament qf /ZeZi^fwww.) 



The Hindus have received their religion through their revela- 
tion, the Yedas. They hold that the Yedas are without beginning 
and without end. It may sound ludicrous to speak of a book with- 
out beginning or end. But by the Yedas no books are meant. They 
mean the accumulated treasury of spiritual law discovered by differ- 
ent persons in different times. Just as the law of gravitation 
existed before its discovery, and would exist if all humanity forgot 
it, so with the laws that govern the spiritual world. The moral, 
ethical and spiritual relations between soul and souls and between 
individual spirits and the Father of all spirits were there before 
their discovery and would remain even if we forgot them. 

The discoverers of these laws are called Rishis, and we honor 
them as perfected beings, and I am glad to know that some of the 
very best of them were women. 

Here it may be said that the laws as laws may be without end, 
but they must have had a beginning. The Yedas teach us that 
creation is without beginning or end. Science has proved to us 
that the sum total of the cosmic energy is the same throughout alL 
Then if there was a time when nothing existed, where was all this 



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ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS. 177 

manifested energy? Some say it was in a potential fonn in God. 
But then God is sometimes potential sometimes Idnetic, which would 
make him mutable, and everything mutable is a compound, and 
everything compound must undergo that change which is called 
destruction. Therefore God would die. Therefore there never 
was a time when there was no creation. If I may be allowed to 
apply a simile, creation and creator are two lives, without beginning 
and without end, running parallel to each other, and God is power, 
an ever-active providence, under whose power systems after sys- 
tems are being evolved out of chaos — made to run for a time and 
again destroyed. This is what the Hindu boy repeats every day 
with his guru: '^he sun and the moon, the Lord created after 
other suns and moons." And this agrees with science. 

Here I stand, and if I shut my eyes and try to conceive my 
existence, I, I, I — ^what is the idea before me? The idea of a body. 
Am I, then, nothing but a combination of matter and material sub- 
stances? The Vedas declare "No," I am a spirit living in a body. 
I am not the body. The body will die, but I will not die. Here am 
I in this body, and when it will fail, still I will go on living, and 
also I had a past. The soul was not created from nothing, for crea- 
tion means a combination, and that means a certain future dissolu- 
tion. If, then, the soul was created it must die. Therefore it 
was not created. Some are bom happy, enjoying perfect health, 
beautiful body, mental vigor, and with all wants supplied. Others 
are bom miserable; some are without hands or feet, some idiots, 
and only drag on a miserable existence. Why, if they are all 
created, does a just and merciful God create one happy and the 
other unhappy — ^why is he so partial? Nor would it mend matters 
in the least by holding that those who are miserable in this life will 
be perfect in a future. Why should a man be miserable here in 
the reign of a just and merciful God? In the second place, it does 
not give us any cause, but simply a cmel act of an all-powerful 
being, and therefore unscientific. There must have been causes, 
then, to make a man miserable or happy before his birth, and those 
were his past actions. Are not all the tendencies of the mind and 
those of the body answered for by inherited aptitude from parents? 
Here are the two parallel lines of existence — one that of the mind, 
the other that of matter. If matter and its transformation answer 



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178 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

tor all that we have, there is no necessity of supposing the exist- 
ence of a soul. But it cannot be proved that thought has been 
evolved out of matter, and if a phOosophical monism is inevitable, a 
spiritual monism is certainly logical and no less desirable, but 
neither of these is necessary here. 

We cannot deny that bodies inherit certain tendencies from 
heredity, but these tendencies only mean the secular configuration, 
through which a peculiar mind alone can act in a peculiar way. 
The cause of these peculiar tendencies in that soul have been caused 
by his past actions, and a soul with a certain tendency would go 
and take birth in a body which is the fittest instrument of the dis- 
play of that tendency by the laws of affinity. And this is in per- 
fect accord with science, for science wants to explain ever3rthing by 
habit, and habit is got through repetitions. So these repetitions 
are also necessary to explain the natural habits of a new bom soul 
— and they were not got in this present life; therefore they must 
have come down from past lives. 

But there is another suggestion; taking all these for granted, 
how is it that I do not remember anything of my past life? This 
can be easily explained. I am now speaking English. It is not my 
mother tongue, in fact no words of my mother tongue are present 
in my consciousness, but let me try to bring them up, they rush 
into my consciousness. That shows that consciousness is the name 
only of the surface of the mental ocean, and within its depths are 
stored up all our experiences. Try and struggle and they will come 
up and you will be conscious. 

This is the direct and demonstrated evidence. Verification is 
the perfect proof of a theory, and here is the challenge thrown to 
the world by the Rishis. We have discovered precepts by which 
the very depths of the ocean of memory can be stirred up — try it 
and you will get a complete reminiscence of your past life. 

So then the Hindu believes that he is a spirit. Him the sword 
cannot pierce; him the fire cannot bum; him the water cannot 
melt; him the air cannot dry. And that every soul is a circle whose 
surface is nowhere, but whose center is located in a body, and death 
means the change of this center from body to body. Nor is the 
soul bound by the condition of matter. In its very essence it is 
free, unbounded, holy, pure and perfect. \ But somehow it has 



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ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS. 179 

got itself bound down by matter, and thinks itself as matter. 
Why should the free, perfect and pure being be under the thral- 
dom of matter, is the next question. How can the perfect be 
deluded into the belief that he is imperfect, is the question. We 
have been told that the Hindus shirk the question and say that no 
such question can be there, and some thinkers want to answer it by 
the posing of one or more quasi perfect beings, and big scientific 
names to fill up the gap. But naming is not explaining. The ques- 
tion remains the same. How the perfect becomes the quasi per- 
fect; how can the pure, the absolute, change even a microscopic 
particle of its nature? But the Hindu is more sincere. He does 
not want to take shelter under sophistry. He is brave enough to 
face the question in a manly fashion. And his answer is, I do not 
know. I do not know how the perfect being, the soul, came to think 
itself as imperfect, as joined to and conditioned by matter. But 
the fact is a fact for all that. It is a fact in everybody's con- 
sciousness that he thinks himself as the body. We do not attempt 
to explain why I am in this body. The answer that it is the will of 
God is no explanation. It is nothing more than what they say 
themselves: "We do not know." 

Well, then, the human soul is eternal and immortal, perfect 
and infinite, and death means only a change of center from one body 
to another. The present is determined by our past actions, and 
the future will be by the present; thus it will go on evolving up or 
reverting back from birth to birth and death to death. 

But here is another question; is man a tiny boat in a tempest, 
raised one moment on the foaming crest of a billow and dashed 
down into a yawning chasm the next, rolling to and fro at the 
mercy of good and bad actions — a powerless, helpless wreck in an 
ever-raging, ever-rushing, uncompromising current of cause and 
effects — a little moth placed under the wheel causation, which rolls 
on crushing everything in its way, and waits not for the widow's 
tears or the orphan's cry? The heart sinks at the idea, yet this is 
the law of nature. "Is there no hope?" "Is there no escape?" was 
the cry that went up from the bottom of the heart of despair. 
It reached the throne of mercy, and words of hope and consolation 
came down and inspired a Vedic sage, and he stood up before the 
world and in trumpet voice proclaimed the' glad tidings to the 



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180 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

world: "Hear ye children of immortal bliss, even ye that reside in 
higher spheres. I have found the Ancient One, who is beyond all 
darkness, all delusion, and knowing him alone you shall be saved 
from death over again. Children of immortal bliss, what a sweet 
what a hopeful name!" Allow me to call you, brethren, by that 
sweet name, heirs of immortal bliss— yea, the Hindu refuses to call 
you sinners. Ye are the children of God, the sharers of immortal 
bliss, holy and perfect beings, ye are divinities on earth. Sinners? 
It is a sin to call a man so; it is a standing libel on human nature. 
Come up! oh, live and shake off the delusion that you are sheep; 
you are souls immortal, spirits free and blest and eternal; ye are 
not matter, ye are not bodies; matter is your servant, not you the 
servant of matter. 

Thus it is that the Yedas proclaim not a dreadful combination 
of unforgiving laws, not an endless prison of cause and effect, but 
that at the head of all these laws, in and through every particle of 
matter and force, stands one through whose conmiand "the wind 
blows, the fire bums, the clouds rain, and death stalks upon the 
earth. And what is his nature? 

He is everywhere the pure and formless one. The Almighty 
and All-merciful. **Thou art our father, thou art our mother; thou 
art our beloved friend; thou art the source of all strength; give us 
strength. Thou art he that bearest the burdens of the universe: 
help me bear the little burden of this life." Thus sang the Rishis 
of the Veda; and how to worship hhn—through love. "He is to 
be worshiped as one beloved," "dearer than everything in this and 
the next life." 

This is the doctrine of love preached in the Vedas, and let us 
see how it is fully developed and preached by Krishna, whom the 
Hindus believe to have been God incarnate on earth. 

He taught that a man ought to live in this world like a lotus 
leaf, which grows in water but is never moistened by water — so a 
man ought to live in this world — his heart to God and his hands to 
work. It is good to love God for hope of reward in this or the 
next world, but it is better to love Him for love's sake, and the 
prayer goes: "Lord, I do not want wealth, nor children, nor learn- 
ing. If it be thy will I will go to a hundred hells, but grant me 
this, that I may love thee without the hope of reward — ^unselfishly 



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ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS. 181 

love for love's sake/' One of the disciples of Krishna, the then 
emperor of India, was driven from his throne by his enemies, and 
had to take shelter in the forest in the Himalayas with his queen, 
and there one day the qneen was asking him how it was that he, 
the most virtuous of men, should suffer so much misery; and Yuohis- 
tera answered: ''Behold, my queen, the Himalayas, how beautiful 
they are; I love them. They do not give me anything, but my 
nature is to love the grand, the beautiful, and therefore I love 
them. Similarly, I love the Lord. He is the source of all beauty, 
all sublimity. He is the only object to be loved; my nature is to 
love him, and therefore I love. I do not pray for anything; I do 
not ask for anjrthing. Let him place me wherever he likes. I 
must love him for love's sake. I cannot trade in love." 

The Vedas teach that the soul is divine, only held under bond- 
age of matter, and perfection will be reached when the bond shall 
burst, and the word they use is therefore Mukto — ^freedom, free- 
dom from the bonds of imperfection, freedom from death and 
misery. 

And this bondage can only fall off through the mercy of God, 
and this mercy comes on the pure, so purity is the condition of his 
mercy. How that mercy acts: he reveals himself to the pure 
heart, and the pure and stainless man sees God, yea even in this 
life, and then, and then only, all the crookedness of the heart is 
made straight. Then all doubt ceases. He is no more the freak 
of a terrible law of causation. This is the very center, the very 
vital conception of Hinduism. The Hindu does not want to live 
upon words and theories — ^if there are existences beyond ordinary 
sensual existences, he wants to come face to face with them. If 
there is a soul in him which is not matter, if there is an all-merd- 
fol, universal soul, he will go to him direct. He must see him, and 
that alone can destroy all doubts. So the best proof a Hindu sage 
gives about the soul, about God, is, ''I have seen the soul; I have 
seen God." And that is the only condition of perfection. The 
Hindu religion does not consist in struggles and attempts to believe 
a certain doctrine or dogma, but in realiring; not in believing, but 
in being and becoming. 

So the whole struggle in their system is a constant struggle to 
become perfect, to become divme, to reach God and see God; and 



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182 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

this reaching God, seeing God, being perfect, even as the father in 
heaven is perfect, constitutes the religion of the Hindus. 

And what becomes of man when he becomes perfect? He 
lives a life of bliss infinite. He enjoys infinite and perfect bliss, 
having obtained the only thing in which man ought to have pleasure, 
God, and enjoys the bliss with God. So far all the Hindus are 
agreed. This is the common religion of all the sects of India; but 
then the question comes, perfection is absolute, and the absolute 
cannot be two or three. It cannot have any qualities. It cannot 
be an individual. And so when a soul becomes perfect and abso- 
lute, it must become one with Brahma, and he would only realize 
the Lord as the perfection, the reality, of his own nature and exist- 
ence, the existence absolute, knowledge absolute, and life absolute. 
We have often and often read about this being called the losing of 
individuality, as becoming a stock or a stone. "He jests at scars 
that never felt a wound." 

I tell you it is nothing of the kind. If it is happiness to enjoy 
the consciousness of this small body, it must be more happiness to 
enjoy the consciousness of two bodies, so three, four, five; and the 
aim, the ultimate of happiness would be reached when it would 
become a universal consciousness. Therefore, to gain this infinite 
universal individuality, this miserable little prison individuality 
must go. Then alone can death cease when I am one with life; 
then alone can misery cease when I am one with happiness itself; 
then alone can all errors cease when I am one with knowledge itself; 
and it is the necessary scientific conclusion; science has proved that 
physical individuality is a delusion, that really my body is one little 
continuously changing body, in an unbroken ocean of matter, and 
the Adwaitan is the necessary conclusion with my other counter- 
part, mind. 

Science is nothing but the finding of unity, and as any science 
can reach the perfect unity, it would stop from further progress, 
because it would reach the goal, thus chemistry cannot progress 
farther, when it would discover one element out of which all others 
could be made. Physics would stop when it would be able to ful- 
fill its services in discovering one energy of which all the others 
are but the manifestations, and the science of religion became per- 
fect when it discovered Him who is the one life in a universe of 



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ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS. 183 

death; Him who is the constant basis of an everchanging world; 
One who is the only soul of which all other souls are but delusive 
manifestations. Thus was it, through multiplicity and duality, the 
ultimate unit was reached, and religion can go no farther, and this 
is the goal of all, again and again, science after science, again and 
again. 

And all science is bound to come to this conclusion in the long 
run. Manifestation, and not creation, is the word of science of 
to-day, and he is only glad that what he had cherished in his bosom 
for ages is going to be taught in some forcible language, and with 
further light by the latest conclusions of science. 

Descend we now from the aspirations of philosophy to the 
religion of the ignorant. On the very outset, I may tell you that 
there is no polytheism in India. In every temple, if one stands by 
and listens, he will find the worshipers applying all the attributes 
of God, including omnipresence, to these images. It is not poly- 
theism, neither would the name heathenism answer our question. 
"The rose called by any other name would smell as sweet.'' Names 
are not explanations. 

I remember, when a boy, a Christian man was preaching to a 
crowd in India. Among other sweet things he was telling the peo- 
ple that if he gave a blow to their idol with his stick what could 
it do? One of his hearers sharply answered, "If I abuse your God 
what can he do?" "You would be punished," said the preacher, 
" when you die." "So my idol will punish you when you die," said 
the villager. 

The tree is known by its fruits; and when I have seen amongst 
them that are called idolatrous men, the like of whom in morality 
and spirituality and love, I have never seen anywhere, I stop and 
ask myself. Can sin beget holiness? 

Superstition is the enemy of man, bigotry worse. Why does 
a Christian go to church, why is the cross holy, why is the face 
turned toward the sky in prayer? Why are there so many images 
in the Catholic church, why are there so many images in the minds 
of Protestants, when they pray? My brethren, we can no more 
think about anything without a material image than it is profitable 
for us to live without breathing. And by the law of association 
the material image calls the mental idol up, and vice versa. Omnip- 



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184 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

otent to almost the whole world means nothing. Has God 
superficial area? if not, when we repeat the word we think of the 
extended earth; that is all. 

As we find that somehow, by the laws of our CQUstitution, 
we have got to associate our ideas of infinity with the ideal of 
a blue sky, or a sea — ^the omnipresence covering the idea of 
holiness with an idol of a church or mosque, or a cross — so the 
Hindus have associated the ideas of holiness, purity, truth, onmi- 
presence, and all other ideas with different images and forms. But 
with this difference: upon certain actions some are drawn their 
whole lives to their idol of a church and never rise higher, because 
with them a religion means an intellectual assent to certain doc- 
trines and doing good to their fellows. The whole religion of the 
Hindus is centered in realization. Man is to become divine, 
realizing the divine, and, therefore, idol or temple or church or 
books, are only the supports, the helps of his spiritual childhood, 
but on and on he must progress. 

He must not stop anywhere; "external worship, material wor- 
ship,'' says the Vedas "is the lowest stage; struggling to rise 
higher, mental prayer is the next stage; but the highest stage is 
when the Lord has been realized." Mark the same earnest man 
who was kneeling before the idol tell you hereafter of struggles, 
"Him the sun cannot express, nor the moon nor the stars, the 
lightning cannot express him, nor what we speak of fire; through 
him they all shine." But with this difference, he does not abuse 
the images or call it sin. He recognizes in it a necessary stage of 
his life. "The child is father of the man." Would it be right for 
the old man to say that childhood is a sin or youth a sin? Nor is 
it compulsory in Hinduism. 

But if a man can realize his divine nature with the help of an 
image, would it be right to call it a sin? Nor even when he has 
passed that stage that he should call it an error. To the Hindu 
man is not traveling from error to truth, but from truth to truth, 
from lower to higher truth. To him all the religions from the 
lowest f etichism to the highest absolutism means so many attempts 
of the human soul to grasp and realize the Infinite, determined by 
the conditions of its birth, and associations, and each of these 
mark a stage of progress, and every soul is a child-eagle soaring 



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ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS. 185 

higher and higher; gathering more and more strength till it reaches 
the glorious son. 

Unity in variety is the plan of nature, and the Hindu has 
recognized it. Every other religion lays down a certain amount 
of fixed dogma, and trys to force the whole society through it. 
They lay down for society one coat which must fit Jack and Job 
and Henry, all alike. If it does not fit John or Henry they must 
go without a coat to cover the body. They have discovered that 
the absolute can only be realized or thought of or stated through 
the relative, and the image, cross or crescent are simply so many 
centers — so many pegs to help the spiritual idea on. It is not 
that this help is necessary for everyone, but for many, and those 
that do not need it have no right to say that it is wrong. 

One thing I must tell you. Idolatry in India does not mean a 
horror. It is not the mother of harlots. On the other hand, it is 
the attempt of undeveloped minds to grasp higher spiritual truths. 
The Hindus have their own faults, they sometimes have their 
exceptions; but mark this: it is always punishing their own bodies 
and never to cut the throats of their neighbors. If the Hindu 
fanatic bums himself on the pyre, he never lights the fire of inqui- 
sition; and even this cannot be laid at the door of religion any 
more than the burning of witches can be laid at the door of 
Christianity. 

To the Hindu, then, the whole world of religions is only a travel- 
ing, a coming up, of different men and women, through various 
conditions and circumstances, to the same goal. Every religion is 
only an effort at evolving a God out of the material man; and the 
same God is the inspirer of all of them. Why, then, are there so 
many contradictions? They are only apparent, says the Hindu. 
The contradictions come from the same truth adapting itself to 
the different circumstances of different natures. 

It is the same light coming through different colors. And 
these little variations are necessary for that adaptation. But in 
the heart of everything the same truth reigns; the Lord has 
declared to the Hindu in his incarnation as Krishna, "I am in 
every religion as the thread through a string of pearls. And when- 
ever thou seest extraordinary holiness and extraordinary power 
raising and purifying humanity, know 'ye that I am there.'' And 



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186 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

what was the result? Through the whole order of Sanscrit phflos- 
ophy, I challenge anybody to find such expression as that the Hindu 
only will be saved and not others. Says Vyas, "We find perfect 
men even beyond the pale of our caste and creed." One thing more. 
How can, then, the Hindu whose whole idea centers in God believe 
in the Buddhist who is agnostic, or the Jain who is atheist? 

The Buddhists do not depeAd upon God; but the whole force 
of their religion is directed to the great central truth in every 
religion, to evolve a God out of man. They have not seen the 
Father, but they have seen the Son. And he that hath seen 
the Son hath seen the Father. This, brethren, is a short sketch of 
the ideas of the Hindus. The Hindu might have failed to carry 
out all his plans, but if there is to be ever a universal religion, it 
must be one which would hold no location in place or time, which 
would be infinite like the God it would preach, whose sun shines 
upon the followers of Krishna or Christ; saint or sinner alike which 
would not be the Brahman or Buddhist, Christian or Mohammedan, 
but the sum total of all these, and still have infinite space for 
development; which in its catholicity would embrace in its infinite 
arms and formulate a place for every human being, from the low- 
est groveling man who is scarcely removed in intellectuality from 
the brute, to the highest mind, towering almost above humanity, 
and who makes society stand i!n awe and doubt his human nature. 



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EARLY SCENES AND INCIDENTS IN THE 

CHURCH 



BY OUVER COWDERY. 



[In our prospectus for Volume II, attention was called to the fact 
that nothing could be more important to the young men of the Church 
than to be familiar with the original sources of our Church history, and 
that of those original sources none, perhaps, were of more importance 
than a series of eight letters written by Oliver Cowdery to W. W. Phelps, 
in 1834, and published by the latter in the SainU^ Messenger and Advo- 
eaie, at Eirtland, Ohio; and some years later in the Times and Seasons, 

The letters were written in response to some questions submitted to 
Oliver Cowdery by Elder Phelps, and this accounts for the form of some 
parts of these communications. 

We precede the letters of Elder Cowdery by one from the pen of 
the Prophet Joseph, in which he himself states the time and place of his 
birth, and refutes some of the slanders that were circulated about his 
early life. 

In concluding this note we wish to express the belief that our young 
men, if they will peruse these letters with care, will find them of intense 
interest, and from them receive much enlightenment concerning the 
coming forth of the work of the Lord in the last days. — Editors.] 



A LETTER PROM JOSEPH SMITH TO OLIVER CX)WDERY. 

Dear Brother:— 

Having learned from the first number of the Messenger and 
Advocate, that you were not only about to "give a history of the 



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188 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

rise and progress of the Church of the Latter-day Saints f buty that 
said history would necessarily embrace my ' life and character, I 
have been induced to give you the time and place of my birth; as I 
have learned that many of the opposers of those principles which 
I have held forth to the world, profess a personal acquaintance 
with me, though when in my presence, represent me to be another 
person in age, education, and statue, from what I am. 

I was bom (according to the record of the same, kept by my 
parents) in the town of Sharon, Windsor County, Vermont^ on the 
23rd of December, 1805. 

At the age of ten my father's family removed to Palmyra, 
New York, where, and in the vicinity of which, I lived, or, made it 
my place of residence, until I was twenty-one; the latter part in 
the town of Manchester. 

During this time, as is common to most, or all youths, I fell 
into many vices and follies; but as my accusers are, and have been 
forward to accuse me of being guilty of gross and outrageous vio- 
lations of the peace and good order of the community, I take the 
occasion to remark that, though as I have said above, ''as is com 
mon to most, or all youths, I fell into many vices and follies,** I 
have not, neither can it be sustained, in truth, been guilty of wrong- 
ing or injuring any man or society of men; and those imperfections 
to which I allude, and for which I have often had occasion to 
lament, were a light, and too often, vain mind, exhibiting a foolish 
and trifling conversation. 

This being all, and the worst, that my accusers can substanti- 
ate against my moral character, I wish to add that it is not without 
a deep feeling of regret that I am thus called upon in answer to 
my own conscience, to fulfill a duty I owe to myself, as well as to 
the cause of truth, in making this public confession of my former 
uncircumspect walk, and trifling conversation and more particularly, 
as I often acted in violation of those holy precepts which I knew 
came from God. But as the ''Articles and Covenants,** of this 
Church are plain upon this particular point, I do not deem it import- 
ant to proceed further. I only add, that I do not, nor never have, 
pretended to be any other than a man "subject to passion,'* and 
liable, without the assisting grace of the Savior, to deviate 



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EARLY SCENES AND INCIDENTS IN THE CHURCH. 189 

from that perfect path in which all men are commanded to 
walk.* 

By giving the above a place in your valuable paper, you will 
confer a lasting favor upon myself, as an individual, and, as I humbly 
hoi)e, subserve the cause of righteousness. 

I am, with feelings of esteem, your fellow laborer in the Gospel 
of our Lord, Joseph Smith. 



0. COWDERY'S LETTERS TO W. W. PHELPS. 
Letter L 



North, Medina Co., Ohio, 

Sabbath evening, September 7, 1834. 
Dear Brother: — 

Before leaving home I promised, if I tarried long, to write; 
and while a few moments are now allowed me for reflection, aside 
from the cares and common conversation of my friends in this 
place, I have thought that were I to communicate them to you, 
might, perhaps, if they should not prove especially beneficial to 
yourself, by confirming you in the faith of the Gospel, at least 
be interesting, since it has pleased our heavenly Father to call us 
both to rejoice in the same hope of eternal life. And by giving 
them publicity, some thousands who have embraced the same 
covenant may learn something more particular upon the rise of 
this Church, in this last time. And while the gray evening is fast 
changing into a settled darkness, my heart responds with the 



♦ Of the youthful follies which the prophet here confesses, George 
Q. Cannon, in his "Life of Joseph Smith," says: "His quick conscience 
was apt to exaggerate every youthful foible, and he regarded many of 
his acts of thoughtlessness as offenses at which the heavens must frown. 
* ♦ ♦ Despite his own self-accusation the answer to his prayer proves 
that his probationary period had been passed satisfactorily to the heavens, 
and that he was still unstained by any dark offense." 



^^ 



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190 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

happy millions who are in the presence of the Lamb, and are past 
the power of temptation, in rendering thanks, though feebly, to 
the same Parent. 

Another day has passed into that, to us, boundless ocean, 
eternity ! where nearly six thousand years have gone before; and 
what flits across the mind like an electric shock is, that it will 
never return! Whether it has been well improved or not; whether 
the principle emanating from him who "hallowed** it, have been 
observed; or whether, like the common mass of time, it has been 
heedlessly spent, is not for me to say — one thing I can say — it can 
never be recalled; it has rolled in to assist in filling up the grand 
space decreed in the mind of its Author, till nature shall have 
ceased her work, and time its accustomed revolutions — ^when its 
Lord shall have completed the gathering of his elect, and with 
them enjoy that Sabbath which shall never end. 

On Friday, the 5th, in company with our brother Joseph 
Smith, Jr., I left Kirtland for this place (New Portage,) to attend 
the conference previously appointed. To be permitted, once more, 
to travel with this brother, occasions reflections of no ordinary 
kind. Many have been the fatigues and privations which have 
fallen to my lot to endure for the Gospel's sake since 1828, with 
this brother. Our road has frequently been spread with the 
"fowler's snare,-" and our persons sought with the eagerness of the 
savage's ferocity for innocent blood, by men, either heated to des- 
peration by the insinuations of those who professed to be "guides 
and way-marks" to the kingdom of glory, or the individuals them- 
selves. This, I confess, is a dark picture to spread before our 
patrons, but they will pardon my plainness when I assure them of 
the truth. In fact, God has so ordered, that the reflections which 
I am permitted to cast upon my past life, relative to a knowledge 
of the way of salvation, are rendered "doubly endearing." Not 
only have I been graciously preserved from wicked and unreason- 
able men with this, our brother, but I have seen the fruit of per- 
severance in proclaiming the everlasting Gospel, immediately after 
it was declared to the world in these last days, in a manner not to 
be forgotten while heaven gives me common intellect. And what 
serves to render the reflection past expression on this point is, 



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EARLY SCENES AND INCIDENTS IN THE CHURCH, 191 

that from his hand I received baptism, by the direction of the 
angel of God — the first received into this Chnrch in this day. 

Near the time of the setting of the sun. Sabbath evening, 
April 5th, 1829, my natural eyes for the first time beheld this 
brother. He then resided in Harmony, Susquehanna County, Penn- 
sylvania. • On Monday the 6th, I assisted him in arranging some 
business of a temporal nature and on Tuesday, the 7th, commenced 
to write the Book of Mormon. These were days never to be for- 
gotten — to sit under the sound of a voice dictated by the inspira- 
tion of heaven, awakened the utmost gratitude of this bosom. 
Day after day I continued, uninterrupted, to write from his mouth, 
as he translated with the Urim and Thummim, or, as the Nephites 
would have said, "Interpreters," the history or record called the 
"Book of Mormon." 

To notice in even few words, the interesting account given by 
Mormon and his faithful son Moroni, of a people once beloved and 
favored of heaven, would supercede my present design: I shall 
therefore defer this to a future period, and as I said in the intro- 
duction, pass more directly to some few incidents immediately con- 
nected with the rise of this Church, which may be entertaining to 
some thousands who have stepped forward, amid the frowns of 
bigots and the calumny of hypocrites, and embraced the Gospel of 
Christ. 

No men in their sober senses, could translate and write the 
iirections given to the Nephites, from the mouth of the Savior, of 
the precise manner in which men should build up his Church, and 
especially when corruption had spread an uncertainty over all forms 
and systems practiced among men, without desiring a privilege of 
showing the willingness of the heart by being buried in the liquid 
grave, to answer a "good conscience by the resurrection of Jesus 
Christ." 

After writing the account given of the Savior's ministry to 
the remnant of the seed of Jacob upon this continent, it was easily 
to be seen, as the prophet said would be, that darkness covered 
the earth and gross darkness the minds of the people. On reflect- 
ing further it was as easily to be seen, that amid the great strife 
and noise concerning religion, none had authority from God to 
administer the ordinances of the Gospel. For the question might 



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192 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

be asked, have men authority to administer in the name of Christy 
who deny revelations, when his testimony is no less than the spirit 
of prophecy? and his religion based, buOt and sustained by imme- 
diate revelations in all ages of the world, when he has had a people 
on earth? If these facts were buried and carefully concealed by 
men whose craft would have been in danger if once permitted to 
shine in the faces of men, they were no longer to us; and we only 
waited for the commandment to be given, ''Arise and be baptized." 

This was not long desired before it was realized. The Lord, 
who is rich in mercy, and ever willing to answer the consistent 
prayer of the humble, after we had called upon him in a fervent 
manner, aside from the abodes of men, condescended to manifest 
to us his will. On a sudden, as from the midst of eternity, the 
voice of the Redeemer spake peace to us, while the veil was parted 
and the angel of God came down clothed with glory, and delivered 
the anxiously looked for message, and the keys of the Gospel of 
repentance. What joy ! what wonder! what amazement! While 
the world was racked and distracted — ^while millions were groping 
as the blind for the wall, and while all men were resting upon 
uncertainty, as a general mass, our eyes beheld — our ears heard. 
As in the "blaze of dayf yes, more — above the glitter of the May 
sunbeam, which then shed its brilliancy over the face of nature! 
Then his voice, though mild, pierced to the center, and his words, 
"I am thy fellow-servant," dispelled every fear. We listened, we 
gazed, we admired! Twas the voice of the angel from glory— 
'twas a message from the Most High, and as we heard we rejoiced, 
while his love enkindled upon our souls, and we were rapt in the 
vision of the Almighty! Where was room for doubt? Nowhere; 
uncertainty had fled, doubt had sunk, no more to rise, while fiction 
and deception had fled forever. 

But, dear brother, think further, think for a moment, what joy 
filled our hearts and with what surprise we must have bowed, (for 
who would not have bowed the knee for such a blessing?) when we 
received under his hand the holy priesthood, as he said, "upon yon 
my fellow servants, in the name of Messiah I confer this priest- 
hood and this authority, which shall remain upon earth, that the 
sons of Levi may yet oflfer an oflfering unto the Lord in righteous- 
ness!" 



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EARLY SCENES AND INCIDENTS IN THE CHURCH. 193 

I shall not attempt to paint to you the feelings of this heart, 
nor the majestic beauty and glory which surrounded us on this 
occasion; but you will believe me when I say, that earth, nor men, 
with the eloquence of time, cannot begin to clothe language in as 
interesting and sublime a manner as this holy personage. No; nor 
has this earth power to give the joy, to bestow the peace, or com- 
prehend the wisdom which was contained in each sentence as 
they were delivered by the power of the Holy Spirit! Man may 
deceive his fellow man; deception may follow deception,, and the 
children of the wicked one may have power to seduce the foolish 
and untaught, till naught but fiction feeds the many, and the fruit 
of falsehood carries in its current the giddy to the grave, but one 
touch with the finger of his love, yes, one ray of glory from the 
upper world, or one word from the mouth of the Savior, from the 
bosom of eternity, strikes it all into insignificance, and blots it 
forever from the mind! The assurance that we were in the presence 
of an angel; the certainty that we heard the voice of Jesus, and 
the truth unsullied as it flowed from a pure personage, dictated by 
the will of God, is to me, past description, and I shall ever look 
upon this expression of the Savior's goodness with wonder and 
thanksgiving while I am permitted to tarry, and in those mansions 
where perfection dwells and sin never comes, I hope to adore in 
that DAY which shall never cease.* 

I must close for the present: my candle is quite extinguished, 
and all nature seems locked in silence, shrouded in darkness, and 
enjoying that repose so necessary to this life. But the period is 
rolling on when night will close, and those who are found worthy 
will inherit that city where neither the light of the sun nor the 
moon will be necessary! " For the glory of God will lighten it, and 
the Lamb will be the light thereof." 



♦ I will hereafter give you a full history of the rise of this Church 
up to the time stated in my introduction; which will necessarily embrace 
the life and character of this brother. I shall therefore leave the history 
of baptism, etc., till its proper place. 



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THE JUSTIFICATION OF FAITH. 



BEING A REVIEW OP W. H. LAMASTER'S ARTICLE "WHAT 
AGNOSTICISM IS." 

BY B. H. ROBERTS. 



Mr. W. H. Lamaster, of Indianapolis, Indiana, will be remem- 
bered by oar readers as the author of an excellent article which 
appeared in Vol. I., of the Era under the title "How do we Think;" 
and also by his article in the December number, Vol. H., "What 
Agnosticism Is." 

The gentleman seems to have been favorably impressed by the 
liberal spirit of the Era in publishing in Vol. I., the series of arti- 
cles "Religious Faiths," by writers who were not "Mormons," while 
the Era is decidedly a Mormon publication; and since we were admit- 
ting to our pages the statements of religious faiths and systems 
other than our own, and that by writers of the respective faiths, 
he asked if there would be any objection to our publishing an article 
written by him on "What Agnosticism Is." To which we replied 
that we could see no reason why we should not publish the views of 
an agnostic as well as the statements of the various religious 
faiths; saying at the time, however, that we might "take the liberty 
to make some remarks by way of comment, tending to show how 
we who have been reared in the midst of such evidences of the 
existence of God and the verity of religion can never be influenced 
by agnosticism." Mr. Lamaster readily consented to this arrange- 



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THE JUSTIFICAIION OF FAITH. 195 

menty and hence the publication of his article and these remarks 
with reference to it. 

The article in question states the negative creed — the position 
of the agnostic — admirably. It is temperate in spirit, and respect- 
fully salutes its antagonist, Faith, with whom, nevertheless, it an- 
nounces in quiet tones its intention to wage a warfare. Agnosti- 
cism, too, as Mr. Lamaster states it, is presented in the bewitching 
garb of humility. She comes modestly forward saying, in effect, 
"I don't know; I don't believe you know; or that anybody can know 
of the existence of God." 

It is because of these good qualities of the article that we 
believe it the more dangerous. The usual brutal tirade made by infi- 
dels against religion so offends the natural religious sentiment of the 
human mind that it at once repulses and destroys its own effective- 
ness because of its ribaldry and unnecessary blasphemy. But when 
Unbelief comes to us in a temperate spunt, respectfully states its 
case and modestly sets forth its doubts, it appeals to the Chris- 
tian on his weakest side, and is likely to infuse doubt in the mind 
as to the very existence of God. It is for this reason that we 
think it necessary to point out what we regard as the unreasonable- 
ness of the agnostic's position, and especially how there is abso- 
lutely no justifiable reason for doubt as to the existence of God 
so far as Latter-day Saints are concerned. 

That we may have immediately before us the very heart of 
Mr. Lamaster's article, we quote his definitions: 

1. "An agnostic, as contradistinguished from a Greek gnostic — one 
who knowB — is one who does Tiot know.* 

2. "It (agnosticism) may be defined as a 'theory of the unknowable 
which assumes its most definite form in the denial of the possibility of any 
knowledge of God.' And so the agnostic may be said to be one who 
does not claim, or profess to know of the existence of a supreme being 
called God. 

3. "Christianity, relying upon what it is pleased to call a divine 
revelation, says there is an infinite God, while agnosticism, having no 
other guide but reason, says, 'I do not know.' Hence upon the one hand 



* Italics are mine. R, 



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196 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

we find the Christian professing to have a knowledge of the first and 
final causes of the nniverse, and particularly of this world and of the 
things in it; while upon the other is to be found the agnostic confessing 
his ignorance of all such things. 

4 'It is to be conceded that it is among the possibilities of the 
human mind not only to conceive but also to believe; and yet it is not to 
be denied that there are also certain boundary lines within which it may 
both conceive and believe, and beyond them it cannot go. That being 
true might we not enquire, how is the humfin mind — ^it being finite — 
either to have a conception or a belief about things infinite? The 
human mind we know to be limited and consequently, as Sir William 
Hamilton says, it 'can know only the limited, and the conditionally 
limited.' Therefore as concerning things of the infinite (admitting 
there be an infinite) the human mind can have neither a conception nor 
a belief of any kind whatever. 

5. "With what is called divine revelation agnosticism has nothing 
whatever to do except it be to attack after the most scientific methods the 
weakness of its very foundation stone. It must, therefore, as it does, 
dispute every claim that Christianity makes in favor of the doctrine of 
the divinity of the Jewish and Christian scriptures. Neither does it stop 
with these scriptures, but others, whether they be those of the Vedas or 
the Zend-Avesta, the Koran or the Book of Mormon, it weighs and meas- 
ures in the scales of science, and one and all of them it pronounces to be 
the productions of finite men instead of an infinite God." 

In these paragraphs we have before us the definition of an 
agnostic; of agnosticism; the position of the Christian is stated so 
far as his reliance upon divine revelation for his faith in the exist- 
ence of God is concerned; the ability of the human mind, both to 
conceive and believe, within certain limits, is conceded. But owing 
to the finite power of the mind of man, denial is made <fhis power 
to have a conception or a bdi^ qfany kind whatever concerning the 
ir^nite; and, finally, the statement is made that agnosticism has 
nothing to do with what is called divine revelation except to attack 
its very foundation stone, and dispute, as it does, the claim of all 
alleged scriptures to divine authenticity, and pronounces them the 
productions of finite man. 

We understand the only argument in Mr. Lamaster's paper to be : 
That as the mind of man is finite, he can neither conceive nor 
believe in the infinite; and therefore, man can neither conceive or 



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THE JUSTIFICATION OF FAITH. 197 

believe in God. In addition to this statement, substantially f onnd 
in para^n^ph four, above quoted, it is urged again and again 
throughout the paper under consideration, as witness the fol- 
lowing: 

"It will not be denied that human beliefs as well as everything else 
about the human mind are relative. And if that be true, how is finite man 
to have any conception qf, much less any real foundation whatever for, a 
Mi^in the existence of an infinite God? 

''Mr. Herbert Spencer says that 'the infinite, the absolute, to be 
known at all must be classed,' and adds, for it even 'to be positively 
thought of, it must be thought of as such or such — 2A of this or that 
kind;* and then he inquires, 'Can it be like in kind to anything of which 
we have sensible experience?' and wisely answers, 'Obviously not.' We 
must, therefore, admit then if there is an infinite God that we as finite 
beings can know nothing whatever of his existence. 

"As man is a finite being and limited in knowledge as well as he is 
in everything else, there will ever be something of which he can know 
nothing whatever. It must therefore be the infinite being, if any at all, 
who is able to understand and to know all things. The finite one being cir- 
eumscribed and limited, his knowledge must necessarily be also circum- 
scribed and limited, and therefore he is, his desires and ambitions to the 
contrary notwithstanding to know all things, an agnostic." 

The reasonable, and, as we think, the effectual answer to all 
this would be: The Christian concedes that the human mind in its 
present state is limited in its knowledge, unable by its own powers 
to conceive or comprehend the infinite. Nor does any theology 
that we know anything about, Catholic, Protestant, or ''Mormon" 
claim for man the ability to circumscribe God, that is, to compre- 
hend him entirely. Though, speaking for "Mormon" theology, we* 
would not like to say, as some Catholics do, as quoted by Mr. Lam- 
aster, that "a God imderstood would be no God at all;" for 
"Mormonism" holds out the hope that the time will come when we 
shall know God, we mean in the sense of comprehending him; and 
the mere fact of man coming to such knowledge will not dethrone 
the Almighty. But to continue our comment on Mr. Lamaster's 
argument. We concede that the mind of man as to its knowledge 
in this state of existence is finite; unable clearly to comprehend 
the infinite. To the question of Zophar, the friend of Job — 



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198 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

''Canst thou by searching find out Gk>d? Canst thou find out the 
Abnighty unto perfection?" we would be compelled, perhaps, to 
answer in the negative. With Paul we would be obliged to exclaim 
— "How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past find- 
ing out!" 

But does all this raake it impossible for God^ the ivfinite, to 
reveal the fact of his existence? 

Is it impossible for God to reveal to man the fact that Deity is 
irifinite? 

And although the mind of man is finite, does it follow that he 
cannot believe this truth which God reveals? 

Is it necessarily a law of logic that man cannot have a rational 
faith in the existence, power, and ivfiniteness of any being or force 
unless it is a being or force that he can fully comprehend? 

The answer to these questions must be a negative; and if such 
would be a reasonable answer, then the difficulties suggested in 
Mr. Lamaster's argument are removed. The matter would stand 
thus: The finite mind of man cannot by searching find out God — 
"It must be," as Mr. Lamaster says "the infinite being, if any at 
all, who is able to understand and know all things." But that infi- 
nite Being, understanding all things, among them his own infinite- 
ness, he certainly can, by revelation, make known his existence to 
man, and can reveal to him the fact that God — ^that is, that he 
himself, is infinite. And if such are the limits of man's understand- 
ing that the quality of infiniteness is vague and somewhat beyond 
the power of his mind to grasp, he can at least believe in the fact 
which God, the Infinite, reveals to him. And a little reflection 
upon this phase of the subject will convince one that not only is it 
possible to believe in the existence of facts which the mind does 
not fully comprehend, but it is quite common for us to do so. The 
child in this way accepts the statements of the parent through 
quite a number of the years of its experience. In like manner the 
pupil accepts the statements of his teacher, and is gradually led 
along the pathway of knowledge. And why in like manner should 
not men and women who, after all, are but "children of a larger 
growth,' accept the statements of God's revelations to the effect 



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THE JUSTIFICATION OF FAITH, 199 

that there* is "a God in heaven who is infinite and eternal, from 
everlasting to everlasting, the same unchangeable God, the framer 
of heaven and earth and all things that are in them" ? 

At the last analysis, then, the whole matter resolves itself 
into the question — has God by revelation made his existence known 
to man? Has he by revelation made known the fact that he is 
infinite? The traditions of humanity answer yes; the revelations 
of God in the Jewish scriptures answer yes. The works and laws 
of nature, too, bear strong, corroborative testimony to the aflSrma- 
tion of both tradition and revelation. 

The agnostic, however, will set all this aside and say the evi- 
dence for the alleged fact is not sufficient to warrant a positive 
conclusion, and he refuses to accept probability as a sufficient basis 
for action in the matter of obeying the gospel. This attitude of 
the agnostic opens a large field for investigation and for discussion, 
but one, of course, altogether beyond anything contemplated in 
this article. All we promised to ourselves in this paper was merely 
to point out the inconsistency of the agnostic's chief argument 
based upon the inability of the finite to comprehend the infinite; 
and to show if we could that, to say the least, it is a remarkable 
conclusion the agnostic arrives at when he says from his premises 
that '*}f there is an irtfiniU God . . . we as finite beings can 
know nothing whatever qf his existence! " 

If we have made the unreasonableness of this conclusion clear, 
we have well nigh reached the limit of the task proposed to our- 
selves. We would only say in addition that to the testimony of 
the universal traditions of mankind for the existence of God; to 
the testimony of the revelations of the Jewish scriptures for the 
same great truths; to the corroborative testimony of the works of 
nature — Mormons add the testimony of the Nephite scriptures, 
the Book of Mormon, a whole volume of revelation, from which 
the testimonies of the prophets and seers of sleeping nations speak 
to the men of this generation; testifying to the existence of God; 
declaring that he is infinite and eternal and the creator of the 
heavens and the eaith. Nor do the witnesses which the Mormons 
have end even here; for to a prophet in this generation, so Mormons 
believe, God has revealed himself. Joseph Smith, a holy Prophet, 
the Lord's mouth-piece to the world in this new dispensation of 



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200 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

the gospel — stood in the presence of God and conversed with him 
as a man may speak with his friend; and he came from the excel- 
lence pf God's presence with a message to the world, which message 
is the fullness of the gospel of Jesus Christ, including divine 
authority to administer the ordinances of the gospel. 

This last witness for God we have within our reach. If we 
did not know him personally many of our fathers and friends did; 
so that we have his pretensions to having received a divine revela- 
tion from God within our reach for investigation, for analysis. His 
life is one with which we may be well acquainted, and we may 
know whether or not it was consistent with the claims he makes. 

When it is remembered, then, that in addition to all the testi- 
mony that Christianity at large has the Latter-day Saints add the 
testimony of many of the prophets who lived in America from the 
most ancient times; and to that the testimony of righteous men 
who live in their own day, it will be readily observed that they 
have double the evidence for the existence of God that the so- 
called Christian world has, and hence, as we believe, a more pro- 
found faith in his existence — and hence also less cause for agnos- 
ticism or unbelief. 

Moreover, Joseph Smith held out the encouragement to all 
men that by compliance with the will of God, they too, as well as 
himself, might learn from the same divine source the knowledge of 
Grod for themselves. Hence* the matter of having faith in the 
existence of God, and somewhat of a knowledge of his character 
and attributes, is placed upon a better foundation than mere prob- 
ability by the servants of God; for not only did Joseph Smith place 
this matter upon a basis where men might know for themselves of 
the fact of God's existence, but other servants of the Lord, and 
even the Lord himself, placed it upon this basis. Jesus said: *'If 
ye will do the will of the Father ye shall know of the doctrine, 
whether I speak of myself or of him that sent me." And to know 
the truth of the "doctrine" which Jesus taught, would be to know 
God, for his doctrine taught the existence of God, the Father, and 
himself as the Son of God. 

All this, however, will doubtless be set aside by the agnostic. 
He will still say that the evidence for the facts for which 
theists contend is still insufScient; and the testimony of Joseph 



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TEE JUSTIFICATION OF FAITH. 201 

Smith and other modem prophets will be set aside with the same 
ease with which the testimonies of the Jewish prophets are set aside. 
But we refer to it, nevertheless, to show that so far as the Latter- 
day Saints are concerned, they stand in the midst of snch a clond 
of witnesses that there is no place for unbelief in their hearts; 
no place for agnosticism, so far as the existence of God and some 
knowledge of his character and attributes are concerned. And 
while the testimony may not be sufficient to lead all men to accept 
the truth, it will nevertheless continue to appeal to very many of 
both men and women and they will receive it, and by these wit- 
nesses their feet will be kept in the way of faith. 



THE MORNING STAR. 

SONNET. 



Da/s fair and solitary handmaid! bright* 
Thou lingerest long within the silent sky; 
When all thy sparkling kin have left thy sight, 
And wander'd to their palaces on high; 
Thou seem'st like herald sent upon his flight. 
To bid the morning lift his heavy eye, 
And give one farewell to departing night. 
Life wakes within the world, and from his sleep, 
The sun salutes the waters; on the shore 
The little sportive billows rise and leap, 
As if to kiss the sea-birds flying o'er — 
Their whitening bosoms sighing 'neath the steep. 
Nature now leaves her flowery bed in mirth. 
And, ha'nd in hand with Light, walks laughing o'er the earth. 

Dr. Moore. 



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EMPEROR WDLLIAM^S VISIT TO PALESTINE. 

BY PROFESSOR J. M. TANNER, PRESIDENT OP AGRICULTURAL 
COLLEGE, LOGAN. 



The emperor of Germany has just completed a visit to the 
Holy Land, and though the purpose of that visit was the consecra- 
tion of 'The Church of the Redeemer," recently built by his royal 
highness, the world is busy speculating about the ulterior and 
national motives which he really had in view The German press 
answers these speculations by saying that in this age of world-trot- 
ters the German emperor certainly may, if he choose, make a tour 
to the Holy Land without any political considerations. But the 
German emperor is unlike any other ruling monarch today. So far 
as he approves of any general policy inaugurated by his ministers, 
or urged in behalf of any commercial advantage to his nation, he 
endeavors to place himself at the head of that movement and to 
throw his personality into every public question; and to be, what 
he is in name, the responsible ruler of his empire. His movements 
are not without a plan; his speeches are not witless, they voice a 
strong sentiment, which may be a popular sentiment, or the senti- 
ment of some statesman upon whom he largely relies. 

We are therefore at liberty to speculate upon the aims of this 
royal tour, and the accuracy of our speculations must depend 
largely upon the relation of Germany to certain 'Other countries in 
general, to the internal demands oi the nation, and to the relation- 
ship which now exists and has long existed between the German 
empire and Turkey. 

The purposes ascribed to this visit are two-fold. First, 
religious; second, political, — ^if a distinction can be made between 



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EMPEROR J^ILLIAM'S VISIT TO PALESTINE. 203 

the religious and political purposes in a nation where the two ele- 
ments are so strongly combined. 

The religious aspect of this question is a two-fold one. In the 
first place, it encourages the religious sentiment of Protestant 
Gtermany by the consecration of a Protestant church in the city of 
David, where heretofore the interest manifested in that wonderfully 
historic spot has been by the Catholic world. In the second place, 
Germany has a large Catholic population. Indeed the central party 
of the Reichstag is the representative of that organization. Years 
ago in the early creation of the empire there was a very strong 
antagonism, during what is called the Kultur-Eampf , against the 
Catholics, and the struggle lasted for many years, and the central 
party was always in opposition to the government, which at this 
time the emperor is trying to overcome by those means of concili- 
ation not offensive to his Protestant subjects, who by far out-num- 
ber all other religious denominations of the empire. 

When Germany took up the cause of two murdered Catholic 
missionaries in China and made a naval demonstration and certain 
demands upon China, the emperor announced himself as the politico- 
religious head of his government, for Catholics as well as Protes- 
tants; and that announcement has been reinforced by his recent 
visit to the Holy Land. 

France has undertaken to establish in oriental countries a sort 
of hegemony over all Catholics, and to look upon herself as the 
natural protector of the Catholic world in western as well as in 
eastern Asia, whether they were French, Italians, Austrians, or 
Germans. Italy, having overcome the papal power of Rome and 
seized the government of entire Italy, became the natural opponent 
of the pope — a political opponent — and by Italy's entrance into the 
triple alliance Germany and Austria have been regarded in some 
measure by the pope as accessories to Italy's crime. This attitude 
of the triple alliance left France the natural ally of the papal power 
of Rome, and through this preference the pope has naturally defer- 
red much to France and relied upon her for the protection of Cath- 
olic interests. 

The Emperor William, by his newly inaugurated policy, denies 
that prerogative on the part of France, so far as it affects German 
subjects, and this is a source of much criticism and irritation on 



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204 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

the part of the French press. This effort on the part of the emperor 
to conciliate his Catholic subjects has met with a considerable 
response on their part; so that the appeals, instead of being made 
to the pope and through the pope to France, as has often been the 
case, are now made directly to Germany and its emperor as the 
natural guardian of their interests in all parts of the world. 

The surrender, therefore, of this powerful influence formerly 
exercised by France, is a loss of considerable prestige in the Cath- 
olic world, if not of influence over Catholics in all Catholic nations 
of Europe. After the Church of the Redeemer at Jerusalem had 
been consecrated — ^the church is located near that of the Holy Sepul- 
chre — the emperor succeeded in the purchase of the abode of the 
Holy Virgin, situated on Mount Zion, and presented it to the pope 
of Rome for the use of the Catholics. This action will undoubtedly 
prove a source of reconciliation with his Catholic subjects, and it is 
a virtual announcement that the emperor, so far as he may assume 
to be the head of the church in Germany, acts in a dual capacity — 
protector of the Protestant as well as of the Catholic interests. 

Though we may hardly suppose that the pope encouraged this 
royal tour and manifestation of interest in Catholic welfare, yet 
nothing has been said by him to show that he throws any discredit 
upon it, and as a result France naturally feels imeasy over the 
situation. 

So far as the religious phase of the emperor's visit has any 
effect upon his political aims, it must be sought for in the support 
which he evidently hopes to secure from the central party of the 
Reichstag, a party composed chiefly of Catholics. 

So far as his visit has a purely political bearing that bearing^ 
is to be found in the relationship which exists between Germany 
and Turkey. Ever since the Turko-Russian war Turkey has abanr 
donded her relationship to England in so far as she regarded Eng- 
land as her natural protector, the Turks believing that her interests 
had been grossly betrayed by the English who encouraged this war 
and who then left the Turks to take its consequences. Since then, Tur- 
key has allied her interests with Russia, with Austria and with 
England as the circumstances of the several occasions demanded. 
Her extreme friendship for Russia at one time has alarmed the 
English, and the Russians have been frustrated by combinations 



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EMPEROR WILLIAM'S VISIT TO PALESTINE. 206 

made between the Turks and England, or France or Germany, as 
Turkey f onnd it to her interest to make political alliances. Turkey 
has no policy; she is too weak to have one. Her strength lies in 
the support which she gives to the foreign policy of one or more 
of the great powers. Sometimes England, sometimes Russia, has 
been stronger with the sublime porte at Constantinople than any 
other power; but in the midst of the fluctuating influence which 
one or the other of the great powers has exercised in a prominent 
degree over the Turks, Germany has always been the second factor. 
In the first place, Bismarck was the most prominent figure of diplo- 
matic Europe. His influence and his consent must always be 
secured in order to carry out any international purposes which the 
great powers may have had in view. Taken therefore in its entirety 
the G^n-man influence during the period of the last twenty years 
has been farther-reaching and immeasurably stronger upon the 
Turkish policy than that of perhaps all the other countries com- 
bined, and it is perhaps true that the Turk often threw himself 
into the arms of Russia or England at the suggestion of Bismarck 
who foresaw certain advantages to be derived by the sultan from 
the one course or the other. Nowhere was this German relation 
to Turkey more strikingly exemplified than in the Greek war, where- 
in Germany, feeling that the Greeks had been the aggressors, and 
provokingly so, felt that Turkey must have a free hand in carrying 
on that war against Greece, and, up to a certain point, to be allowed 
all the advantages that would accrue to any other nation from 
such a war. 

Germany's policy in dealing with Turkey is wholly unlike that 
of either Russia or England. Russia has sought territorial advan- 
tages, and England's policy has been governed mainly by a determi- 
nation to counteract that policy. Their positions have been purely 
positive and negative. On the other hand, Germany has felt that 
the sultan was not so sick a man as his traducers would have him 
appear, aCnd that Turkey had an assured existence covering a longer 
period than that which even her friends had believed her to possess. 
Furthermore, Germany believed that to reap the advantages which 
must sooner or later come from the immense commerce and develop- 
ment of the Turkish empire the best policy was that of a friendly 
Attitude toward the sultan, for two very suflScient reasons. In the 



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206 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

first place, Gennany desired all the advantages of a favored nation 
in such great Turkish ports as Constantinople, Smyrna and Beyroat; 
in the second place, Germany clearly foresaw the opening of a 
vast region in Asia Minor, and that Asia Minor constituted one of 
the commercial conquests of the modem world just as Africa to 
the south and Asia to the east, especially China, now present. Con- 
cessions to build railroads were desirable, and these were secured^ 
and a railroad is now in process of construction from Constanti- 
nople and may, within the next five years reach Biredjik, at the 
headwaters of ths Euphrates river. This would open a region of 
enormous wealth in agriculture as well as in minerals, and conces- 
sions granted by the sultan might be an inducement to German set- 
tlers to build up that wonderful region; and German conmiercial 
interests have been the controling factor in her dealings with Tar- 
key, irrespective of what the world may think about the moral 
responsibility of the sultan for the massacres in Armenia, or for 
the misfortunes of the Cretes. Commercial interests are, as they 
always have been, paramount. They have carried with them more 
Christian and moralizing forces, it is true, at one time than another. 
But commerce has been the underlying motive in German as well as 
in English foreign policy. "Carry to them our commerce and our 
religion, if we can; but carry to them our commerce anyhow." All 
theories of government, all national policies, have been more or 
less elastic in the presence of this over-ruling and controling thought 
of commercial activity. 

The visit, therefore, of the emperor to the sultan at Constan- 
tinople was no less significant than his visit to the Holy Land. The 
former was pre-eminently political; the latter political and religious 
combined, or a political mission which had to do chiefly with the 
internal interests of the fatherland. It is noted that during this 
visit the emperor refrained from going to Egypt. The English 
control of Egypt is offensive to France, and the emperor's visit 
there would undoubtedly have been taken as an offense, from the 
fact that the French would have construed it as an endorsement of 
the English policy in Egypt. 

There are today three great centers of commercial activity 
that give wonderful promise for the future — three countries in 
which commercial competition, accompanied by political activity. 



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EMPEROR WILLIAM'S VISIT TO PALESTINE. 207 

are now largely absorbing the attention of the commercial world. 
These are, Africa, China and the Turkish empire. Africa has been 
in the lead for some time. China's change of policy and promise 
of commercial development is more recent. The emperor's visit 
to Palestine, and especially to Constantinople, have reinforced the 
repeated declaration of the commercial importance of Asia Minor 
to adjacent Europe. Concessions, preferences and commercial 
advantages in Turkey have been secured largely upon the favor of 
the sultan. Seeing this, the emperor has cultivated his friendship, 
and that in disregard of that public sentiment which has under- 
taken to associate the ruler of a Christian empire with a '^bloody 
assassin." 

Germany's race is a commercial one. She is England's great- 
est competitor today. Her hopes are unbounded. They lie in the 
direction of Turkey and China more than towards Africa, and the 
recent visit of the German emper6r has but emphasized Germany's 
commercial intentions in a direction to which, of late, the world 
has not given much attention. U Turkey could rid herself of som^ 
of her enormous debt — enormous for a country so poor — ^there is 
no reason why there might not be some promise of national recovery 
on her part. If the Zion movement started at Basle creates an 
enthusiasm sufficiently strong and extended among the Jews for 
the rehabilitation and recovery of the Holy Land, its sale may 
afford the sultan of Turkey one of the best opportunities of con- 
tinued existence, and so long as there is promise of continued life 
and power in the Turkish empire Germany's advantages lie in a 
friendly attitude towards its ruler, who after all but responds to 
a national sentiment by his visit to the Holy Land and to Abdul 
Hamid. 



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LIVES OF THE APOSTLES- 

I. 

SIMON PETER. 

BY PROFESSOR WILLARD DONE, PRESIDENT OP THE LATTER-DAT 
SAINTS' COLLEGE, SALT LAKE CITY. 



Simon, or Simeon, as the name is sometimes written, was born 
in Bethsaida, a little fishing village on the north shore of the Sea 
of Galilee, some years before the birth of Christ. He was the son 
of a man named Jonah, or Jonas, who was in rather humble cir- 
cumstances. Hence Simon was forced early in life to adopt a 
calling and labor for his own support. He chose the craft of a 
fisherman, forming a partnership with his brother Andrew, and sub- 
sequently coming into close friendship with the two sons of Zebedee, 
James and John. It is a remarkable fact that all four of these 
afterwards became Apostles of the Lord Jesus. 

Peter first comes into prominence in the New Testament nar- 
rative, in connection with the preaching and baptizing of John the 
Baptist. That he was a disciple of Jolm, is at least implied in the 
account which John the evangelist gives of the beautiful incident of 
the baptism of Jesus, and the Baptist's subsequent testimony to our 
Lord's divinity. It is also generally understood that he was one of 
those who left John and followed Christ, and were so impressed 
with the strength and sweetness of Messiah's character. (John 1: 
29-42). It was on this occasion, their first meeting, that Jesus 
bestowed upon Simon the surname Peter (or Cephas) a stone, by 
which he is more familiarly known to us than by his own name. 
That Jesus, through his power of discerning spirits, recognized at 



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LIVES OF THE APOSTLES. 209 

once the strength and firmness of Simon's character is evident. 
That the name was wisely bestowed, is proved by numerous events 
in his subsequent history. 

It does not appear that Peter and his associates were finally 
called as Apostles of Christ on this occasion. This final call 
occurred, we do not know how long afterward, while the four men 
were engaged with their boats and nets on the Sea of Galilee. The 
incident as related in Luke 5: 1-11, is as follows: The people were 
crowding Jesus so closely that he took a seat in Peter's boat and 
had him push out a short distance from the shore. After Jesus 
had finished teaching the people, he told Peter to push out farther, 
and lower the net. Peter answered that they had toiled all night, 
but had taken nothing. Nevertheless, he and Andrew launched 
into the deep and lowered their nets. So many fishes were caught 
that the net began to break. James and John came to their assist- 
ance, and both boats were filled with fish, imtil they were about to 
sink. Then Peter, apparently seeing the intent of the miracle, fell 
down before the Master, exclaiming, '^Depart from me; for I am a 
sinful man, Lord!" Jesus answered him, 'Tear not; from hence- 
forth thou shalt catch men." When they had brought their ships 
to land, the four left everything and followed Christ. 

About this time, Jesus took up his residence in Capernaum, 
probably at Peter's house, as Peter, no doubt, was then living in 
that village. It was here that the well-known incident of healing 
Peter's wife's mother from an attack of fever, occurred. From this 
time Peter and his associates followed Jesus throughout Galilee, 
Judea, and Samaria, assisting him in his ministrations, and listen- 
ing to his teachings. When the Apostles were chosen and ordained, 
Peter's name stood at the head of the quorum list; and this dis- 
tinction is granted him in all the lists of Christ's intimate follow- 
ers. The primacy of Peter was doubtless recognized from the first. 
During the first two years of Messiah's ministry, the individuality 
of all the Apostles of Christ seems to have been swallowed up in 
his own. We would naturally look for Peter to be among the first 
who asserted themselves, and we are not disappointed. It was after 
the feeding of the five thousand, which occurred in the wilder 
ness on the north of the Sea of Galilee. The people were impor- 
tuning Jesus to be their king. In order to escape them, he 



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210 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

dismissed his Apostles, commanding them to cross to the western 
shore, while he retired alone into the mountain to pray. Toward 
daylight, he approached their boat, walking upon the water. When 
Peter knew that it was the Lord, he attempted to walk out and 
meet him, but failed at last, through lack of faith. Soon after 
reaching the shore, they went to Capernaum, where a large number 
of Christ's disciples deserted him, on account of his reproofs. 
Turning to the twelve, Jesus asked if they, too, would leave him. 
Then this mingled faith and impulsiveness of Peter manifested 
itself, in his noble answer, 'Ijord, to whom shall we go? thou 
hast the words of eternal life. And we believe and are sure that 
thou art that Christ, the Son of the living God." (John 6: 68, 69). 
This confession and the subsequent one, '^ou art the Christ, the 
Son of the living God," (Matt. 16: 16), have been referred to 
throughout the Christian era, as the type of a true faith in Christ. 

It was soon after this second declaration, that Peter's zeal for 
his Master overstepped itself, and earned for him the strongest 
rebuke Jesus ever gave directly to one of his followers. Jesus had 
predicted to his Apostles the fate which awaited him at Jerusalem, 
and Peter had said, ''Be it far from thee. Lord: this shall not be 
unto thee;" when Jesus turned and said, ''Get thee behind me, 
Satan; thou art an offense unto me: for thou savoreet not the 
things that be of God, but those that be of men." 

Six days afterward, occurred the glorious incident of the 
transfiguration, which Peter, James, and John were alone per- 
mitted to witness. A little later Jesus and his immediate followers 
went down into Judea, where the closing incidents in his eventful 
life occurred. In connection with the life of Peter, we are most 
interested in the events of the night preceding the cr ucifizion, 
because they give us an insight into some of the peculiarities of 
Peter's character. When the paschal supper had been prepared, 
the twelve, with their Lord, sat down to the repast. Then occurred 
the remarkable series of conversations, prophecies, prayers, and 
exhortations, which cause the ante-mortem discourses of Socrates 
to sink into insignificance. Among these was the prediction oi the 
Apostles' desertion of Jesus, against which Peter protested so 
v^emently: "Though all men shall be offended because of thee, 
yet will I never be offended." Messiah's answer was sadly propbelae: 



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LIVES OF THE APOSTLES. 211 

"Verily I say unto thee, this night, before the cock crow, thou 
shalt deny me thrice." Again Peter, James and John were honored 
with our Lord's close confidence, in being chosen to watch, lest he 
should be disturbed during his prayer and suffering in the garden 
of Gethsemane. That they should fall asleep at this critical 
juncture, is scarcely to be wondered at, as it was long past mid- 
night; nor do we wonder that Peter, stung no doubt by the gentle 
rebuke, "What! could ye not watch with me one hour?" and 
roused by the further remark, "Sleep on now; * * behold, 
he is at hand that doth betray me;" should have impulsively drawn 
his sword and attempted his Lord's defense. Restrained from this» 
he followed Jesus at a distance, was admitted into the hall of the 
high priest's house, and there fulfilled the Master's sorrowful 
prophecy, by his three-fold denial. This was a crisis in Peter's 
life. The fimmess inherent in his own nature was no longer 
depended upon implicitly, but was reinforced by the strength 
arising from the possession of the Spirit of God. Henceforth we 
shall expect to find him foremost in apostolic works — one of the 
first to run to the sepulchre after the resurrection, (John 20: 
2-10); the first to leave his boat and net, and greet the risen Lord, 
(John 21: 4-11); the one to whom were given the keys of the king- 
dom, and the injunction to feed the Master's sheep, (John 21 :. 
15-17); and the one to assert apostolic authority, direct the filling; 
up of the quorum of the twelve, and deliver the first gospel sermout 
(Acts 1, 2). A sober, dignified firmness took the place of his. 
former hasty zeal; and with prudence, sagacity, and patient endur- 
ance, he proceeded to the work of the ministry. Bonds hadi 
henceforth no terrors for him. From denying his Lord before a. 
mere servant girl, he arose to a dignified acknowledgment of him 
before an angry Sanhedrim, and a declaration of his determination 
to continue preaching in Christ's name in spite of their prohibition. 
The events of Peter's life during the apostolic age are full 
of interest to us. Soon after the ascension of Christ, Peter called 
the disciples together, to the number of 120, in an upper room and 
after explaining to them the nature of Judas' fall, and the neces-^ 
sity of choosing another to fill his place, he directed the balloting 
by which Matthias was chosen to the apostleship. Ten days after 
the ascension, on the day of Pentecost, the Jews having assembled 



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212 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

together from all parts of the civilized world, there occnrred the 
mighty endowment "with power from on high," the bestowal of 
the Holy Ghost. Attracted by the great manifestations accom- 
panying this event, the multitude came running together, and 
manifested astonishment at the fact that the inspired ones spoke 
in tongues which all the assembled nations understood. Roused by 
the insinuation that this was a manifestation of drunkenness, Peter 
bore a powerful testimony to the presence of the Spirt of God, and 
"pricked the Jews to the heart" by his straightforward recital of 
the death and divinity of Jesus. Then in response to their earnest 
question, "Men and brethren, what shall we do?" he preached the 
gospel of repentance, baptism, and the laying on of hands, the 
result being the conversion of three thousand souls. 

The next event was the healing, by Peter and John, of the 
lame man at the "beautiful gate" of the temple. It was his appear- 
ance in the temple as the first herald of the Apostles' healing 
power, and the testimony of Peter that this power came from 
Christ, whom through ignorance the Jews had slain, that brought 
upon the Apostles the active opposition of the priests. Following 
close upon the miraculous death of Ananias and Sapphira, and the 
fame spread abroad through other notable miracles, the Apostles 
were seized by the high priest and his associates, and cast into the 
common prison. Delivered thence by the angel of the Lord, they 
went to the temple and taught the people. Brought before the 
Sanhedrim, they, through Peter, their spokesman, boldly refused to 
cease proclaiming Christ; but they were saved from bitter perse- 
cution by the wise counsel of Gamaliel. (Acts 7: 34-42). 

Mention should be made of the visit of Peter and John to 
Samaria, to confer the Holy Ghost upon those who had been bap- 
tized by Philip. The incident is interesting, not only because it 
proves that the authority of the Melchizedek Priesthood is required 
to bestow the Holy Ghost, and that this is done by the laying on of 
hands, but because of Peter's meeting with Simon Magus. This 
sorcerer, attracted by the manifestations accompanying the minis- 
trations of the Apostles, offered money to Peter, in order to buy 
the wonderful power. Peter's rebuke established forever the 
principle that the gifts of the gospel are free, and that any attempt 
to turn them into a means of merchandise is most reprehensible. 



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I 



LIVES OF THE APOSTLES. 213 

Tradition has it that Peter met and vanquished Simon Magus many 
years later, in Rome, but authentic history gives no warrant to this 
idea. 

When Sauly afterwards called Paul, was converted, he reported 
to Peter immediately on going from Damascus to Jerusalem, 
(Galatians 1: 18), thus acknowledging Peter's primacy. It was not 
long afterward that Peter made his memorable visit to Joppa, 
where occurred the raising of Tabitha from the dead, the vision 
demonstrating the worthiness of the Grentiles to be accounted 
worthy of the gospel, and the visit immediately afterward, of the 
messengers of Cornelius. The incident of the conversion of Ck)me- 
lius is so important as to deserve more than a passing notice. It 
was the opening of the door through which the gospel was carried 
to the Gentiles. 

Being a Jew, Peter had all the prejudices of his race against 
the Gentiles. He considered them as not entitled to the blessings 
of the gospel of Christ. The words of Jesus when he sent the 
Apostles out to preach during his life-time, ''Go not into the way 
of the Gentiles," (Matt. 10: 5), seem to have impressed Peter more 
strongly than the command given after Christ's resurrection — "Go 
ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature," 
(Mark 16: 15). Therefore, it required a very strong manifestation 
to convince him of the worthiness of the Gentiles to receive the 
gospel. As he was praying on a house-top in Joppa, he became 
hungry, and in his trance or vision he saw a sheet which came 
down from heaven, filled with all kinds of animals, clean and 
unclean. A voice came to him saying, "Rise, Peter; kill and eat." 
In reply to his remonstrance against eating animals prohibited by 
the law of Moses, he was told not to call that common or unclean 
which the Lord had cleansed. This was twice repeated, and imme- 
diately afterward the messengers of Cornelius came to him. Accom- 
panying them to Csesarea, Peter fully understood the significance 
of the vision, when he heard the testimony of Cornelius, and saw 
the Holy Ghost poured out upon the Gentiles, as a sign of their 
worthiness to receive the gospel. " Of a truth," said he, " I per- 
ceive that God is no respecter of persons; but in every nation he 
that feareth him, and worketh righteousness, is accepted with 
him." And again, "Can any man forbid water, that these should 



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214 IMPBO VEMENT ERA. 

not be baptized, which have received the Holy Ghost as well as we?" 
When Peter returned to Jerusalem, he had to face the charge, 
'"Thou wentest in to men uncircumcised and didst eat with them.'' 
He answered it by relating the incident, with such earnestness 
that his accusers exclaimed, "Then hath God also to the Gentiles 
granted repentance unto life." 

Peter continued to advocate the equal rights of Jews and 
Gentiles who accepted the gospel, when, in a council at Jerusalem, 
he advised that all Gentile converts should be exempt from circum- 
cision, the decision of the council being to that effect. (Acts 15: 
6-11). This was perfectly consistent with his action in the case 
of Cornelius, at Caesarea. Only once did he seem even for a 
moment, to depart from this consistent course; and we have only 
an ex parte statement of this event. It was when, in Antioch, he 
withdrew from the Gentiles, with whom he had been living on 
terms of closest intimacy. He withdrew from them, it is supposed, 
through fear of the censure of the Jewish party, who seemed still 
to be filled with the old prejudice against their Gentile brethren. 
This apparent weakness aroused the indignation of Paul, who was 
full of zeal and energy in the cause of the Gentiles, and he "with- 
stood Peter to the face." Paul's opposition to Peter on this occa- 
sion arose from a natural fear that Peter's lack of consistency 
would do injury to the cause of the gospel, especially among the 
Grentiles. The passage on which our Imowledge of this incident is 
based, occurs in Paul's letter to the Galatians, (2: 11-14). 

This is the last event in the life of Peter positively known tons 
from the New Testament. Many traditions exist regarding his later 
life, and a few of these will be briefly stated, with the caution that 
they must not be accepted as authoritative, though we have some 
reasons for supposing them true. One of these traditions is to the 
effect that he visited Babylon and lived there for some time, and 
that his first epistle was written from that city to the Church at 
large. The evidence for this is contained merely in the closing 
words of this epistle. We have no other evidence that he ever was 
in Babylon. Another tradition, of rather more doubtful authority, 
states that he visited the regions of Asia Minor, and even some of 
the northern coasts of the Black Sea, preaching to the Jews in 
those places. 



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LIVES OF THE APOSTLES. 215 

But our chief interest lies in the tradition that toward the 
close of his life Peter visited Rome, became bishop of the Church 
in that city and suffered martyrdom there in the persecutions 
raised by Nero, about 67 A. D. Regarding his visit to, and brief 
residence in, the city of Rome, we have no great doubt; it is gen- 
erally admitted that he spent the last few years of his life there. 
It is just as freely admitted that in all probability he suffered 
martyrdom there during the Neronian persecutions. But it is cer- 
tain that he never was bishop of Rome. 

The prophetic recital of his death as given by Jesus, is recorded 
in John 21: 18: " But when thou shalt be old, thou shalt stretch 
forth thy hands, and another shall gird thee [on the cross], and 
carry thee whither thou wouldest not." The tradition of his death 
is most beautiful. Nero was committing the most shameful 
atrocities against the saints in Rome; and his fiendish ingenuity 
was almost exhausted in devising for them the most terrible forms 
of death. They were crucified, torn by wild beasts, "covered with 
pitch and burned, and put to death in various other ways. Peter's 
life was most precious to the Christians at Rome, and they per- 
suaded him to flee for safety. As he passed the walls of the city, 
he met the Lord, toiling toward Rome, with his cross on his back. 
**Quo vadis, Dominef'^ (Whither goest thou, Lord?) he asked. "I 
go to Rome, there to be crucified again," said Jesus. Peter fully 
understood the significance of the remark; and instantly he turned 
around, retraced his steps to the city, and suffered death on the cross. 
An embellishment is added to the story in the statement that he 
was crucified head downward, at his own request, since he consid- 
ered himself unworthy to die as Jesus died. We scarcely feel like 
accepting or rejecting this statement. Whatever the manner of 
his death, however, we must suppose that he met it with the 
devoted heroism and righteous zeal which characterized the whole 
life of the " chief of the Apostles." At this supreme moment we 
would look for anything rather than uncertainty or wavering. 

The reader has no doubt gathered from these events in Peter's 
life, a good estimate of his character. Therefore, by way of con- 
clusion, merely a brief statement only of the main elements of his 
character will be inserted here, from the writings of Dr. Hamilton: 



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216 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

'It would be hard to tell whether most of his fervor flowed throngh 
the outlet of adoration or activity. His full heart put force and prompti- 
tude into every movement. Is his Master encompassed by fierce ruffians? — 
Peter's ardor flashes in his ready sword, and converts the Galilean boat- 
man into the soldier instantaneous. Is there a rumor of a resurrection 
from Joseph's tomb? — ^John's nimbler foot distances his older friend; but 
Peter's eajj^emess outruns the serene love of John, and past the gazing 
disciple he rushes breathless into the vacant sepulchre. Is the risen 
Savior on the strand? — ^his comrades secure the net, and turn the vessel's 
head for shore; but Peter plunges over the vessel's side, and struggling 
through the waves, in his dripping coat falls down at his Master's feet. 
Does Jesus say, 'Bring of the fish ye have caught? ' — ere any one could 
anticipate the word, Peter's brawny arm is lugging the weltering net 
with its glittering spoil ashore, and every eager movement unwittingly 
is answering beforehand the question of his Lord, 'Simon, lovest thou 
me?' And that fervor is the best, which, like Peter's, and as occasion 
requires, can ascend in ecstatic ascriptions of adoration and praise, or 
follow Christ to prison and to death; which can concentrate itself on 
feats of heroic devotion, or distribute itself in the affectionate assiduities 
of a miscellaneous industry." 



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GOSPEL STUDffiS- 

I. 

AN INWARD KINGDOM OP GOD NECESSARY TO SALVATION. 

BY PROFESSOR N. L. NELSON. 



-There is in the Sunday School of the Brigham Young 
Academy^ a missionary class, composed of about one hundred 
earnest young men, over whom it is my privilege and honor to pre- 
side. Each year a large number of these students are called on 
missions, and I invite them to write me for help whenever in their 
ministry they get into theological difficulties. Accordingly a 
bright young Elder now laboring in Atlanta, Georgia, presents me 
a passage of scripture which he has found difficult to explain 
satisfactorily. I have been trying for a month or two to find time 
for reply; but the more I study it, the more I see that it is too 
big a theme for a letter; and as it will no doubt be found of general 
interest to preachers and teachers of the gospel, I beg space in 
the Era for my answer. 

The passage is found in Luke, seventeenth chapter, twentieth 
and twenty-first verses, and reads as follows: 

''And when he was demanded of the Pharisees, when the 
kingdom of God should come, he answered them and said. The 
kingdom of God cometh not with observation: neither shall they 
say, Lo here! or, lo there! for, behold, the kingdom of God is 
within you.'' 

The difficulty presented by the passage is this: our Elders 
preach an outward kingdom (or Church) of God; a kingdom per- 
fect in organization as the wisdom of heaven can make it; with 
Apostles, Prophets, Pastors, Teachers, Deacons, helps, govern- 
ments, and so forth, making what is called by Paul the body 



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218 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

of Christ; and by many passages of scripture they maintain that 
salvation is not to be found outside this organization. 

Now, Christ's words to the Pharisees, as quoted above, seem 
to contradict this attitude. Not only does he deny that the 
kingdom "cometh with observation/' and that the kingdom is 
something of which one could say, 'IjO here it is," or "Lo there it 
is," but he expressly affirms the contrary; viz., that the "kingdom 
of God is within you." 

It may be observed as a preliminary that to those who 
might wish merely to stop the mouths of cavilers, it would per- 
haps be sufficient to point out that the marginal reading of the 
word "observation" is "outward show," and of the words "within 
you," is "among you,*" whence the passage would signify: "You 
need not expect the kingdom of God to come, for it is ahready 
among you;" which would therefore present no conffict with 
passages maintaining the need of an outward kingdom. Such a 
reply might often be the better way of meeting the objection, 
especially when the objectors are shallow, bigoted, and word- 
bound. Evasions of this kind are justifiable when the object is to 
avoid "casting pearls before swine." 

But for purposes of real spiritual enlightenment, the ot^er 
meaning shoidd be maintained; viz., that "the kingdom of God 
Cometh not with observation — * * * it is within you." I take 
this ground for two reasons: 1. Because it is the meanmg 
which forms the warp and woof of modem spiritual thought; and 
consequently if we expect to make any headway in correcting and 
elevating thought, we must recognize in it what is consistent and 
worthy of attention; and 2. Because the passage expresses 
a most profound truth; a truth which it is quite as essential to 
keep in view in these "last days" as it was during the "meridian 
of time." 

Before taking up the real meaning of these words, let us 
consider why it was necessary for Christ to emphasize to the 
Jews the absolute necessity of an inward or spiritual kingdom. 

There are two ways of influencing mankind; an external and 
an internal. The first proceeds on the assumption that '^gfat 
makes right," and moves men to do or to be, through fear. All 
the unrighteous and unstable kingdoms of the earth have be^ 



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GOSPEL STUDIES, 219 

founded on this principle; and it has ever been, and ever will be, 
the cause of their unstableness and the occasion of their disinte- 
gration. In the realm of faith we may count the Catholic and 
Mohammedan religions as having attained their growth on this 
principle; and therefore, knowing the nature of the seed, we may 
as confidently predict the death of the plant. The tendency to 
act on the principle that ''might makes right" is always present in 
the degree that the Spirit of God is absent; and this is true of 
individuals as well as of nations and peoples. 

The idea had reached its greatest force and widest applica- 
tion in the world to which Christ was bom. Even God's chosen 
people had not escaped its influence. The Jews could see only one 
way to set up the kingdom of God. It must come, when it did 
come, ''with observation;" presenting a showy front, and accom- 
puiied with all the regalia of pomp and power; a kingdom that 
should trample all other kingdoms in the dust, and elevate these 
holy, "whited sepulchres" to thrones and dominions over the rest 
of mankind. 

Howsoever regarded within the little circle of man's horizon, 
victories gained by external forces are from their veiy inception 
always miserable defeats, from God's point of view; for nothing 
counts as an advance with God save that which brings us nearer 
to his perfection. Eternal life cannot be forced into man from 
without; it must spring up from within. Each man's heart is the 
center of the universe. It is the only place where salvation can 
begin for him. Internal forces are such as stir up the soil and 
plant the seed of truth in this center. 

Internal influences proceed by reversing the Roman maxim, 
just as they reverse the Roman method. "Right makes might," 
and nothing else than right can do it; at least, the might which 
counts for eternity. This was the truth which our Savior pointed 
out so sharply to the Pharisees. It is a truth which needs to be 
I>ointed out with equal force and brevity to any organization in our 
day, whether it be political party, social guild, church or state, 
ivhich depends upon mere external machinery for the betterment 
of mankind. 

Whatever lasting reforms come to this earth, come primarily 
through that blind door, the human heart, and represent the silent 



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220 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

impress upon humanity of the infinite spirit of order and harmony. 
The noisy demonstrations which immediately precede or accom- 
pany such reforms, are merely the crest-play of the tidal wave; 
let ns never mistake them either for its cause or the true index of 
its momentum. 

God rules not as man rules. A nation or a people wakes up 
after a night's sleep, and discovers that it has made a change of 
front. Let us not be among those who ascribe such a miracle to 
the head-lines of newspapers or the mouthings of orators. Let us 
rather recognize that God's dominion is that mysterious '^kingdom 
within you;" that mysterious center whence light breaks which does 
not come from the sun. 

As to the real meaning of the expression ''the kingdom of God 
within you," it must be plain at a glance that the words are used 
figuratively. Technically, we have here the figure of rhetoric 
called metonymy, and specifically, it is the kind in which the effect 
is named instead of the cause. The kingdom of God is plainly an 
organization having a king, officers, subjects, etc.; and as such, 
could not literally be within anyone; but being an organization, it 
may be regarded as the visible effect of dome unseen spiritual 
force. This force, whatever it be, is of a nature to dwell in the 
soul. It is the principle of the kingdom, not the kingdom, which 
Christ declares is within us. A little reflection will show that no 
man can be in the kingdom of God unless the principle of this 
kingdom be first in him. The kingdom is not therefore a matter 
of outward show; it steals into men's hearts unseen, unheard, bat 
not unfelt. 

The passage fully paraphrased might read as follows: 'The 
kingdom of God cometh not by external conquest. It is not like 
an army of which you might say, 'Lo here,' or 'Lo there;* on the 
contrary, the principle of cohesion which makes the kingdom of 
God possible, must be bom (i. e. engendered) in each subject. 
There can be no kingdom of God withtm^ you, until there is a 
kingdom of God within you." 

What then — precisely — does it mean to have the kingdom of 
God within one? In other words, what is the divine principle of 
cohesion above referred to? No writer has been able to tell 
exactly what it is.' The change involved in the human soul is so 



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GOSPEL STUDIES. 221 

ethereal or transcendental that it defies the finest human vocabu- 
lary. Christ felt the impossibility of conveying the idea in words, 
when he said: 'The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou 
hearest the sound thereof, but whence it cometh, and whither it 
goeth, no man knoweth. So is everyone that is bom of the spirit" 

And if Christ must resort to comparison to explain the mean- 
ing of the 'Tdngdom within you," can we expect better from his 
disciples? "Being bom again" and "being bora of the spirit," 
were favorite ways of naming this change. Paul speaks of it as 
"putting off the old and putting on the new," as "having Christ 
formed within you," and as "passing from death unto life;" all of 
which are graphic similes. We in our day, grown less poetical, 
speak of the change simply as "a testimony of the gospel." 

The most comprehensive word to convey the meaning is per- 
haps faith, using the word in the sense of kindling the heavenly 
hope within us. Far or near as these symbols may be from the 
thing symbolized, no one who has felt the "change of heart," as 
our sectarian friends put it, can ever be mistaken about it; and 
those who have not felt it, cannot be made to realize adequately 
what it is, even were all the metaphors in the language called into 
requisition. 

Be this as it may, it is plain that there can be no kingdom of 
God "without," until there is first a kingdom of God "within." The 
question between us and our sectarian friends is: "Granted that 
the kingdom be formed within, what will happen? Will the man 
or woman in whom this change takes place, seek to form or unite 
with a kingdom of God that is without, or will he remain a silent 
unit, self -centered and self-sufficient?" That is, to use the phrase- 
ology of our friends, will he count it enough to "give his heart to 
Jesus and rest idly secure in the arms of the blessed Redeemer?" 
Or will he immediately seek to unite with others who have exper- 
ienced the same change, and endeavor to establish an outward 
Idngdom? 

This question brings me fairly to the theme of my next arti- 
cle which will seek to demonstrate the proposition: "An outward 
Idngdom of God necessary to salvation." 



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THE PAST YEAR. 



It was but yesterday the snow 

Of thy dead sire was on the hill; 

It was but yesterday the flow 

Of thy spring showers increased the rill, 

And made a thousand blossoms swell 

To welcome summer's festival; 

It was but yesterday I saw 

Thy harvests wave their golden treasures, 

And man, to Nature's genial law 

Responsive, taste the season's pleasures; 

And now all these are of the past. 

For this lone hour must be thy last! 

Thou must depart! where, none may know — 

The sun for thee hath ever set; 

The star of mom, the silver bow 

No more shall gem thy coronet 

And give thee glory; but the sky 

Shall shine on thy posterity. 

Bright as it ever shone on thee; 

While as a torrent they are pouring 

On where forgetfulness will be 

In ambush couched for their devouring. 

Where now it waits thy latest sand 

From destiny's unpitying hand. 

In darkness — in eternal space. 

Sightless as a sin-quenched star. 

Thou shalt pursue thy wandering race, 

Receding into regions far; 

On thee the eyes of mortal men 

Shall never, never light again. 

Memory alone may steal a glance, 

Like some wild glimpse in sleep we're taking. 



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TEE PAST YEAR. 223 

Of a long perished countenance 
We have forgotten when awaking — 
Sad, evaneecent, color'd weak, 
As beauty on a dying cheek. 

Whence flow the streams of ages? Where 
Pass the perished things its surface bears — 
The breathing life, the joy and care, 
The good and evil of earth's years? 
And were they made with thee to die — 
Created — who can tell us why? — 
As dewy flowers that bloom today, 
Hallowing the summer air with sweetness, 
Extinguished ere tomorrow's ray, 
Leave but memorials of death's fleetness? 
Man alone hopes in distant skies 
To bloom mid some bright paradise. 

I once had many pleasant gleams 
Of thy prospective hours, and things 
That tum'd out but delusive dreams, 
Fading beneath thy restless wings; 
And many unreckoned gift of thine, 
I never thought could have been mine; 
And many joys, and many pains. 
At this thy dying hour departed. 
And hopes I dare not count as gains. 
And fears which made me coward-hearted. 
That soon must be as they were not — 
I, thou, and they, alike forgot! 

Farewell! that cold regretful word 

To one whom we have called a friend — 

Yet still "farewell!" I must record 

The sign that marks our friendship's end, 

Thou'rt on thy couch of wither'd leaves, 

The surly blast thy breath receives; 

In the stripped woods, I hear thy dirge. 

Thy passing-bell the hinds are tolling. 

Thy death-song sounds in ocean's surge, 

Oblivion's clouds are round thee rolling — 

Thou'lt buried be where buried lie 

Years of the dead Eternity! Anon. 



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GIFTS OF THE GOSPEL* 

BY JOHN H. DAVIS. 



"Follow after charity, and desire spiritual gifts, but rather that ye 
may prophesy."—/ Ccr. 14: 1. 

Prom my youth up I have desired that the Lord would bless 
me with the gift of the spirit* of prophecy. We should cultivate 
the gifts of the gospel as they are given to us, and we should 
acknowledge the hand of the Lord in such at all times and under 
all conditions in life. 

If I am permitted I shall be pleased to record here one of my 
own experiences in relation to this grand gift. 

In the year 1869 (spring time), in company with my father 
and brother, while on our way from Willard, Box Elder County, to 
Malad, Idaho, to look up a place of settlement where we could 
obtain a farm, we were camping over night on that plat of prairie 
just north of Hampton Bridge. During those days no one would 
ever think of taking up such country for cultivation, as it was in 
a most dried and hardened condition, yet, during early spring, more 
or less grass would grow, and during such growth the country 
round about appeared most beautiful. In the early morning, while 
my brother, Thomas A. Davis (now of Oneida (bounty, Idaho), was 
preparing our breakfast, in company with my father I went in 
search of the cattle. Soon we found them, and as we were in no 
hurry to return to camp for a few minutes, we remained standing 
together on a little raise of ground ; and while thus enjoying the lovely 
cool breeze that came down from Cache Valley through Bear River 
Canyon — ^while thus viewing the surrounding country — all at once to 



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GIFTS OF THE GOSPEL. 22!q 

me there came a change over the scene. I saw that vast country all 
dotted with hamlets. Farms were squared off, as if by surveyed lines. 
I saw it all in an instant, and I knew what it meant. I turned to 
my father and said: '1 am going to prophesy, and I want you to be 
-a witness to what I now tell you. This vast region of country will 
yet be taken up by our people; homes will be made, here and 
there, all over this land, and you will live to see that day. It will 
come to pass just as I tell you, for I have seen it." 

"Well, this is a remarkable prophecy," said my father, "and 
we will remember it." 

I was then in my fifteenth year, and, to the natural man, at 
that early day, in such a dry country, such a statement appeared 
very much out of place. My father passed away last AprU, in his 
93rd year. My prediction has come to pass, wonderful as it was. 
My father lived to see it fulfilled to the very letter.* 

lAndseyf J^erson County, Pa. 
Septmber 9, 1898. 



♦Note: — ^Anyone acquainted with the scene of this prophecy — ^the 
Bear River Flats — and who can call to mind how desolate it was even 
a very few years ago, and will compare it then with what it is today — an 
extensive plain, dotted with growing villages, connected together by 
extensive wheat farms and meadows of alfalfa — will be able to recognize 
how remarkable this prophecy of a lad fifteen years of age was away 
back in 1869, when nothing could have been more unlikely than the ful- 
fillment of such a prediction. — Editors^ 



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WINTER THOUGHTS. 

WBITTEN FOR THE ERA. 



The winds blow chill through groves of sighing pine^ 
The clouds go driving swiftly overhead; 
The wild bird's note is hushed; the swaying vine. 
Its vintage gathered, now hangs limp and dead. 
The grass is brown and sear; the deep ravine 
Which erstwhile boomed an angry, boiling flood 
Scarce boasts the tiniest thread of trickling stream. 
And nature shows her drear and saddened mood. 

The year has had its bud, its wealth of bloom, 
Its gracious fruitage, and its swift decay — 
What matter I years and cycles onward roll. 
Today melts silently in yesterday. 
Today has done its work. Tomorrow comes, 
Her hand holds golden Opportunity — 
And underneath the snow the roots will dream 
Of bud, and bloom, and fruitage yet to be. 

And so with life. Bright promises of spring 
Take themselves wings — alas I and fly away. 
Though hope and love may follow close behind, 
Stem duty by our side points out the way. 
Oh, Angel of the gifts, from memory take 
The rankling bitterness of vain regret — 
Of unavailing tears — the biting frosts 
Of desolation help us to forget; 

And spread the mantle, pure and white as snow 

Of Charity to cover life's mistakes. 

And let the root of Truth and Faith still grow 

And promises of bloom and fruitage make. 

So underneath the load of grief and care 

The years have brought, we seek the Source of Truth; 

And know that God holds for us in his hand 

That best of all the gifts, perennial youth. 

Sarah E. Peabson. 



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EDITOR^S TABLE* 



UPE-INPLUBNCING MAXIMS. 



Our readers perbape will remember that we promised in our 
Prospectus to publish a symposium xmder the title ''Life-Influenc- 
inii^ Maxims.'^ It is expected, of course, that these will be con- 
tributed by the i^cers and members of the associations, or any 
otiiers of our readers who may feel disposed to contribute to the 
Bympoeivan. 

In Volume I we published a "Symposium of Best' Thoughts.'^ 
The length of the contributions under that title was limited to one 
hundred words. We are desirous that this second symposium 
should partake very much of the same nature, and we hope there 
will be a general response to this invitation. We appeal to the 
officers of the associations and ask them to encourage the young 
men to write the Bra, telling us what text of scripture, what poem, 
or what maxim of philosophy it is that had a deciding influence upon 
tiieir life, morally or spiritually. 

It may not be possible always to confine the responses to this 
invitation to one hundred words, because a poem, or passage of 
scripture, oft maxim of philosophy may itself exceed the one hundred 
words, but as far as may be we desire to see the contributions kept 
within the limit named above. 

We take occasion to remind our readers, as stated in our 
prospectus, that some one has said that "the world is governed by 
ptettes;'' and so, too, are many lives: that is, at some particular 
crisis of a young man's life, a text of scripture, a passage from the 



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228 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

poets, a maxim from the philosophers, or a word from a friend, 
strikes upon his ear and becomes well-nigh the voice of God withm 
his sonl, and marks, perhaps, the turning point in his life. 

It is the collection of such maxims that have influenced the 
lives of our young men which we desire to collect; and in order that 
we may illustrate more perfectly what we mean we call attention 
to the passage of scripture that had such a marked influence upon 
the life of the Prophet Joseph Smith. It will be remembered what 
mental struggles he endured in his early youth while contemplating 
the divided state of Christendom, and the confusion of human 
creeds which then as now very generally abounded. In the midst 
of his mental distress and spiritual anxiety he came upon the pas- 
sage recorded in the Epistle of James, the first chapter and fifth 
verse, which reads: ''If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of 
God, that giveth to all men liberally and upbraideth not; and it 
shall be given him." " Never," said he, in speaking of this early 
experience in later years — "Never did any passage of scripture 
come with more power to the heart of any man than this did to 
mine. It seemed to enter with great force into every feeling of 
my heart I reflected on it again and again, knowing that if any 
person needed wisdom from God I did; for how to act I did not 
know, and unless I could get more wisdom from God than I than 
had, would never know; for the teachers of religion of the differ- 
ent sects understood the same passage so differently as to destroy 
all confidence in settling the question by an appeal to the Bible. 
At length I came to the conclusion that I must either remain in 
darkness and confusion, or else I must do as James directs, that is, 
ask of God." 

We now all know the result. He enquired of the Liord and 
received such an answer as resulted in the establishment of the 
Church of Jesus Christ on the earth; began, in fact^ that marvel- 
ous religious revolution which will not be completed until the King- 
dom of God shall come and his will be done on earth as it is in 
heaven. 

This is what we mean by life-influencing passages from the 
scriptures, poets, or phQosophers — something that changed the 
course of events in the person's life; that brought him from dark- 
ness into the light; that gave a soul to God; and we most earnestly 



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EDITORS TABLE. 229 

ask that our young men will aid in making sach a valuable col- 
lection. 



ACTS OF SPECIAL PROVIDENCE IN MISSIONARY 
EXPERIENCE. 



We promised in our prospectus a collection of incidents 
wherein the special providence of God had been manifested in the 
experiences of our Elders engaged in the ministry. We desire to 
call the attention of our readers as well as the officers of the asso- 
ciations to the fact that we are dependent upon the Elders who 
have had experience in missionary labors for this collection. We 
therefore extend an invitation to all such Elders to write us one 
or more, or half a dozen for that matter, of such experiences; that 
is, incidents which have come within their own observation wherein 
the special providence of God has been manifested in their own 
preservation, or which contributed to the special success of their 
missions. We know that the experiences of our Elders are replete 
with circumstances of this character, and it will make the pages 
of the Era faith-promoting if such accounts are published. We 
desire that these experiences shall be those of recent years, in 
order that we may keep before the minds of our youth the fact 
that the power of God is as active today as in former years; 
and that now, as then, God confirms the authority and ministry 
of his servants by signs following them that believe. 

We trust our brethren will not fail to forward us their con- 
tributions for this collection of incidents. This kind of narrative 
is the simplest form of composition, and we hope that our Elders 
will very generally respond to the invitation to contribute their 
experiences to this series of articles. Especial pains should be 
taken to be explicit as to the time and place of the incident, and 
the names of other parties involved in the circumstance should 
be carefully given. Do not scrimp the story, tell it in full, but 
expect us to exercise the privilege of editing the matter freely. 



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230 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

especially in the way of condensing by the elimination of phrases 
or statements not necessary to the development of the main inci- 
dent of the circumstance related. 

We ask the officers of associations everywhere to interest 
themselves in this matter, and call the attention of returned mis- 
sionaries in their respective localities to this opportunity of making 
known the goodness and power of God within their experience, 
and thus assist in promoting faith in the minds of our youth. 

We particularly invite the brethren now upon missions in all 
parts of the world to contribute to this series of articles. 



MODEIRN VALUE OP THE BIBLE. 



By a great many people the Bible is supposed to be a 
book of very little interest to the people of modem days except 
as being in the minds of Christians something of a guide in mat- 
ters of faith and morals. To think of looking through its pages 
with a view to ascertaining anything of value on such subjects as 
sanitation or hygiene would doubtless be considered altogether 
out of order. Nevertheless it will be found that divine wisdom, 
operating through inspired men, provided regulations which, if but 
adhered to, would have saved our race from very much of evil, and 
are worthy of consideration even in these modem days. 

A friend of the Era's, one who has contributed to our pages, 
and who is one of those delightful people sufficiently old-fashioned 
to have a profound respect amounting to veneration for the Bible, 
sent us, a few days ago, the following excerpt which he clipped 
from the Youths Companion, Accompanying it was a note in 
which our friend said, ''the enclosed slip seems to be worthy of a 
place in the Era." And as we are of the same opinion, here it is: 

The Asiatic Quarterly Review lately contained a collection of facts 
to prove its contention that the sanitary laws of Moses were not only 



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EDITORS TABLE. 231 

on a line with the modern rules of hygiene, bnt in some cases in advance 
of them. 

The Jew, thousands of years before Christ, settling in a semi- . 
tropical country, was forbidden to eat pork or shell-fish, and milk was 
designated as a source of contagion. In the Talmud a method of slaugh- 
tering animals was prescribed which is acknowledged today in our markets 
as the most sanitary. 

Five thousand years before Doctor Koch gave to the world the 
results of his researches in bacteriology, the Mosiac law pointed out the 
danger to man from tuberculosis in cattle, but did not forbid infected 
poultry as food. It was only a few years ago that German specialists 
discovered that fowl tuberculosis was harmless to man. 

The Mosaic law also enforced the isolation of patients with contag- 
ious diseases, and the burial of the dead outside of all cities. These 
hints the slow Gentile world did not fully accept until a century or 
two ago. 

The wise law-giver prescribed not only fasting at certain periods 
of the year, but the removal of whole families in summer out to camps, 
where for a time they could live close to nature and to God, and rejoice 
in both with innocent merrymaking. Many of the laws of Moses, like 
this one, the Asiatic Quarterly urges, were prescriptions intended for the 
health of both soul and body. 

Now that some of our young people profess to regard the Old Testa- 
ment as a book whose mission is fulfilled, a careful study of it might 
cause them to change their opinion. Apart from its moral teachings, 
its physical rules, if obeyed, would lessen the prevalence of some of the 
diseases among us, especially those which result from exhausted nervous 
systems. 



The beet teacher of duties that are dim to us is the practice of those 
we see and have at hand. 

The chief ^secret of success is!inothing!more than doing what you can 
do well, without thought oi fame. If fame comes at all, it will come 
because it is deserved, not because it is sought after. 

Nothing is gained by depreciating the difficulties of any undertaking. 
To look them in the face courageously, and to estimate them fairly, will 
^^erally enable us to overcome them; while, if they are hidden or 
ignored, they will, all unconsciously to ourselves, bar the way to success. 



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OUR WORK. 



GET MORE MANUALS. 



Some of our M. I. A. missionaries report that in conducting the 
conrse of study provided for in the M. I. A. manual for 18d8 there is a 
wonderful dearth of manuals. Many of the members of the associations 
have failed to supply themselves with this necessary text book for our 
work this year; for instance, it is said that in some cases in an enrolled 
membership of sixty or seventy members, and an attendance of thirty 
or forty or fifty, there will perhaps be only a dozen, or even less than a 
dozen, members who have manuals ! That is a deplorable, not to say 
ridiculous, condition. Men cannot work without tools, and members of 
the associations cannot perform the work outlined by the General Board 
for the associations this year without the manual. And when it is 
remembered that the price of that text book is but twenty-five cents, it 
is rather a reproach to our young men when they fail to supply them- 
selves with it. The officers of the associations should take up this mat- 
ter and urge our young men not only to purchase the manual but to 
study it. The price is within the reach of all and there is no reason why 
every member of the associations should not furnish himself with this 
necessary text book. 

To facilitate the matter of getting the manuals into the hands of 
the members, we remind the presidents and other officers of the fact that 
we are willing to send them any number of manuals that they think 
their association will purchase, but said officers must become responsible 
for the payment of the same. A large edition was published and we 
shall be able to supply orders promptly from the Era office. 



THE USE OP MISSIONARY ERAS. 



A number of requests have come to the Era office from our mis- 
sionary Elders abroad, asking that copies of the Era published prior to 



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OUR WORK. 233 

their being called to their fields of labor, be sent them; and at the same 
time they express as the reason for this request that they desire to make 
up the complete number in the volume in order to have it bound. This 
clearly indicates that some of our missionary brethren do not under- 
stand the purpose for which the Era is sent to them free. 

First of all the purpose in sending it to them is that they may be 
able to keep in touch with the spirit of the work of Mutual Improvement 
going on at home; and second that they may have a magazine which 
represents the trend of thought among the young people of the Church, 
to circulate among the people where they are traveling, that it may aid 
the missionary in his work of dispelling prejudice, and be the means of 
both advocating and defending the gospel. It was not thought that the 
Elders receiving these numbers should put them away carefully for bind- 
ing, but that they would usa them freely in loaning them in the neigh- 
borhood where they travel. The Elders, on their return home, will find 
abundance of opportunity to secure the complete volumes of the Era, as 
in publishing our magazine we have made ample provisions for supplying 
complete volumes and even separate numbers. So we ask our brethren 
to take no thought about saving their magazines for binding, but use 
them as missionaries for the spread of the gospel. Freely ye have 
received, as freely give; and use our magazine as a herald of the Faith 
as far as it is possible to do so. 



MEMBERSfflP PERMANENT. 



We have several times called attention to the fact that it was the 
decision of the last annual conference that membership in the associa- 
tion should be considered permanent; — by which we mean that once a 
member of the association, always a member of the association, unless 
a member should commit some act by which it would be necessary for 
the association to withdraw its fellowship from him. Yet notwithstand- 
ing this action of the General Conference, a record of which will be 
found in the August number of the Era, we receive word occasionally 
to the effect that some associations refuse to adopt in their practice this 
regulation. Of course we come to the conclusion that it must be because 
such associations have not yet learned of the action of the General Con- 
ference; for certainly no president or other officer would be guilty of a 
direct refusal to comply with a decision arrived at by the action of the 



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234 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

annnal conference of the associations. In order therefore that all maj 
be informed we once more allude to this matter, and publish herewith the 
record of the action taken by the conference: 

** On motion of Elder Fred Beesley it was decided that the names 
of all parties enrolled should be continued on the roll, until removed by 
proper action of the associations for cause. 

''Apdstle F. M. Lyman said the rolls should be kept as they are and 
never diminished, unless some good reason could be shown, and then the 
matter should be disposed of in a regular way and by the action of the 
association, and a record of the action kept. Our business is to look 
after those who are enrolled." 

This action received the unanimous support of the officers of the 
associations in conference. It must therefore be the settled policy of 
the associations, and we ask them to conform to it. Let the enrollment 
of membership be kept permanently; and if any who have become mem- 
bers of the associations become indifferent to the work, the fact that 
their names are enrolled and that they are accounted members of the 
association gives the officers the right to call upon them and labor with 
them to awaken an interest in them for the work of Mutual Improve- 
ment. It may be true that we shall not always be able to get all the 
enrolled membership into active co-operation with us, but we shall get 
more of our young men into active work by retaining their names on 
the rolls and working with them from time to time, as above described, 
than if we failed to regard the membership as permanent. 

One of the disadvantages under which Improvement Associations 
have had to operate has been the notion that has obtained in some quar- 
ters, that the society is dissolved with the adjournment in the early 
spring, and that it has no existence until reorganized in the fall or early 
winter. We desire that this impression should be obliterated. Our 
associations are permanent institutions, and the discontinuance of meet- 
ings in the spring is but an adjournment of the association which still 
continues its existence. If this latter idea prevails it will increase the 
prestige of our organization and do away with very much of the diffi- 
culty connected with our work. It is asked, however, if the entire 
enrollment of membership shall be called at every meeting; and it is 
urged as an objection that so many are away from their homes or absent 
through indifference that the roll call of the entire membership becomes 
burdensome, especially when so many are not present to answer. So 
far as that is concerned, the associations can make their own arrange- 
ments. A temporary roll for use in the meetings could be drawn up by 
the secretary if thought desirable; and that temporary roll be increased, 
of course, as members come in; but in addition to that, the regular enroll- 



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OUR WORK. 235 

ment of members should be carefully preserved, and the officers should 
see to it that no young man is lost sight of. If some become indifferent 
to the work a labor should be taken up with them and the very best 
effort made to draw them into active membership and association work. 
In the case of not succeeding the first time then another effort and still 
another one should be made until success is obtained. 

We call our missionaries' attention to this matter and ask them 
wherever they find associations who are not carrying out the expressed 
wish of the last General Conference in this particular, that they take up 
a labor with the association officers and insist that the policy of consid- 
ering membership in the society as permanent be adopted. 



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EVENTS OF THE MONTR 

BY THOMAS HULL^ SECRETARY OF THE GENERAL BOARD OF Y. IL IL I. A. 



November 21st, 1898: Governor Wells appoints Richard W. Young 
to be major of the First Battalion of light artillery volunteers, and pro- 
motes E. A. Wedgwood to be captain of Battery A, John F. Critchlow to be 
first lieutenant of Battery B, and George A. Seaman to be second lieu- 
tenant of Battery B. Major Young's commission will bear date of July 
12th by authority of the war department. ♦ ♦ ♦ xhe American 
peace commission presents an ultimatum to the Spanish commission, offer- 
ing $20,000,000 for the Philippines. Spain is given one week to answer. 

23rd: By an explosion of a powder mill at Lamotte, Missouri, six 
men are killed and several wounded. * * * A fire which started in 
the east end of the building totally destroyed the Baldwin Hotel and 
theatre at San Francisco. * * * General Blanco resigns as captain- 
general of Cuba and his resignation is accepted by the Spanish govern- 
ment. 

24th: At the Thanksgiving banquet in London, England, all the 
speeches were expressive of British friendship for the United States and 
referred to an Anglo-American alliance. 

26th: Ex-Queen Liliuokalani visits Salt Lake City. ♦ ♦ ♦ The new 
battleship ''Wisconsin" was successfully launched at the Union Iron Works^ 
San Francisco, this morning. 

27th: Charles W. Couldock, the venerable actor, once so well known 
in Utah, dies in New York City. * ♦ * A severe storm rages on the 
eastern coast and New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New Eng- 
land are snowbound. Many lives are lost. The steamer Portland from 
Boston is wrecked off High Head, Massachusetts, and over one hundred 
lives are lost. * * * Spain decides to accept the American offer of 
$20,000,000 for the Philippines. 

30th: The sixth annual convention of the Municipal League op^is 
in Indianapolis, Indiana. 



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EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 237 

December let: Mrs. Sarah M. Kimball, for many years prominently 
<^onnected with the Relief Societies of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints, dies at her home in Salt Lake City. ♦ ♦ ♦ The 
^^rand jury at Carlinville, Illinois, reports an indictment against Governor 
John R. Tanner, of Illinois, for "palpable evasion of duty and malfeasance 
in office," in connection with the coal miners' strike at Virden, Illinois. 

4th: A great block of buildings is destroyed by fire in New York. 
The loss is over $1,000,000. ♦ ♦ ♦ A violent storm sweeps over the 
Middle and Central-Eastern States and great damage results. 

5th: The closing session of the fifty-fifth Congress opens and the 
President's message is presented. The message in opening refers to the 
prosperity of the country, the immense volume of business, the increased 
treasury receipts, the advanced credit of the nation and the maintenance 
of its currency at what is termed "the world's highest standard." The 
President then proceeds to the discussion of the following subjects: 

The Spanish War — ^Reviewing, at great length, the events leading up 
to it and the course of the struggle, praising the army and navy and the 
work of the Red Cross Society, and recounting the various steps in the 
peace negotiations. 

Agreement as to CaMe Messages — Expressing his sense of the fitness of 
an international agreement whereby the interchange of messages may be 
regulated on a fair basis of uniformity. 

International Expositums — Expressing approval of the proposition 
for a standing appropriation for the acceptance of invitations to the 
United States to participate in such expositions. 

The Nicaraguan Canal — Calling attention to the urgency of definite 
action by Congress at this session and the indispensability of the con- 
struction of this maritime highway. 

Events in China — ^Reviewing the course of recent events there, urg- 
ing the consideration by Congress of the recommendation of the Secretary 
of the Treasury, made to the House of Representatives on the 14th of 
last June, for an appropriation for a commission to study the commercial 
and industrial conditions of the Chinese Empire and report as to the 
opportunities for, and obstacles to, the enlargement of markets in China 
for the products of the United States; and informing Congress that 
ample precautions had been taken for the protection of the rights of 
American citizens in China. 

The Parisian Exposition — Expressing the belief that the report of 
the American Director-General will call for an increase of the appropria- 
tion to at least $1,000,000 and urging that it is our province to lead in 



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288 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

the inarch of human progress and not rest content with any secondary 
place. 

Our Rdatvmi with Great Britain — Referring to the tact and leal 
with which the task of protecting Americans and their interests in Span- 
ish jurisdiction was performed by diplomatic and consular representa- 
tives of Great Britain. 

Territery qf Hawaii — ^Reporting the action taken in regard thereto 
after the passage of the resolution of Ck)ngress providing for the annex- 
ation. 

Russian Rdations — ^Reporting that the Russian mission in this 
country and the American mission in Russia had been raised to the rmk 
of Embassies; referring to the invitation of the Czar to this nation to 
send representatives to an international conference to consider a general 
reduction of the vast military establishments of the nations in time of 
peace, and stating that the Czar had been informed of the sympathy of 
this government with the principle involved in his proposal. 

Private Property at Sea — Suggesting that the Executive be author- 
ized to correspond with the governments of principal maritime powers, 
with a view of incorporating into the permanent law of civilized nations 
the principle of the exemption of all private property -at sea, not con- 
traband of war, from capture or destruction by belligerent powers. 

The Treasury Bureau — Reviewing the condition of the finances of 
the United States, urging the importance of legislation for the mainte- 
nance of the present monetary standard and recommending the forma- 
tion of a gold trust fund from which greenbacks should be redeemed 
upon presentation, but when once redeemed, should not thereafter be 
paid out except for gold. 

The Army and Navy — Recommending that authority be given the 
President to increase the army to 100,000 men; and approving the 
recommendations of the Secretary of the Navy, that the navy be increased 
by the construction of fifteen new vessels of various classes. The mes- 
sage also recommended that the grades of Admiral and Vice-Admiral be 
temporarily revived. 

The President recommends an appropriation and appointment of a 
joint congressional committee for the celebration of the centennial 
anniversary of the founding of Washington for the permanent capital 
of the United States, and concludes his message as follows: 

'The alien contract law is shown by experience to need some amend- 
ment; a measure providing better protection for seamen is proposed; the 
rightful application of the eight-hour law for the benefit of labor and 
of the principles of arbitration, are suggested for consideration, and I 
commend these subjects to the careful consideration of the Congress. 



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EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 239 

Under the same date Secretary of the Treasury, Gage, submits 
his estimates of expenditures for the fiscal year, ending June 30th, 1899, 
which call for $593,048,378. 

8th: Central Utah is visited by a severe east wind. 

10th: The ^eaty of peace between the United States and Spain is 
signed at 8:45 p. m. * * * Ck)lonel Willard Young raises the Ameri- 
can flag over the city hall of Marianao, Cuba. 

11th: General Calizto Garcia, the Cuban patriot, dies of pneumonia, 
at Washington, D. C. 

13th: President McKinley and party leave Washington to attend 
the peace jubilee at Atlanta, Georgia. * * * The funeral of General 
Garcia occurs at Washington, D. C. * * * Four war ships are 
ordered to Havana. 

14th: President McKinley arrives in Atlanta, Georgia, and is given 
an enthusiastic welcome. 

15th: President Lorenzo Snow issues an announcement stating the 
decision of the authorities of the Church to issue $500,000 worth of bonds, 
and suggesting that residents of Utah should purchase them. * * * 
The house of representatives passes the pension bill in twenty minutes, 
surpassing all previous records in the short time and lack of debate. 
* * * Senator Calvin S. Brice, former United States Senator from 
Ohio, dies of pneumonia, in New York City. 

16th: Five regiments of regular infantry are ordered to prepare 
for service in the Philippines. 

17th: Major-General Wesley Merritt, the late commander of the 
United States military forces in the Philippines, arrives in New York, 
from Paris. 



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^ 



SEE THE MIGHTY ANGEL FLYING. 

[Qtiartctte.]* 

Arranged by Evan Stephens. 

K K 



-M-Hfirr^ 



-#-T- 






^ 



-4- 



i 



m= 



1. See! the mighty an - gel fly 

2. Hear, hear, the pro - cla - ma 

ii — t— i — b I- 



ing, See, he 
tion! Cease from 

— I 



^ 



r¥=t 



icz: 



I 



Li 




speeds his way to earth, 
van - i - ty and strife, 



To proclaim the blessed 
Hasten to receive the 



tor H=^=^ ^ 



r n * ' ■ . 



i U= 



^4-^^-j-H^^ 



1^ 



gos - pel; And restore the an - cient 
gos - pel, And o|- bey the words of 



E^ 



^^ 









faith. And restore, 
life. And o-bey. 



and restore the an - cient faith, 
and o-bey the words of life. 






*The words of the aong are from the I«atter-<lay Saints' Hsnnn Book, page 114, and 
were written by R. B. Thompson. The music and arrangement is by Evan Stephens, 
jind was composed and presented by Brother Stephens to his friend Elder George D. 
Pyper when the latter started on his mission through the Kastem cities of the United 
states, in 1896. 



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IMPROVEMENT ERA. 



Vol. n, FEBRUARY, 1899. No. 4. 



THE MORMON CHURCH 

BY ELDER FRANKLIN D. RICHARDS, PRESIDENT OF THE TWELVE 
APOSTLES, AND CHURCH HISTORIAN. 



EDITORIAL NOTE. 

It most always be borne in mind that the Era is a missionary as 
well as a home magazine. This year as last it is being sent free to all oar 
missionaries in all the world. This means that sixteen hundred copies 
of the Era are sent to the varions nations of the earth, there to repre- 
sent the doctrines of the Church. It is therefore important that, as far 
as may be, said doctrine should be officially stated, that those who read 
may be assured that the presentation of the faith is reliable. It is this 
consideration, as well as the merits of the paper itself, which will make 
the following article on 'The Mormon Church," by Elder Franklin D. 
Richards, particularly valuable to our missionaries, abroad, and all those 
who are investigating the doctrines of the Church. Elder Richards is 
the President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, as well as Church 
Historian, and therefore competent to speak with authority indeed upon 
the history and doctrine of the Church. 

The circumstances under which this article was prepared are, 
briefly, these: The World's Parliament of Religions, held in Chicago 



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242 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

during the World's Columbian Exposition, 1893, gave rise to what is 
known as "The University Association," devoted to UnivOTsity and 
World's Congress Extension. The institution designed a first year's 
course of study in Universal History; a second year's course in Universal 
Literature; a third year's course in Comparative Religion, which includes 
in the text-book of the course, a monthly magazine called ProgrtMi, 
an account of each particular faith by a competent and eminent repre- 
sentative. "Only those with a long experience, firm belief and ardent 
love for a system can adequately state its nature and merits," says the 
gentleman in charge of this institution, a sentiment with which all will 
agree. Accordingly Professor Edmund Buckley, Ph. D., Decent of Com- 
parative Religion, of the University of Chicago, opened the followin|[ 
correspondence with Elder Richards, by whose courtesy we are permitted 
to publish it:] 

Chicago, U. S. A., April 19, 1897. 
Mr. F. D. Richards, 

HuUniarCs Qgiee, Salt Lake City, Utah, 
My Dear Sir: — I take pleasure in requesting your co-operation in 
the plan outlined in enclosed announcement.* In the execution of this 
plan we must of course give an account of every Christian Church or 
Society in America, and we feel sure that you will prefer that such 
account of your own church should be written by one of your own num- 
ber, who can avoid misconceptions and write with conviction. If so, we 
shall be glad to hear from you, or, should you be unable to undertake 
the task, to receive from you a nomination of some other suitable persoiL 
I send you a number of our current series in Universal Literature, with 
which that in Universal Religion will be uniform. We shall take pleas- 
ure in mailing you the series in religion, as it appears month by month, 
if you can favor us as above. Please note that we want only the Ameri- 
can period of your Church History. Its earlier history in other countries, 
if it have any, will be cared for in a general account of Church History 
by another hand; but you will do well to begin with a brief statement 
of such earlier history in order to make your account complete in itself. 
We can allow for this account only about nine hundred words of your own 
composition, with as many more of quotations in support of the state- 
ments made in your text. These quotations will naturally be taken from 
the creeds or the representative writers of your society. Any too lon^ 



*The sabstance of which is stated in the foregoing editorial note. 



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THE MORMON CHURCH. 2AZ 

for inclnBion within these limits may be relegated to an appendix. We 
suggest the following sub-topics. 

(1) Historic sketch embodying the principles of your church. 

(2) How far have these principles been found realizable? 

(3) How far can they hope to be further realized in the future? 

(4) On what conditions would you unite federally with other 
churches? 

We should not require this article until January, 1898, but need a 
response within a few days, since we are about to publish a prospectus of 
our entire course. 
Believe me, 

Very cordially yours, 

[Signed] E. Buckley. 

Salt Lake City, May 4, 1897. 
Edmund BwM^, Ph. D. 

Editor Docent in Comparative Religion, 
University of Chicago^ 

My Dear Sir: — I have the pleasure to acknowledge receipt of your 
distinguished favor of the 19th ultimo. 

I appreciate the sentiment that each religious society, church or 
denomination should be represented by one of its own number, who can 
write correctly, avoid misrepresentation and give his honest convictions 
of the matters stated. The world-wide calumnies and conflicting state- 
ments that have been written of our people and published in the ency- 
clopsadias, magazines and other publications throughout the land, 
awaken in one an appreciation of an opportunity to represent ourselves 
instead of being misrepresented by others. 

I shall endeavor to furnish you an article as contemplated in your 
letter above referred to by the time named — ^January, 1898 — meantime 
shall be pleased to receive any further suggestions that may appear of 
benefit to the purpose designed. 

Sincerely and cordially yours, 

[Signed] F. D. Richards. 



Salt Lake City, Utah, February 9, 1898. 
Rev. Edmund Buckley, Ph. D. 

Editor Docent in Comparative Religion, 

University of Chicago, 
My Dear Sir: — In compliance with your request of April 19th, 
1897, 1 have the pleasure to forward you an historical statement of the 



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244 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, including its principles of 
faith, doctrines, ordinances, etc., and have endeavored to bring it 
within the limits indicated accompanying the request. 

I sincerely hope and urgently request that you will grant me a fall 
insertion of this clear, concise and comprehensive statement of our 
religion in your highly instructive and interesting publication. 

Please inform me at your early convenience if I may be so favored, 
and oblige, 

Yours very respectfully, 

[Signed] F. D. Richards. 

Accept my grateful acknowledgement for the numbers of Compara- 
tive Religion. I intend to subscribe for the other literary numbers. 

F. D. Richards. 



Chicago, February 14th, 1898. 
Elder F. D, Richards, 

Box 1678, SaU Lake OUy, Utah, 

My Dear Sir: — We have received your article on the History of 
Mormonism, and are greatly obliged for the prompt and careful atten- 
tion which you have given it. We have not yet received all of the 
manuscripts which go in the number containing your article, therefore, 
we are unable to tell just how much space we will have at our disposal 
for each article, but we shall try to publish your article in full, as 
requested. By the way, could you not send us some good illustratioDS 
or photographs of the Temple and Tabernacle, also of Brigham Young, 
and the present President of the Mormon Church, which we can publish 
in connection with the article? Good printecl illustrations which we can 
reproduce would be preferable, but photographs would also answer our 
purpose. The cuts could be returned to you if desired. 
Yours truly. 

The University Association, 

Edmund Buckley. 



The photographs asked for were supplied by Elder Richards, and 
with the article appeared in the November number of Progress, and is 
here reproduced. 

THE MORMON CHURCH. 

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, commonly 
called the "Mormon" Church, was organized April 6th, 1830, at 
Fayette, Seneca County, New York, Joseph Smith, Jr., being accepted 



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THE MORMON CHURCH. 245 

as the first Elder and Oliver CWdery as the second Elder of the 
Church. The members composing the body of the Chnrch were 
believers in God the Father, in Jesos Christ His Son, and in the 
Holy Ghost. They had repented of their sins and had been baptized 
by immersion in water for the remission of sins and were confirmed 
members of the Church by the laying on of the hands of the Elders, 
who sealed upon them the gift of the Holy Ghost, with the privi- 
lege of receiving and enjoying all the gifts and powers which came 
from the possession of that Spirit in olden times. This was done 
by revelation and commandment of the Most High God, who, with 
Jesus Christ, His Son, had appeared to Joseph Smith in heavenly 
vision. An angel of God had also appeared to the youthful prophet 
and disclosed to him the spot where records of the original inhab- 
itants of the American continent were hidden, which, after repeated 
visits and instructions from the angel, were delivered into his hands. 
They consisted of a number of metallic plates having the appearance 
of gold, on which were inscribed on both sides hieroglyphics nar- 
rating the history, travels, rise and fall of a colony brought upon 
this continent at the scattering of people from the tower of Babel, 
and of a later migration of Israelites from Jerusalem, when Zede- 
kiah was king of Judah. The religion of those people was described 
and particulars were given of the establishment of the Church of 
Christ among them, by his appearance in person after his resur- 
rection and ascension. With the plates was the Urim and Thum- 
mim, by means of which and the gift and power of God, Joseph 
Smith translated a portion of the record which had been abridged 
and compiled by a prophet among those ancient people named Mor- 
mon. The book thus translated is therefore called tl^e Book of 
Mormon, and it has been published in several languages. 

Previous to the organization of the Church, Joseph Smith and 
Oliver Cowdery had been visited by John the Baptist, who conferred 
upon them the Aaronic Priesthood, with the authority to baptize 
for the remission of sins; and also at a later date by Peter, James 
and John, who ordained them apostles of Jesus Christ, with author- 
ity to confer the Holy Ghost upon baptized, repentant believers, by 
the laying on of hands; also to organize and establish the Church 
of Christ in all its fullness preparatory to the second advent of 
the Savior. Guided by the spirit of revelation, the prophet, seer 



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246 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

and revelator, Joseph Smith, proceeded to fulfill his mission. The 
Gospel was preached, the Holy Ghost was poured out upon con- 
verts and was manifested in healings, miracles, tongues, interpre- 
tations, prophecy, visions, and all the gifts enjoyed in the primitive 
Christian Church. Men were called by revelation to fill the various 
offices of the Church, including Apostles, Seventies, Elders, Priests, 
Teachers and Deacons, Bishops, Evangelists, etc., and missionaries 
were sent out into the world to preach the Gospel without "purse 
or scrip." People who received their testimony that the Gospel 
and Church of Christ had been restored to earth, obtained a wit- 
ness from God, personally, of the truth of these things, and as the 
elect of God, gathered from all parts of the earth to the bosom of 
the Church in America. 

Persecution raged against the Church from the beginning. 
All kinds of misrepresentation. were resorted to by its enemies. The 
Saints were driven from their possessions in Missouri and after- 
wards in Illinois; many of them were slaughtered by mobs, their 
property was confiscated, and in 1844, on June 27th, the Prophet 
Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum were shot to death by mobo- 
crats with blackened faces, at Carthage, Illinois. Subsequently 
the body of the Saints were driven from the city of Nauvoo, which 
they had built on the banks of the Mississippi, and under the leader- 
ship of Brigham Young, who was the President of the Twelve Apos- 
tles, the persecuted Saints made their way to Winter Quarters, on 
the banks of the Missouri river, near where Council Bluffs now stands. 
It was there that the Mormon Battallion of five hundred able-bodied 
men were enlisted, at the call of the President of the United States, 
to aid their country in the war with Mexico. They were the 
strength of the body of the Church, but, were parted with in the 
true spirit of patriotism. They made an unparalleled march across 
the deserts to their destination, leaving their families to struggle 
for existence in that then unsettled region. In 1847 the famous 
journey from the Missouri river across the plains and mountains 
was accomplished by Brigham Young and the Pioneers, ntmibering 
one hundred and forty-three men, three women and two children. 
They reached the spot where Salt Lake City now stands, July 24th 
of that year. The great Temple, costing more than three miUion 



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THE MORMON CHURCH. 2A1 

dollars, rears its towers on the spot where Brigham Young declared 
at that time, "Here we will build the Temple of our God." 

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Sainst has now its 
branches in all the civilized nations and upon many islands of the 
sea. It has sixteen hundred Elders in the mission field, laboring 
without pay. Its membership numbers about 300,000. It has 
four magnificent Temples, in which are administered ordinances for 
the living and the dead. It is presided over by Lorenzo Snow, 
George Q. Cannon and Joseph F. Smith, Apostles of Jesus Christ, 
holding the keys of the kingdom of heaven, with the binding and 
loosing power which Christ conferred upon Peter, James and John, 
and which they restored to earth. It has Twelve Apostles to open 
the door of the kingdom in all nations and set in order the affairs 
of the Church. It has all the orders of the Christian ministry and 
priesthood which were in the Church during the first century of the 
Christian era. It administers the same ordinances and enjoys the 
same unity, power, spiritual gifts and divine communications as were 
then bestowed. 

Mormonism aflSrms the personality of God and the universal 
diffusion of his Spirit as the life and light of all things. It teaches 
that the spirit of man is the offspring of Grod, and existed as a liv- 
ing entity before the incorporation in a mortal body; that it will 
not only continue after death, but will be clothed upon with a resur- 
rected body in such degree of glory and progress as it shall be 
fitted for by the deeds done in the flesh; that all mankind will be 
raised from the dead, and be judged according to their works; that 
in order to gain the celestial or highest degree of glory, men and 
women must be bom of water, ^y baptism, and of the Spirit, by the 
gift of the Holy Ghost, obtained through the laying on of hands, 
and must then "live by every word that proceedeth out of the 
mouth of God;" that punishment will be awarded to the wicked 
according to their demerits; that while Grod's punishment is eternal, 
because he is the eternal lawgiver, sinners receive of that punish- 
ment in degree and for the necessary time to bring them to repent- 
ance and reformation; that the Gospel preached to men in the flesh 
is and will be preached to those in the spirit who h^ve departed 
from the body without the opportunity of receiving the pure truth 
as revealed from heaven; that the living Saints may officiate in 



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248 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

saored places in behalf of their dead anoestors and relatives in tbe 
ordmances necessary for salvation; that the coming of the Savior to 
reign as king of kings is near at hand, and that this Gospel of the 
kingdom is to be preached to all nations as a witness of his 
advent; that the kingdoms of this world will become the kingdom 
of God and his Christ; that Satan will be bound, the earth be 
cleansed from corruption and the glory of God will cover it as the 
waters cover the deep; and that eventually all mankind, with the 
exception of the sons of perdition, who sin against the Holy Ghost 
after having received it, will be saved in some degree of happiness, 
usefulness and glory. 

Marriage among the Latter-day Saints is a sacrament. It is 
solemnized for time and for all eternity. It is sealed on earth by 
one having divine authority, and is therefore sealed in heaven. 
Death may part the pair for a time, but the bond being eternal, can- 
not be sundered by death or by any power that is not divine. This 
union of the sexes is essential to perfect exaltation in the celestial 
world. The marriage does not take place in or after the resur- 
rection, but in this life, where the parties are tested in their pro- 
bation. Those persons who arrive at no higher condition than that 
of angels, are ministering spirits unto the sons and daughters of 
Grod, who obtain % far more and eternal and exceeding weight of 
glory." The redeemed and sanctified and crowned heirs of Grod and 
joint heirs with Jesus Christ dwell in the presence of the Father 
and the Son, and, at the head of their own posterity, 'Inherit all 
things" and reign as kings and priests unto God in everlasting glcny, 
majesty and dominion. 

The Prophet Joseph Smith, when asked for an epitome of the 
faith of the Latter-day Saints gave it in the following form: 

ARTICLES OP FAITH. 

1. We believe in God, the Eternal Father, and in his Son, Jesus 
Christ, and in the Holy Ghost. 

2. We believe that men will be punished for thdr own sins and 
not for Adam'^ transgression. 

3. We believe that, through the atonement of Christ, all mankind 
may be saved, by obedience to the laws and ordinances of the Gospel 



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THE MORMON CHURCH. 249 

4. We believe that tkese ordinances are: First, faith in the Lord 
Christ; second, repentance; third, baptism by immersion for the 

remission of sins; fourth, laying on of hands for the gift of the Holy 
Ghost. 

5. We believe that a man must be called of God, by "prophecy and 
by the laying on of hands," by those who are in authority to preach the 
Gospel and administer in the ordinances thoreof. 

6. We believe in the same organization that existed in the primi- 
tive church, viz.. Apostles, Prophets, Pastors, Teachers, Evangelists, etc. 

7. We believe in the gift of tongues, prophecy, revelation, visions, 
healings, interpretation of tongues, etc. 

8. We believe the Bible to be the word of God, as far as it is 
translated correctly; we also believe the Book of Mormon to be the word 
of God. 

9. We believe all that God has revealed, all that he does now 
reveal, and we believe that he will yet reval many great and important 
things pertaining to the kingdom of heaven. 

10. We believe in the literal gathering of Israel and in the restora- 
tion of the Ten Tribes. That Zion will be built upon this continent. 
That Christ will reign personally upon the earth, and that the earth will 
be renewed and receive its paradisic glory. 

11. We claim the privilege of worshiping Almighty God accord- 
ing to the dictates of our own conscience, and allow all men the same 
privilege, let them worship how, where or what they may. 

12. We believe in being subject to kings, presidents, rulers and 
magistrates, in obeying, honoring and sustaining the law. 

13. We believe in being honest, true, chaste, benevolent, virtuous 
and in doing good to all men; indeed we may say that we follow the 
admonition of Paul, ''We believe all things, we hope all things;" we have 
endured many things, and hope to be able to endure all things. If there 
is anything virtuous, lovely or of good report or praiseworthy, we seek 
after these things. — Joseph Smith. 

As to the personality of God the Father, the Latter-day Saints 
refer to the following: 

''And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. 
* * * So God created man in his own image, in the image of 
God created he him, male and female created he them.** (Gen. i: 26, 27. 

"For man indeed ought not to cover his head, forasmuch as he is the 
image and glory of God." (I Cor. xi; 7.) 

'Then went up Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu and seventy of 



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250 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

the elders of Israel, and they saw the God of Israel, and there was under 
his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the 
body of heaven in his clearness." (Exodus xxiv; 9, 10.) 

Jesus the Son of God is declared to be ''The brightness of his glory 
and the express image of his person." (Heb. i; 3.) 

"Who is the image of the invisible God, the first-bom of every 
creature." (Col. i; 15.) 

The omnipresence of God by his Spirit universally diffused, is 
thus declared: 

'This is the light of Christ, as also he is in the sun and the light of 
the sun and the power by which it was made; also he is in the moon, 
and is the light of the moon and the power thereof by which it was 
made; as also the light of the stars and the power thereof by which they 
were made; and the earth also and the power thereof, even the earth 
upon which ye stand; and the light which now shineth, which giveth you 
light, is through him which enlighteneth your eyes, which is the same 
that quickeneth your understandings, which light proceedeth forth from 
the presence of God, to fill the immensity of space. The light which is 
in all things, which giveth life to all things, which is the law by which 
all things are governed, even the power of God who sitteth upon his 
throne, who is in the bosom of eternity, who is in the midst of all things." 
(Revelation to Joseph Smith, December 27, 1832.) 

"And the earth was without form and void; and darkness was upon 
the face of the deep, and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the 
waters." (Gen. i; 2.) 

"By his Spirit he hath garnished the heavens." (Job xxvi; 13.) 
"Thou sendest forth thy Spirit, they [the beasts of the field] are 
created; and thou renewest the face of the earth." (Psalm civ; 30.) 
"And shall put my Spirit in you and you shall live." (Ezek. xxx vii ; 14) 
'There is a spirit in man and the inspiration of the Almighty giveth 
them understanding." (Job xxxii; 8.) 

"And it shall come to pass afterward that I will pour out my Spirit 
upon all flesh." <Joel ii; 28.) 

"It is the Spirit that quickeneth." (John vi; 63.) 
"But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit; for the Spirit 
searcheth all things, yea the deep things of God." (I Cor. ii; 10.) 

That the spirits of men are the offspring of Grod, is shown in 
the following: 

"And now verily I say unto you, I was in the beginning with the 



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THE MORMON CHURCH. 251 

Father and am the first-born; and all those who are begotten through 
me are partakers of the glory of the same and are the Church of the 
first-born. Ye were also in the beginning with the Father." (From 
revelation to Joseph Smith, May 6, 1833.) 

'^Furthermore we have had fathers of our flesh which corrected ub 
and we gave them reverence; shall we not much rather be in subjection 
unto the Father of spirits and live?'' (Heb. xii; 9.) 

"I ascend unto my Father and unto your Father; and to my God and 
to your God." (John xx; 17.) 

'* And again when he bringeth in the first begotten into the world,'' 
etc. (Heb. i; 6.) 

*Torasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, 
he also himself likewise took part of the same. * « * Wherefore 
in all things it behooveth him to be made like unto his brethren," etc* 
(Heb. ii; 14-17.) 

"Beloved, now are we the sons of God; and it doth not yet appear 
what we shall be; but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall 
be like him; for we shall see him as he is." (I John iii; 2.) 

"Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? Declare 
if thou hast understanding. * * * When the morning stars sang 
together and all the sons of (xod shouted for joy?" (Job zxxviii; 4-7.) 

'Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was, and the spirit 
shall return to (xod who gave it." (Eccles. xii; 7.) 

The resurrection of the body, extending to the resuscitation 
of all who have lived and died on earth, to be judged in the resur- 
rected body for the deeds done in the natural body, is a scriptural 
doctrine, as may be seen from these texts: 

'There is a space between death and the resurrection of the body 
and a state of the soul in happiness or in misery, until the time which is 
appointed of God that the dead shall come forth, and be reunited both 
soul and body and be brought to stand before God and be judged accord- 
ing to their works. The soul shall be restored to the body and the body to 
the soul; yea, and every limb and joint shall be restored to its body; 
yea, even a hair of the head shall not be lost, but all things shall be 
restored to their proper and perfect frame." (Book of Mormon, page 354.) 

"Now this restoration shall come to all, both old and young, both 
bond and free, both male and female, both the wicked and the righteous." 
(Ibid., page 267.) 

"Marvel not at this, for the hour is coming in the which all that 
are in the graves shall hear his voice, and shall come forth; they that 



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252 IMPRO VEMENT ERA. 

haye done good unto the resurrection of life, and they tiiat have done 
evil unto the resurrection of damnation." (John v; 28, 29.) 

'^And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God, and the 
books were opened, and another book was opened, which is the book of 
life, and the dead were judged out of those things which were written 
in the books, according to their works.** (Rev. xx; 12.) 

"There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and 
another glory of the stars. For one star differet from another star in 
glory; so also is the resurrection of the dead." (I Cor. xy; 41.) 

That baptism of water and of the Holy Ghost is essential, the 
following show: 

"Go ye into all the world, preach the Gospel to every creature, act- 
ing in the authority which I have given you, baptizing in the name of 
the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. And he that believeth 
and is baptized shall be saved, and he that believeth not shall be 
damned. * * * As I said to mine Apostles, I say unto you again, 
that every soul that believeth on your words and is baptized by water 
for the remission of sins, shall receive the Holy Ghost, and signs shall 
foltow them that believe. ♦ ♦ ♦ Verily, verily I say unto you, they 
that believe not on your words and are not baptized in water in my 
name for the remission of their sins, that they may receive the Holy 
Ghost, shall be damned and shall not come into my Father's kingdom." 
(Revelation to Joseph Smith, November, 1881.) 

"Jesus answered, verily, verily I say unto thee, except a man be 
born of water and of the spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of 
God." (John iii; 5.) 

"(jO ye into all the world and preach the Grospel to every creature; 
he that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth 
not shall be damned." (Mark xvi; 15, 16.) 

"Then Peter said unto them, repent and be baptized every one of 
you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall 
receive the gift of the Holy Ghost." (Acts ii; 37, 38.) 

"But when they believed Philip preaching the things concerning 
the kingdom of Crod, and the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized, 
both men and women. * * * Then laid they their hands on them 
and they received the Holy Ghost." (Acts viii; 12-18.) 

That this Gospel will be preached to all people, both living 
and dead, see the following: 

"For Christ also hath suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that 



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THE MORMON CHURCH. 258 

he might bring us to God; being put to death in the flesh, but quickened 
by the spirit, by which also he went and preached unto the spirits in 
prison, which sometime were disobedient when once the long-suffering of 
God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein 
few, that is eight souls, were saved by water." (1 Peter iii; 18-20.) 
'Tor, for this cause was the gospel t>reached also to them that are 
dead, that they might be judged according to men in the flesh, but live 
according to God in the spirit." (Ibid, iv; 6.) 

The living Saints may perform ordinances for the repentant 
dead: 

"Else what shall they do which are baptized for the dead, if the 
dead rise not at all? Why are they then baptized for the dead?" (1 
Cor. xv; 19.) 

''And saviors shall come up on Mount Zion to judge the Mount of 
Esau and the kingdom shall be the Lord's." (Obadiah i; 21.) 

"God having provided some better thing for us, that they without 
us should not be made perfect." (Heb. zi; 40.) 

That the true Grospel is to be preached to prepare the way for 
Christ's coming and the end of the world, see the following: 

"And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world, 
for a witness unto all nations, and then shall the end come." (Matt. 
xxvi. 14.) 

"And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the 
everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to 
every nation, and kindred and tongue and people, saying with a loud 
voice Fear God and give glory to him, for the hour of his judgment is 
come." (Rev. xiv; 6. 7.) 

That Satan will be bound, the earth be cleansed from corrup- 
tion, the kingdoms of this world become the kingdom of our (zod, 
and that the reign of Christ and his triumph over error and Satan 
shall be complete and universal, are supported by the following 
texts: 

"And I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of 
the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand. 

"And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the 
devil, and Satan and bound him a thousand years. 

"And cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a 
seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the 



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254 • IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

thousand years should be fulfilled: and after that he must be loosed a 
little season." (Rev. xx; 1-3.) 

"And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and heU 
delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every 
man according to their works. 

"And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the 
second death." (Rev. xx; 13, 14.) 

"And I heard a great voice out of heaven, saying, Behold, the 
tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they 
shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God. 

"And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there 
shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be 
any more pain: for the former things are passed away." (Rev. 
xxi; 3, 4.) 

"But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night; in the 
which the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements 
shall melt with fervent heat, the earth also and the works that are 
therein shall be burned up. 

"Seeing then that all these things shall be dissolved, what manner of 
persons ought ye to be in all holy conversation and godliness, 

'Ijooking for and hasting unto the coming of the day of God, 
wherein, the heavens being on fire, shall be dissolved, and the elements 
shall melt with fervent heat? 

"Nevertheless we, according to his promise, look for new heavens 
and a new earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness." (2 Peter iii; 10-13.) 

"Behold the Lord maketh the earth empty; and maketh it waste, 
and tumeth it upside down, and scattereth abroad the inhabitants thereof. 

"And it shall be, as with the people, so with the priest; as with the 
servant, so with his master; as with the maid, so with her mistress; as 
with the buyer, so with the seller; as with the lender, so with the bor- 
rower; as with the taker of usury, so with the giver of usury to him. 

"The land shall be utterly emptied, and utterly spoiled: for the 
Lord hath spoken this word. 

''The earth moumeth, and fadeth away; the world languisheth, and 
fadeth away; the haughty people of the earth do languish. 

"The earth also is defiled under the inhabitants thereof, because 
they have transgressed the laws, changed the ordinance, broken the 
everlasting covenant. 

"Therefore hath the curse devoured the earth, and they that dwell 
therein are desolate: therefore the inhabitants of the earth are burned, 
and few men left." (Isaiah xxiv; 1-6.) 



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THE MORMON CHURCH. 255 

"And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall punish 
the host of the high ones that are on high, and the kings of the earth 
upon the earth. 

'*And they shall be gathered together as prisoners are gathered in 
the pit, and shall be shut up in the prison, and after many days shall 
they be visited. 

"Then the moon shall be confounded, and the sun ashamed, when the 
Lord of hosts shall reign in Mount Zion, and in Jerusalem, and before 
his ancients, gloriously." (Isaiah xziv; 21-23.) 

"And at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in 
heaven and things on earth, and things under the earth; 

"And that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, 
to the glory of God the Father. (Philippians ii; 10, 11.) 

"And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a 
kingdom which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be 
left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all 
these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever. (Daniel ii; 44) 

'1 saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man 
came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and 
they brought him near before him. 

"And there was given him dominions, and glory, and a kingdom, 
that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion 
is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom 
that which shall not be. destroyed.'' (Daniel vii; 13, 14.) 

'The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, and the lion shall eat 
straw like the bullock: and dust shall be the serpent's meat. They 
shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain, saith the Lord." 
(laaiah Ixv; 25.) 

"For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make, 
shall remain before me, saith the Lord, so shall your seed and your 
name remain. (Isaiah Izvi; 22.) 

"Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom 
to God, even the Father, when he shall have put down all rule and all 
authority and power. 

"For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet. 

"The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death. 

"For he hath put all things under his feet. But when he saith. All 
things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted, which did 
put all things under him. 

"And when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the Son 



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256 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God 
may be all in all." (Cor. xv; 24-28.) 

"There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and 
another glory of the stars: for one star differeth from another star 
in glory. 

''So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in corruption; 
it is raised in incormption: 

''It is sown in dishonor; it is raised in glory: it is sown in 
weakness; it is raised in power: 

It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body. There 
is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body. 

"And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; 
the last Adam was made a quickening spirit. 

"Howbeit that was not first which is spiritual, but that which is 
natural; and afterward that which is spiritual. 

"The first man is of the earth, earthy: the second man is the Lord 
from heaven. 

"As is the earthy, such are they also that are earthy: and as is the 
heavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. 

"And as we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall also bear 
the image of the heavenly. 

"Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the 
kingdom of God; neither doth corruption inherit incormption. 

"Behold I show you a mystery: We shall not all sleep but we shall 
all be changed, 

"In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for 
the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and 
we shall be changed. 

"For this corruptible must put on incormption, and this mortal must 
put on immortality. 

"So yrhen this cormptible shall have put on incormption, and this 
mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the 
saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory." (I. Cor. xv; 
41-54.) 

As to eternal marriage and the glory and dominion of the 
redeemed, it will be seen that when the first marriage was per- 
formed in Eden, the pair were immortal. Death came by sin, but 
life was restored through the atonement. Adam and Eve are 
therefore man and wife for eternity. 

"And the rib which the Lord God had taken from man, made he a 
woman, and brought her unto the man. 



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THE MORMON CHURCH. 251 

"And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my 
flesh: she shall be called woman, because she was taken out of man." 
(Gen. ii; 22.) 

"So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created 
he him; male and female created he them. 

"And God blessed them, and God said nnto them. Be fmitful and 
multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdne it; and have dominion dver 
the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living 
thing that moveth upon the earth." (Gen. i; 27, 28.) 

'Tor since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection 
of the dead. 

"For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.'' 
a Cor. xv; 21, 22.) 

"Nevertheless, neither is the man without the woman, neither the 
woman without the man in the Lord." (I Cor. xi; 11.) 

"And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was 
given them: and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the 
witness of Jesus and for the word of God, and which had not worshiped 
the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their 
foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a 
thousand years. 

"But the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years 
were finished. This is the first resurrection. 

"Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection: on 
such the second death hath no power, but they shall be priests of God 
and of Christ, and shall reign with him a thousand years." (Rev. xz; 4-6. 

"An4 they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the 
book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast 
redeemed us to God by thy blood, out of every kindred, and tongue, and 
people, and nation; 

"And hast made us unto our God kings and priests: we shall reign 
on the earth. (Rev. v; 9, 10.) 

"And I heard a great voice out of heaven, saying. Behold the taber- 
nacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be 
his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God. 

"And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall 
be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any 
more pain: for the former things are passed away. 

"And he that sat upon the throne said. Behold, I make all things 
new. And he said unto me, Write; for these words are true and faithful^ 

"And he said unto me. It is done. I am Alpha and Omega, the 



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258 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

beginning and the end. I will give nnto him that is athirst, of the 
fonntain of the water of life freely. 

''He that overcome th shall inherit all things; and I will be his God, 
and he shall be my son." (Rev. xxi; 3-7.)* 



A DREAM OP YOUTH. 



{Written for the Era.) 

A dream of yonth well nigh f orgot. 

Comes o'er me like a new-bom thonght. 

A dream to me that now doth seem 

Twas much akin to Jacob's dream — 

In which a ladder stretched on high 

Connection made 'twixt earth and sky. 

Not mine a ladder, bnt a stairway wide, 

Bannistered well on either side. 

That once, when started on the way, 

Twas easy in the right to stay. 

'Twas years of toil to reach the strand, 

Where an angel beckoned with outstretched hand 

To me, who stood in doubt and fear, 

A boy, to choose twixt "Far" and "Near," 

The "Near" the earth, the joys of man, 

Which well have proved themselves a ban. 

The " Far," the sky, where immortals dwell — 

I fain no more my dream would tell. 

For lingering there twixt doubt and fear 

I saw the stairway disappear — 



* We suggest that in missions where the Elders are publishing tx*^ 
setting forth briefly the history and doctrines of the church, they co^^ 
not do better than to publish the above article as a tract. — Editor, 



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A DREAM OF YOUTH. 259 

The angel faded as fade the stars 
At the approach of day! 

* * * * 
This dream was in my early youtL 
Not mine to realize the truth 

My dream had tanght me, but I went 
Down life's wrong way with nature bent — 
Refusing to receive the truth. 
That if I started in my youth 
Upon the way which leads to God, 
Twere easy to hold fast the 'Iron Rod,"* 
Which leads into the courts above, 
Made happy by divinest love. 

* * * * * 

I failed, did wrong — am struggling yet 
Back in God's highway to get. 
But hard it is when once we stray 
Back to the light to find our way! 

Anon. 



* Meaninf the word of God. The simfle is taken from the Bcok of Monnon. 



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ABDALLAH AND SABAT^ 



A TALE. 



Abdallah and Sabat were intimate friends, and being young 
men of famUy in Arabia, they agreed to travel together, and visit 
foreign countries. They were both zealous Mohammedans. Sabat 
was son of Ibraham Sabat, a noble family of the line of Beni Sabat, 
who trace their pedigree to Mohammed. The two friends left Arabia, 
after paying their adorations at the tomb of their prophet, and 
traveled through Persia, and thence to Cabul. Abdallah was 
appointed to an office of state under Zeman Shah, idng of Cabul; 
and Sabat left him there, and proceeded on a tour through Tartary. 

While Abdallah remained at Cabul, he was converted to the 
Christian faith, by the perusal of a Bible, (as is supposed) belong- 
ing to a Christian from Armenia, then residing at CabuL In the 
Mohammedan states, it was then death for a man of rank to become a 
Christian. Abdallah endeavored for a time to conceal his con- 
version; but finding it no longer possible, he determined to flee to 
some of the Christian churches near the Caspian Sea. He accord- 
ingly left Cabul in disguise, and had gained the great city of 
Bochara, in Tartary, when he was met in the streets of that city 
by his friend Sabat, who immediately recognized him. Sabat had 
heard of his conversion and flight, and was filled with indignation 
at his conduct. Abdallah knew his danger, and threw himself at 
the feet of Sabat. He confessed he was a Christian, and implored 
him, by the sacred tie of their former friendship, to let him escape 
with his life. "But, sir,'' said Sabat, when relating the story him- 
himself, "I had no pity. I caused my servants to seize him, and I 
delivered him up to Marad Shah, king of Bochara. He was sen- 



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ABDALLAH AND SABAT. 261 

tenced to die, and a herald went through the city of Bochara, 
announcing the time of execution. An immense multitude attended, 
and the chief men of the city. I also went, and stood near Abdal- 
lah. He was offered his life if he would abjure Christ, the execu- 
tioner standing by him with his sword in his hand. 'No,' said he 
(as if the proposition were impossible to be complied with), 1 can- 
not abjure Christ.' Then one of his hands was cut off at the wrist. 
He stood firm, his arm hanging by his side, but with little motion. 
A physician, by desire of the king, offered to heal the wound if he 
would recant. He made no answer, but looked up steadfastly 
towards heaven like Stephen, the first martyr, his eyes streaming 
with tears. He did not look with anger towards me. He looked 
at me, but it was benignly, and with the countenance of forgive- 
ness. His other hand was then cut off. But, sir," said Sabat, in 
his imperfect English, '%e never changed, he never changed! And 
when he bowed his head to receive the blow of death all Bochara 
seemed to say, 'What new thing is this?"' 

Sabat had indulged the hope that Abdallah would have recanted 
when he was offered his life; but when he saw that his friend was 
dead, he resigned himself to grief and remorse. He traveled from 
place to place seeking rest and finding none. At last he thought he 
would visit India. He accordingly came to Madras about five years 
ago. Soon after his arrival, he was appointed by the English govern- 
ment a mufti, or expounder of the Mohammedan law, his great learn- 
ing and respectable station in his own country rendering him well 
qualified for that office. And now the period of his conversion drew 
near. While he was at Visagapatam, in the northern Circars, exercis- 
ing his professional duties. Providence brought in his way the New 
Testament, in the Arabic language. He read it with deepi thought, 
the Koran lying before him. He compared them together with 
patience and solicitude, and at length the truth of the gospel fell 
on his mind, as he expressed it, like a flood of light. Soon after- 
wards, he proceeded to Madras, a journey of three hundred miles, 
to seek Christian baptism, and having make a public confession of 
his faith, he was baptized in the English church at that place, by 
the name of Nathaniel, in the twenty-seventh year of his age. 
When his family in Arabia heard that he had followed the example 
of Abdallah, and become a Christian, they dispatched his brother 



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262 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

to India (a voyage of two months) to assassinate him. While Sabat 
was sitting in his house at Visagapatam his brother presented him- 
self in the disguise of a faquir, or beggar, having a dagger con- 
cealed under his mantle. He rushed on Sabat, and wounded him. 
But Sabat seized his arm, and his servants came to his assistance. 
He then recognized his brother! The assassin would have become 
the victim of public justice; but Sabat interceded for him, and sent 
him home in peace, with letters and presents, to his mother's house 
in Arabia. 

When Sabat forgave and interceded for his brother, he wasm) 
longer the fanatic pitiless Mohammedan, but the professor (A a 
religion which teaches mercy and f or^veness to our most implacable 
enemies. 



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ACTS OF SPECIAL PROVTOENCE IN MIS- 
SIONARY EXPERIENCE^ 



FULFILLMENT OF DREAMS. 

BY ELDER M. P. COWLEY. 



On the 5th day of July, 1876, 1 was told by the Patriarch Wm. 
McBride, 'Thou must prepare thy mind, for the time is not far dis- 
tant when thou shalt be called into the ministry, and shalt travel 
much for the Gospel's sake both at home and abroad.'' From my 
earliest remembrances I had anticipated that at some future time, 
I would, like other young men, be called to *'fill a mission,'' but 
from the time the Patriarch uttered the words quoted above upon 
my head, the spirit of studying the Scriptures and preparing my 
heart for the work, rested upon me more intensely than ever 
before. Accordingly I studied and memorized many passages of 
Scripture upon the fundamental principles of the Gospel, which 
proved to be of inestimable value to me in subsequent years. The 
latter part of January, 1878, 1 was called to perform a mission in 
the Southern States. About that time Elder John Morgan was 
called to preside over the Southern States Mission. Before leaving 
home President Morgan was very careful to teach myself and 
others the absolute necessity of traveling without ''purse or 
scrip," and to avoid sending home for money, stating that those 
who had been supplied with means from home, and depended upon 
that means for support in the missionary field had blocked up the 



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264 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

way of receiving testimonies, by the direct manifestations of God's 
power in their behalf, and in too many instances had made total 
failures of their missions. This counsel made a deep impression 
upon my mind, and I felt determined to carry it out. While this 
was a good resolution, it was probably made, as proven by subse- 
quent events, too much in the same spirit of self-reliance which 
actuated Peter when he said to his Lord and Master, '' Though all 
men deny thee yet will I nof 

Elder Henry W. Bamett and myself left Salt Lake City, 
February 24th, 1878, for the South, with instructions to spend 
some time in Graves County, Kentucky, among the relatives of 
Elder Samuel R. Tumbow of this city, and from whose nephew B. 
R. Tumbow, the Elders had received an invitation to visit If we 
found no encouraging field of labor there we were to proceed to the 
State of Virginia. We spent one month in Kentucky, and held a 
number of public meetings and Gospel conversations. My com- 
panion felt impressed that we should go to Virginia, and started 
for that field about April 1st. Not having a very liberal supply of 
money we traveled by steamboat instead of rail from Paducah, 
Ky., to Nashville, Tennessee. Prom thence we proceeded by rail to 
Chattanooga, where we found ourselves in a strange city without 
sufficient means to pay our way to Big Lick, our railroad destina- 
tion in the State of Virginia. We had enough, however, to pay for 
lodging a few days, and obtain a little food each day. We had 
addresses of members of the Church in Kentucky and Virginia, 
and concluded to write them for means, as a loan, to help us to our 
field of labor. We did so, but in every instance failed to procure 
assistance, and in some instances received no response to our letters. 
In the meantime the little money we had was well nigh exhausted, 
until we had to get trusted for our lodging, and for food 
expended sometimes five cents, sometimes ten cents a day each for 
a few crackers and a little cheese or a bowl of bread and milk. 
While in this straightened situation, I dreamed that I was housed up 
in a room where there was no air, and in struggling for breath I 
would turn to the North, then to the East, then to the South, but 
in vain, until I turned my face to the West, when it seemed that 
an opening was made in the enclosure and I breathed with freedom. 
Upon awakening I felt very depressed, for it seemed to me that the 



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ACTS OF SPECIAL PROVIDENCE. 265 

dream meant that while we had friends North of us in Eentacky, 
East in Virginia, and South in Georgia, the only hope was to write 
home for money and this I fought against with a strong resolution. 
Again, I slept and dreamed that I received two letters from home 
in the same mail, one was a pale, cream-colored envelope, the other, 
the old-fashioned deep yellow, and addressed to me in my mother's 
hand-writing. When I awoke in the morning I was still depressed, 
for while the dreams were clear to my mind as having a decided 
importance, it was against my inclination to write home for money, 
80 I held out for several days, and did not tell my companion the 
dream. In a few days, however. Elder Bamett made a remark to 
me, which impressed me that it was my duty to write for means, 
which I did, and when the answer came, there were two letters 
instead of one. One was contained in a pale, cream-colored enve- 
lope, the other a deep yellow,addressed to me in my mother's hand- 
writing, in all particulars just as I had seen it in my dream, and 
containing means for our assistance. 

During a six weeks' sojourn in Chattanooga without friends 
and short of means, I also had a dream which was given to me 
more than once, and which many Elders also experience, and that 
was that I was home from my mission before my time; and any 
E3der who has such a manifestation knows what remorse and sor- 
row rests upon him while in the dream, and what joy and peace 
fills his soul when he awakes and finds himself still far away from 
home and kindred where duty casts his lot. In one of these dreams 
I saw President John Taylor, and was very fearful of meeting 
him lest he should chide me for being home too soon; but when 
he spoke, he smiled and in terms of kindness said, "Well you're 
home, are you; you can prepare to go to (Jeorgia now." I finished 
my mission, was honorably released, and was home a little less than 
six months, when I was called again to the Southern States. 
Having been so greatly blessed in Virginia, having so many friends 
there, I naturally inclined to go there on my second mission, but Pres- 
ident Morgan did not want me to return to that field but assigned 
me to the State of Georgia to labor with Brother John W. Taylor. 
Thus fulfilling my dream, though President Morgan knew nothing 
of the dream until after its fulfillment. 

To some these manifestations may appear childlike and 



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266 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

simple. Suppose they do; we are all children — "children of a 
larger growth." The Prophet Joseph Smith said if the Lord 
should speak to a child he would speak as a child, that the child 
might understand. 

The lessons I learned by my experience of trial and dreams in 
Chattanooga were very useful. The experience taught me that 
while a doctrine is true and designed to be continuous, such as 
the injunction to travel without "purse and scrip,'' no man can 
carry it out by his own strength, it must be done by the help of the 
Lord, or it can not be done at all. It is one thing to know the 
truth of a doctrine in theory; it is another thing to know bow 
to rightly apply it. 

The manifestation of being home before the right time so 
filled me with chagrin and sorrow, that I was constantly buoyed 
up with courage to discharge my duty and be contented in my 
field of labor until honorably released to return to my mountain 
home. 



NIGHT. 



Deep in the starry silence of the night 

Breathes low the mystery of Life and Death, 

While o'er the darkened waters wandereth 
A voiceless spirit, veiled from mortal sight. 
Upheld, enfolded in the encircling height 

Of heaven, the hashed Earth softly draws her breath, 

And in the holy stillness listeneth 
To sweeping wings of far-off worlds in flight. 
Beauty ascends in elemental prayer: 

Lifted in worship, lost in wonderment, 

I join in Nature's night antiphony 
That vibrates in the calm and sentient air; 

And through the veil of darkness am content 

To touch the garment of Eternity. 

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EARLY SCENES AND INCIDENTS IN THE 

CHURCH. 



BY OLIVER COWDERY. 



LETTER n. 
Dear Brother:— 

In the last Messenger and Advocate I promised to commence a 
more particular or minute history of the rise and progress of the 
Church of Latter-day Saints; and publish, for the benefit of 
inquirers, and all who are disposed to learn. There are certain 
facts relative to the works of God worthy the consideration and 
observance of every individual, and every society: — ^They are that 
he never works in the dark — his works are always performed in a 
clear, intelligible manner; and another point is, that he never works 
in vain. This is not the case with men; but might it not be? 
When the Lord works, he accomplishes his purposes, and the effects 
of his power are to be seen afterward. In view of this, suffer me 
to make a few remarks by way of introduction. The works of man 
may shine for a season with a degree of brilliancy, but time changes 
their complexion; and whether it did or not, all would be the same 
in a little space, as nothing except that which was erected by a 
hand which never grows weak, can remain when corruption is con- 
sumed. 

I shall not be required to adorn and beautify my narrative 
with a relation of the faith of Enoch, and those who assisted him 
to build up Zion, which fled to God — on the mountains of which was 
commanded the blessing, life forever more — ^to be held in reserve 
to add another ray of glory to the grand retinue, when worlds shall 



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268 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

rock from their base to their center; the nations of the righteous 
rise from the dnst, and the blessed millions of the church of the 
first bom, shout his triumphant coming, to receive his kingdom, . 
over which he is to reign till all enemies are subdued. 

Nor shall I write the history of the Liord's church, raised up 
according to his own instructions to Moses and Aaron; of the per- 
plexities and discouragements which came from Israel for thehr 
transgressions; their organizations upon the land of Canaan, and 
their overthrow and dispersion among all nations, to reap the 
reward of their iniquities, to the appearing of the Great Shepherd, 
in the flesh. 

But there is, of necessity, a uniformity so ^xact; a manner so 
precise, and ordinances so minute, in all ages and generations 
whenever God has established his church among men, that should 
I have occasion to recur to either age, and particularly to that 
characterized by the advent of the Messiah, and the ministry of the 
apostles of that church; with a cursory view of the same till it 
lost its visibility on earth; was driven into darkness, or till God 
took the holy priesthood unto himself, where it has been held in 
reserve to the present century, as a matter of right, in this free 
country, I may take the privilege. This may be doubted by some — 
indeed by many — as an admission of this point would overthrow 
the popular systems of the day. I cannot reasonably expect, then, 
that the large majority of professors will be willing to listen to my 
argument for a moment, as a careful, impartial, and faithful inves- 
tigation of the doctrines which I believe to be correct, and the 
principles cherished in my bosom — and believed by this church — 
by every honest man must be admitted as truth. Of this I may 
say as TertuUian said to the emperor when writing in defense of 
the saints in his day: ^'Whoever looked well into our religion that 
did not embrace it?" 

Common undertakings and plans of men may be overthrown or 
destroyed by opposition. The systems of this world may be exploded 
or annihilated by oppression or falsehood; but it is the reverse 
with pure religion. There is a power attendant on truth that all 
the arts and designs of men cannot fathom; there is an increasing 
influence which rises up in one place the moment it is covered in 
another, and the more it is traduced and the harsher the means 



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EARLY SCENES AND INCIDENTS IN THE CHURCH. 269 

employed to effect its extinction, the more numerous are its votar- 
ies. It is not the vain cry of "delusion" from the giddy multi- 
tade; it is not the sneers of bigots; it is not the frowns of zealots, 
"neither the rage of princes, kings, nor emperors, that can prevent 
its influence. The fact is, as Tertullian said, no man ever looked 
carefully into its consistency and propriety without embracing it. 
It is impossible: that light which enlightens men, is at once enrap- 
tured; that intelligence which existed before the world was, will 
unite, and that wisdom in the Divine economy will be so conspic- 
uous, that it will be embraced, it will be observed, and it must be 
obeyed! 

Look at pure 'religion whenever it has had a place on earth, 
and you will always mark the same characteristics in all its 
features. Look at truth (without which the former could not 
exist,) and the same peculiarities are apparant. Those who have 
been guided by them have always showil the same principles; and 
those who were not, have as uniformly sought to destroy their 
influence. Reli^on has had its friends and its enemies; its advo- 
cates and its opponents. But the thousands of years which have 
come and gone, have left it unaltered; the millions who have 
embraced it, and are now enjoying that bliss held forth in its prom- 
ises, have left its principles unchanged, and its influence upon the 
honest heart unweakened. The many oppositions which have 
encountered it; the millions of calumnies, the numberless re- 
proaches, and the myriads of falsehoods, have left its fair form 
unhnpaired, its beauty untarnished, and its excellence as excellent; 
while its certainty is the same, and its foundation upheld by the 
hand of God! 

One peculiarity of men I wish to notice in the early part of my 
narrative. — So far as my acquaintance and knowledge of men and 
their history extends, it has been the custom of every generation 
to boast of, or extol the acts of the former. In this respect I 
wish it to be distinctly understood, that I mean the righteous — 
those to whom God communicated his will. There has ever been 
an apparent blindness common to men, which has hindered their 
discovering the real worth and excellence of individuals while 
residing with them; but when once deprived of their society, worth, 



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270 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

and coxmsel, they were ready to exclaim/'how great and ineetimable 
were their qualities, and how precious is their memory r 

The vilest and most corrupt are not exempted from this charge: 
even the Jews, whose former principles had become degenerated/ 
and whose religion was a mere show, were found among that class 
who were ready to build and garnish the sepulchres of the propln 
ets, and condemn their fathers for putting them to death; making 
important boasts of their righteousness, and of their assurance of 
salvation, in the midst of which they rose up with one consent, 
and treacherously and shamefully betrayed, and crucified the 
Savior of the world! No wonder that the inquirer has turned 
aside with disgust, nor marvel that God has appointed a day when 
he will call the nations before him, and reward every man according 
to his works! 

Enoch walked with God, and was taken home without tasting 
death. Why were not all converted in his day and taken with him to 
glory? Noah it is said, was perfect in his generation: and it is plain 
that he had communion with his Maker, and by his direction accom- 
plished a work the parallel of which is not to be found in the annals 
of the world. Why were not the world converted, that the flood 
might have been stayed? Men, from the days of our father Abra- 
ham, have talked, boasted, and extolled his faith: and he is ev&a 
represented in the scriptures: — " The father of the faithful." Moses 
talked with the Lord face to face; received the great moral law, 
upon the basis of which those of all civilized governments are 
founded; led Israel forty years, and was taken home to receive the 
reward of his toils — then Jacob could realize his worth. Well was 
the question asked by our Liord, ''How can the children of the bride- 
chamber mourn while the bridegroom is With them?" It is said, 
that he traveled and taught the righteous principles of his king- 
dom, three years, during which he chose twelve men, and ordained 
them apostles, etc. The people saw and heard — they were partic- 
ularly benefited many of them, by being healed of infirmities, and 
diseases; of plagues and devils; they saw him walk upon the water; 
they saw the winds and waves calmed at his command; they saw 
thousands fed to the full with a pittance, and the very powers of 
darkness tremble in his presence — and like others before them, 
considered it as a dream, or a common occurrence, till the time was 



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EARLY SCENES AND INCIDENTS IN THE CHURCH. 271 

fulfilled, and he was offered up. Yet while he was with them he said, 
yon shall desire to see one of the days of the Son of Man, and shall 
not see it. He knew that calamity would fall upon the people, and the 
iMrrath of heaven overtake them to their overthrow; and when that 
-devoted city was surrounded with armies, well may we conclude 
that they desired a protector possessing sufficient power to lead 
them to some safe place aside from the tumult of a siege. 

Since the apostles fell asleep all men who profess a belief in 
the truth of their mission, extol their virtues and celebrate their 
fame. It seems to have been forgotten that they were men of 
infirmities and subject to all the feelings, passions, and imperfec- 
tions cnmmon to other men. But it appears that they, as others 
iKrere before them, were looked upon as men of perfection, holiness, 
purity, and goodness, far in advance of any since. So were the 
<^haracters of the prophets held in the days of these apostles. 
What can be the difference in the reward, whether a man died for 
Tighteousness' sake in the days of Abel, Zacharias, John, the twelve 
apostles chosen at Jerusalem, or since? Is not the life of one 
-equally as precious as the other? and is not the truth just as true? 

But in reviewing the lives and acts of men in past generations, 
whenever we find a righteous man among them, there always were 
excuses for not giving heed or credence to his testimony. The 
people could see his imperfections; or, if no imperfections, sup- 
posed ones, and were always ready to frame an excuse upon that 
for not believing. — No matter how pure the principles, nor how 
precious the teachings — an excuse was wanted — and an excuse 
was had. 

The next generation, perhaps, was favored with equally as 
righteous men, who were condemned upon the same principles of 
the former, while the acts and precepts of the former were the 
boasts of the multitude; when, in reality, there doctrines were no 
more pure, their exertions to turn men to righteousness no greater 
neither their walk any more circumspect — the grave of the former 
is considered to be holy, and his sepulchre is garnished while the 
latter is deprived a dwelling among men, or even an existence upon 
earth! Such is a specimen of the depravity and inconsistency of 
men, and such has been their conduct toward the righteous in cen- 
turies past. 



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272 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

When John the son of Zacharias came among the Jews, it is 
said that he came neither eating bread nor drinking wine, b 
another place it is said that his meat was locnsts and wild honey. 
The Jews saw him, heard him preach, and were witnesses of the 
purity of the doctrines he advocated — they wanted an excnse, and 
they soon found one — "He hath a devil!" And who among all 
generations, that valued his salvation, would be taught by, or follow 
one possessed of a devil? 

The Savior came in form and fashion of a man; he ate, drank, 
and walked about as a man, and they said, "Behold, a man glutton- 
ous, and a wine-bibber, a friend of publicans and sinners!" Too 
see an excuse was wantmg, but not long wanting till it was found— 
who would follow a dissipated leader? or who, among the right- 
eous Pharisees would acknowledge a man who would condescend to 
eat with publicans and sinners? This was too much— they could 
not endure it. An individual teaching the doctrines of the king- 
dom of heaven, and declaring that that kingdom was nigh, or that 
it had already come, must appear different £rom others or he could 
not be received. If he were athirst he must not drink, if faint he 
must not eat, and if weary he must not rest^ because he had 
assumed the authority to teach the world righteousness, and he 
must be different in manners, and in constitution, if not in form, 
that all might be attracted by his singular appearance: that his 
singular demeanor might gain the reverence of the people, or he 
was an impostor — a false teacher — a wicked man — a sinner and an 
accomplice of Beelzebub, the prince of devils! 

If singularity of appearance, of difference of manners wonld 
command respect, certainly John would have been reverenced, and 
heard. To see one dressed so ridiculously, eating no common food, 
neither drinking wine like other men; stepping in advance of the 
learned and reverend Pharisees, wise doctors, the righteous scribes, 
and declaring, at the same time that the Lord's kingdom would 
soon appear could not be borne — he must not teach — ^he must not 
assume— he must not attempt to lead the people after him— "He 
hath a devil." 

The Jews were willing, (professedly so,) to believe the ancient 
prophets, and follow the direction of heaven as delivered to the 
world by them; but when one came teaching the same doctrines, 



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EARLY SCENES AND INCIDENTS IN THE CHURCH. 273 

and proclaiming the'same things, only that they were nearer, they 
would not hear. Men say if they could see they would believe; but 
I have thought the reverse in this respect — if they cannot see 
they will believe. 

One of two reasons may be assigned as the cause why the 
messengers of truth have been rejected— perhaps both. The multi- 
tude saw their imperfections, or supposed ones, and from that 
framed an excuse for rejecting them; or else in consequence of the 
corruption of their own hearts, when reproved, were not willing to 
repent; but sought to make a man an offender for a word; or for 
wearing camels' hair, eating locusts, drinking wine, or showing 
friendship to publicans and sinners! 

When looking over the sacred scriptures, we seem to forget 
that they were given through men of imperfections, and subject to 
passions. It is a general belief that the ancient prophets were per- 
fect — ^that no stain or blemish ever appeared upon their charac- 
ters while on earth, to be brought forward by the opposer as an 
excuse for not believing. The same is said of the apostles; but 
James said that Elias (Elijah) was a man subject to like passions 
as themselves, and yet he had that power with God that in answer 
to his prayers it rained not on the earth by the space of three years 
and a half. 

There can be no doubt that those to whom he wrote looked 
upon the ancient prophets as a race of beings superior to 
any in those days; and in order to be constituted a prophet of God, 
a man must be perfect in every respect. The idea is, that he must 
be perfect according to their signification of the word. If a people 
were blessed with prophets, they must be individuals who were to 
prescribe the laws by which they must be governed, even in their 
private walks. The generation following were ready to suppose, 
that those men who believed the word of God were as perfect as 
those to whom it was delivered supposed they must be, and were 
as forward to prescribe the rules by which they were governed, or 
rehearse laws and declare them to be the governing principles of 
the prophets, as though they themselves held the keys of the mys. 
teries of heaven and had searched the archives of the generations 
of the world. 

You will see that I have made mention of the Messiah, of hia 



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274 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

mission into the world, and of his walk and outward appearance; 
but do not understand me as attempting to place him on a level 
with men, or his mission on a parallel with those of the prophets 
and apostles — far from this. I view his mission such as none other 
conld fill; that he was offered without spot to God a propitiation for 
our sins; that he rose triumphant and victorious over the grave 
and him that has the power of death. This, man could not do — ^it 
required a perfect sacrifice — ^man is imperfect; it required a spot- 
less offering — ^man is not spotless; it required an infinite atone- 
ment — ^man is mortal! 

I have, then, as you will see, made mention of our Lord, to 
show that individuals teaching truth, whether perfect or imperfect^ 
have been looked upon as the worst of them. And that even our 
Savior, the great Shepherd of Israel, was mocked and derided, and 
placed on a parallel with the prince of devils; and the prophets and 
apostles though at this day, looked upon as perfect as perfection, 
were considered the basest of the human family by those among 
whom they lived. It is not rumor though it is wafted by every 
gale, and reiterated by every zephyr, upon which we are to found 
our judgments of one's merits or demerits. If it is, we erect an 
altar upon which we sacrifice the most perfect of men and estab- 
lish a criterion by which the "vilest of the vile" may escape censure. 

But lest I weary you with too many remarks upon the history 
of the past^ after a few upon the propriety of a narrative of the 
description I have proposed, I shall proceed. 



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J\NSWERS TO INTERESTING QUESTIONS- 

BY ELDER C. W. PENROSE, ASSISTANT CHURCH HISTORIAN. 



[Some time ago a gentleman in Shirley, Massachusetts, wrote to 
President Lorenzo Snow for information concerning "Mormonism,*^ in 
.answer some literature was sent to the gentleman which gave rise to 
the following correspondence which is self-explanatory. — Editors.] 



Shirley, Mass., Nov. 29th, 1898. 
Lorenzo Snow, President Mormon Church: 

Friend: I acknowledge with thanks the receipt of pamphlet 
entitled "Voice of Warning," and twelve numbers of "Rays of 
Light." I have been much interested in reading this matter and 
idtiiough it is rather out of the course of my usual line of thought 
I yet recognize a ray or two of light. To say the least, your sys- 
tem seems worthy of investigation, and as I have been for some 
years past and still am a seeker after truth I would ask the privi- 
lege of corresponding with some intelligent mind of your f aitii. I 
desire to become satisfied as to whether or not I am called to be a 
partaker with you in your sphere of action. There are some points 
not touched upon in the pamphlets sent which I would like to know 
^bout and think a good way would be to ask questions. In this 
way you will comprehend the bent of my thought and I shall come 
to an understanding of your faith. If you will kindly answer clearly 
^md to the point, I shall be greatly obliged. 

THE QUESTIONS. 

1. At the present time are there any among you who are able 
4md who do cast out devils, speak with new tongues, handle deadly 



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276 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

things without harm, and heal physical diseases by laying on of 
hands? 

2. Are there any medical doctors and lawyers among yon 
who practice their profession? 

8. Do yon recognize community of goods to be an essential 
doctrine of Christianity? Is your system communistic? If not 
how do you explain the following: ''And the multitude of them 
that believed were of one heart and of one soul: neither said any of 
them that ought of the things which he possessed was his own; but 
they had all things in common." ''Neither was there any among 
them that lacked/' etc. The Acts, 32: 34th and 35th verses. 
Kindly explain your system, if neither communistic nor competitive. 

4. Do you practice polygamy, and if so, where in the teach- 
ings of Jesus Christ do you find authority for such practice? Kindly 
give me your views on the sex question and reasons for polygamy. 

5. How do you explain the following: "But he said unto 
them, all men cannot receive this saying save they to whom it is 
given." "For there are some eunuchs which were so bom from 
their mother's womb: and there are some eunuchs which were made 
eunuchs of men and there be eunuchs which have made themselves 
eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake. He that is able to 
receive it let him receive it" ? Matthew xix: 11th and 12th verses. 

6. How do you explain the following: "Jesus answered and 
said unto them, ye do err not knowing the scriptures, nor the 
power of God." "For in the resurrection they neither many nor 
are given in marriage but are as the angels of Grod in heaven" ? 
Matthew xxii: 29th and 30th verses. What do you understand by 
the word "resurrection" as used here? 

7. Explain the following: "But as the days of Noe were, so 
shall also the coming of the Son of man be." "For as in the days 
that were before the flood, they were eating and drinking and giv- 
ing in marriage until the day that Noe entered into the ark." 
Matthew xxiv: 37th and 38th verses. 

8. Explain the following: "For when they shall rise from 
the dead they neither marry nor are given in marriage but are as 
the angels which are in heaven." Mark xii: 25th verse. What do 
you understand by the word "dead" as U3ed in this verse? 

9. Explain the following: "And he stretched forth his hand 



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ANSWERS TO INTERESTING QUESTIONS. 277 

toward his disciples and said^ Behold my mother and my brethren. 
For whosoever shall do the will of my Father," etc. Matthew xii: 
49th and 50th verses. 

10. Explain: '1 am come not to send peace but a sword. 
For I am come to set a man at variance against his father and a 
daughter against her mother," etc. Matthew x: 34th to 39th 
verses. 

If you have greater light than I am already in possession of 
and can demonstrate a purer, holier life I am willing to acknowledge 
it. Sincerely in truth I remain, 

£j. J. S. 



Salt Lake City, Utah, Dec. 29, 1898. 
Mr. E. J. S.: 

Dear Friend: A letter of inquiry addressed by you to Presi- 
dent Lorenzo Snow has been handed to me to answer, as President 
Snow has been too busy to give it his personal attention. This will 
account for the delay in replying to your questions. 

THE ANSWERS. 

Pird: You ask if there are any among us who are able to 
east out devils, speak with new tongues, heal diseases by laying on 
hands, etc. Amwer: The promise of Jesus Christ to "them that 
believe'' (Mark xvi: 17, 18) has been fulfilled to the letter in the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, as it was among the 
saints in former days. There have been and are frequent manifes- 
tations of the power of God through faith among the members of 
this Church. No one claims to have such power in and of himself. 
It is of God, obtained by individual faith. 

Second: Yes, there are medical doctors and lawyers among us 
who practice their profession. 

Third: We do not recognize "community of goods as an 
essential doctrine of Christianity." The passages in Acts iii simply 
relate what took place in the days of the Apostles. Communism' 
is not taught in the New Testament nor believed in by the Latter- 
day Saints. At present every person enjoys the right of property. 



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278 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Each owns that which he accnmulates, one-tenth of his increase- 
being donated to the Church, the authorities of which see that the 
poor are properly supplied. Our system contemplates a more per- 
fect social order, in which every man will be a steward over that 
which is placed in his possession, the ownership being recognized 
as in the Lord. The earth and the fullness thereof are his. Each 
steward will receive his support out of the means which he handles,^ 
the increase and surplus being held by the Church, for the benefit 
of the whole body of its recognized members, he giving an annual 
account of his stewardship. This is but a veiy brief outline of 
the plan revealed for the future government of the Saints finan- 
cially, which cannot be fully carried out in the present condition 
of statutory enactments. 

Fourth: Polygamy, that is the marrying of plural wives, is 
not now practiced in this Church. The law of the Lord requires 
the Saints to be obedient to the laws of the land in whatever nation 
they reside. The secular law being against this practice, it is now 
prohibited both by Church and State. 

FifVi: The meaning of Matthew xix: 11, 12 is obvious, except 
that part of it which speaks of those who "have made themselves 
eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake." This means that some 
men have devoted themselves to laboring for the interests and 
salvation of mankind to the extent that they do not marry, but 
continue in the ministry and sacrifice themselves; so that it maybe 
said of them, figuratively, that they have made themselves eunuchs 
for the kingdom of heaven's sake. As Jesus said, ''There are few 
that can receive this," and practice it. 

Sixth: The meaning of the word "resurrection" in Matthew 
XX : 29, 30 is the state of mankind after they are raised from the 
dead (see John v: 28, 29; Revelation xx.) Marrying and giving in 
marriage is not ordained for that state. It is an ordinance for this 
life, established in the Garden of Eden before death entered into 
the world. Adam and Eve were made one by a divine ceremony, 
and as "the man is not without the woman, neither the woman 
without the man in the Lord," (I. Cor. xi: 11.) Adam and Eve 
will be one flesh in the resurrection state. So with all pairs mar- 
ried under the same law, that which is sealed on earth being sealed 
in heaven. The people about whom Jesus Christ was speaking, as 



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ANSWERS TO IhTERESTlNG QUESTIONS. 279 

recorded in the passage you quote, were not in the sacred relation 
herein referred to. Therefore, in the world to come they will be "as 
the angels," who are separate and single and are ministering spirits 
unto those who are worthy of "a far more and eternal and exceeding 
weight of glory.** 

Seventh: The meaning of Matt, xxiv: 27, 28, is that the 
destruction of the wicked at the time of the coming of the Son of 
Man will be as sudden, and overtake them as surely and completely, 
as the destruction that came by the flood in the days of Noah, (see 
n. Thess. i: 7, 10.) As the preaching of Noah by revelation from 
God preceded the destruction by the flood, so the preaching of the 
Gospel by revelation from God in the latter days precedes the 
destruction of the wicked at the time of the Lord's advent. 

Eighth: The word "dead" in Mark xii: 25, means the condi- 
tion of the body in the grave when the spirit has departed. "The 
body without the spirit is dead," (James ii: 26.) 

Ninth: The meaning of Matt, xii: 49, 50, is that Christ 
regards those who keep the commandments of God and do the 
Father's will, as dearer to him than blood relations who do not obey 
the Grospel and walk in the ways of the Lord. The meaning of 
Matt, x: 34, 39, is that Christ came to introduce light and truth 
and the power of God. These are opposed to darkness, error and 
the power of the devil. These opposites cannot harmonize. They, 
therefore, create commotion. When people of the same family are 
divided on these lines, those who receive the Gospel are hated and 
fought against by those who receive it not, and thus in many cases 
the father is against the son, the mother against the daughter, and "a 
man's greatest foes are they of his own household." 

That the Lord, in his infinite mercy to the earth's inhabitants, 
has revealed a greater light than was in the world previous to the 
ushering in of this last dispensation, is evident to all who are seek- 
ing sincerely for the light that cometh from above. As to "demon- 
strating a purer, holier life" than yours, or that of any other per- 
son, we have nothing which we desire to offer. We have no boast- 
ing on that subject. Each man's life is open to his God, who is 
the supreme judge of men's acts. To him we will have to give 
account. We are not posing before the world as beings of peculiar 
sanctity above our fellow-men, nor do we exclaim, "I am holier 



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280 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

than thou." We do say that God^' through Jesos Chrigt his Soiv 
has opened the dispensation of the fullness of times by Joseph Smith 
the Firophet of the latter days and his successors, and that the truths 
connected therewith are offered freely to all mankind to receive or 
reject them as they will. We know that this work is of God, and 
we testify of this in all solemnity and soberness. May the Lord 
open your eyes to see this glorious light and incline your heart to 
receive and obey the truth as it is in Christ Jesus! 

Yours sincerely, 

C. W. Penrose. 



HABITS. 

A. WOOTTON. 



The tendency of habits of action as well as of thought to 
repeat themselves uncounsciously should teach the necessity of 
forming only such habits as we would be willing to have repeated 
anywhere, in any company and in the broad light of day. 

No habit of speech or action should be indulged in at home 
that would bring chagrin if repeated abroad; and that which is 
done in the dark should be of such a character that unconscious 
repetition in the daylight or before the world would not bring a 
blush of shame to the cheek. 

Building habits is virtually character ibuilding, and character 
is something as lasting as eternity, so that negligence in the smaller 
details will seriously mar the beautiful whole, as the slightest daub 
on a masterpiece of art would seriously detract from its beauty and 
reduce its market value to a minimum. 

A blemish on a beautiful picture tends to mar its beauty in 
direct proportion to the artistic perfection displayed in the picture 
as a whole; so also the slightest deformity appears more conspicu- 
ous as the character approaches the highest ideal 



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LIVES OF THE APOSTLES- 

n. 

JAMES AND JOHN. 

BY PROFESSOR WILLARD DONE, PRESIDENT OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS' 
COLLEGE, SALT LAKE CITY. 



The two sons of Zebedee were so closely associated daring 
the life of Christ, and one of them, James, met a martyr's death 
so early in the ministry of the Apostles that it seems permissible 
to combine their lives into one account. 

Like Peter, they were fishermen on the Sea of Galilee, and, 
no doabt, natives of the same village, Bethsaida. Like Peter, too, 
they first came into prominence in connection with their disciple- 
ship to John the Baptist, at the time of the baptism of Christ. 
That John is ''that other disciple'' referred to in his own account 
of that event, there can be little doubt. From this time he and 
his brother, together with Peter and Andrew, were devoted fol- 
lowers of Christ. Their call to the active ministry occurred simul- 
taneously with that of Peter and Andrew, all four, indeed; being 
called through the same miracle. From thenceforth the lives of 
Peter, James, and John were indissolubly united. These three 
^ere present at the raising of the daughter of Jairus from the 
dead, the transfiguration, and the silent vigil in Grethsemane. 

James and John, however, did not come into quite the promi- 
nence attained by the bolder and more assertive Peter. Hence 
their names are not so often particularized by the evangelists. 
But we are not to make the mistake of concluding from this cir- 



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282 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

cnmstance that these two were lacking in force and fire. The 
title applied to them, "Boanerges," (sons of thunder,) would indi- 
cate the contrary. Two incidents which occurred during the life 
of Jesus illustrate this forcefulness. On one occasion, while the 
Lord and the Apostles were traveling through Samaria, a request 
was sent ahead for entertainment at one of the small villages. To 
the intense surprise and indignation of the disciples, this enter- 
tainment was refused. In the eyes of the Apostles a double 
offense was committed by those Samaritans. They had broken the 
strict rule of eastern hospitality, which demands food and shelter 
for the traveler, no matter how poor and mean. They had also 
shown disrespect for the Messiah, whom his followers had learned 
by infallible signs and testimonies, to regard as of higher authority 
than any of the prophets who had preceded him. Since, therefore, 
doubtless in this very region, Elijah had called down fire from 
heaven by which one hundred and two men were consumed, (II. 
Kings 1: 10-12,) James and John thought the present case even 
more deserving of punishment. Hence their indignant question, 
"Lord, wilt thou that we command fire to come down from heaven, 
and consume them, even as Elias did?" The answer of our Lord, 
dissuading and rebuking them, is characteristic of his love and 
forgiveness. 

According to some authorities it was a short time after this 
event that James and John again came into prominence on account 
of the ambition of their mother, Salome. The manner of Christ's 
approaching death, and the nature of the kingdom into which he 
was about to enter, had doubtless become quite well known to his 
disciples. Whether or not Salome was acquainted with these 
points is not known. There is no doubt, however, that she knew 
the greatness of his destiny, and how desirable it would be to be 
associated with him therein. Therefore she came to him and 
preferred the ambitious request, "Grant that these my two sons 
may sit, the one on thy right hand, and the other on the left, in 
thy kingdom." When the two men assured him that they would 
be able to endure the drinking of his cup and the partaking of his 
baptism, he dismissed them with the assurance that only the 
Father could decide who should exercise authority in the kingdom. 
He assuaged the rising indignation of the other ten by showing 



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LIVES OF THE APOSTLES. 283 

them the difference between his kingdom and those of the gentiles, 
the ruler in the latter exercising dominion, while those in the 
former were to be servants of all. Surely, there could be no more 
effectual cure for ambition than this. 

After this event, James fell into obscurity, being no more 
mentioned by name by any of the evangelists, except in connection 
with the prediction of the fall of Jerusalem and with the agony in 
Grethsemane. Of course, he was with Jesus and the other Apostles 
in all the transactions of the eventful week preceding the cruci- 
fixion, and on the occasion of the various appearances of the Savior 
to the Apostles. In fact, one of these appearances was to James 
individually, as testified by Paul (I. Cor. 15: 7.) James is next 
mentioned in the list of Apostles in the first chapter of Acts, and 
then he is spoken of no more until brief mention is made of his 
martyrdom. '*And he [Herod] killed James, the brother of John, 
with the sword," (Acts 12: 2.) This event occurred probably as 
early as 44 A. D. James therefore has the distinction of being the 
first Apostolic martyr. It is unfortimate that so notable an event 
should receive such brief treatment at the hands of the historian. 
Tradition, however, has attempted to fill in the details. It is 
asserted that the officer who had the distinguished martyr in 
charge, was so impressed with his dignified fortitude that he was 
converted to Christianity, and was beheaded at the same time as 
James. The legend is related by Clement of Alexandria, and pre- 
served by Eusebius in these words: '*The accuser of the Apostle, 
beholding his confession and moved thereby, confessed that he 
too was a Christian. So they were both led away to execution 
together, and on the road the accuser asked James for forgiveness. 
Gazing on him for a little while, he said, 'Peace be with thee,' and 
kissed him. And then they were both beheaded together." 

This martyrdom of James is one of the strongest testimonies 
to his prominence and importance among the Apostles, and does 
much to correct the impression naturally formed by the lack of 
prominent mention of him by the evangelists. Surely, since Herod 
undertook this persecution for tl)e sake of gaining the favor of 
the Jews, and since, no doubt, he could choose the victim, he would 
surely select one of the most influential and prominent of the 



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284 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Apostles. His selection of James, therefore, is a high tribute to 
the Apostle's worth and dignity. 

Considerable prominence is given to John in connection with 
the closing events of the life of Jesus, and also the labors of the 
Apostles. At the last supper he reclined next to Jesus, and heard 
some details of the conversation which no doubt escaped the ears 
of the other Apostles. Prominent among these was the reference 
to the betrayal wrought by Judas of Kerioth. We cannot help 
thinking that if the head-strong, self-assertive Peter had heard 
Christ's injunction to Judas, 'That thou doest, do quickly," and 
had understood its import as John seems to have done, there might 
have been an interference with the traitor's carefully laid plan of 
betrayal. We are also very much interested in the record John 
has kept of the wonderful discourse and impressive prayer of our 
Lord on that solemn occasion. 

When Jesus was taken and led away to his trial, John was 
the only one of the Apostles to remain in his immediate company. 
Being, as he himself says, 'Imown to the high priest," he was 
admitted to the house of that officer, where the first stage of the 
trial took place. From there John followed the Master through the 
tragic events of that forenoon, to Calvary. ' He stood within ear- 
shot with the women, probably his own mother, the mother of 
Jesus, Mary, the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene, during the 
awful agony of the cross. It was here that the touching incident 
occurred of Jesus consigning his heart-broken mother to John's 
care. His impressive words to his mother, "Woman, behold thy 
son," and to John, "Son, behold thy mother," seem to have been 
the signal for John to lead Mary away, so that she might not wit- 
ness the death struggle. It is supposed that John immediately 
took Mary to his own house in Jerusalem, and remained in close 
attendance upon her until her death, leaving his home for no great 
length of time during that period. 

Together with Peter, John visited the sepulchre just af t^ the 
resurrection of Jesus, and was therefore one of the first witnesses 
of that event. He was also in company with Peter, John, Thomas 
and Nathanael on the sea of Galilee, when the notable appearance 
of the resurrected Lord occurred there. John comes into special 
prominence in connection with this event, because of the predic- 



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LIVES OF THE APOSTLES. 285 

tioD that he should remain upon the earth until Christ's second 
coming. 

The next personal mention of John is in connection with the 
healing of the lame man by Peter, at the 'iSeautif ul Gate'' of the 
temple. John witnessed this miracle, went with Peter into the 
temple, and endured, with him, the taunts and abuse heaped upon 
them by the Jews, joining with him in the determination to "obey 
God rather than men," in preaching Christ. John accompanied 
Peter to Samaria, to confer the Holy Ghost on those whom Philip 
had baptized. This is the last mention of John in the Acts, 
although Paul refers to him as one of the three " pillar Apostles" 
at Jerusalem (Peter, James and John) on the occasion of his visit 
there. (Gal. 2: 9.) 

For information regarding the subsequent life of John we are 
entirely dependent upon tradition. It is, necessarily, difficult to 
determine what legends out of the many clustering about his name 
are based on fact, and what ones on imagination. The only safe 
course to follow is to accept, conditionally, those which are sup- 
ported by the greatest mass of evidence, and reject, also condi- 
tionally, the others. In pursuance of this plan, those traditions 
which are most worthy of belief will be named first, the less likely 
ones being afterwards particularized. 

He is said to have remained at Jerusalem until about the year 
68 B. C, or about eighteen years after the visit of the Apostle 
Paul above referred to. What the motive was for his leaving 
Jerusalem is not conjectured. It is even uncertain where he went. 
Some authorities are of opinion that he went to Rome, others, to 
Bphesus. The main reason for supposing that he went to Rome is 
the graphic description he gives of the Neronic persecutions of 
the Christians, (Rev.) which argues strongly for his having wit- 
nessed those cruelties. It is supposed, too, that he resided at 
EphesuB before his removal to Patmos, this latter event occurring, 
according to the general presumption, soon after the year 68. As 
to the reason for his being at Patmos, we are left somewhat in 
doubt. There is reason, however, for inclining to the belief that 
he was banished thither for the testimony of the Gospel. The 
existence on that island of mines, or quarries, in which prisoners 
were wont to labor, is a strong presumption for that belief. His 



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286 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

stay on this rocky island was immortalized by his writing the 
Apocalypse, or Revelation. In spite of hostile criticism, the fact 
that this grand book was written by John the Apostle, stands well 
attested. 

We are almost sure that he spent a great portion of his life 
toward the close of the first century, in Ephesus, and probably 
presided over the church there, being possibly, in charge of all the 
branches situated in Asia Minor. We are safe in supposing that 
he occupied this responsible position before, as well as af t^ ius 
residence on Patmos, from the tone of authority he assumes in 
addressing the seven churches in Asia, in the book of Revelation. 
If this supposition is correct, the' importance of John as the last 
of the Apostles to survive, is clearly shown. Indeed, we may be 
sure that he exercised a presidential authority over all the churches, 
at least in Asia, that still remained true to the faitL In consid- 
eration of the fact that the quorum of Apostles was not perpetu- 
ated, we are not surprised that the last surviving member of the 
quorum was looked upon with so much reverence by the decaying 
church. 

All that is further known about the history of John is that 
he grew old in the Ephesian community. A tradition which shows 
a striking characteristic of the Apostle, is to the effect that when 
he was so old as to be unable to walk to the church, he caused 
himself to be carried in by some young men. Being unable to 
talk at any length, he merely greeted the members of the com- 
munity with the words, "Little children, love one another." When 
asked why he was so persistent in repeating this admonition, he 
replied, "Because it is the command of the Lord, and if this is 
done it is enough." Nor, according to the tradition, did he confine 
this precept to theory. He applied it in his intercourse with his 
brethren. It is related that he took a fancy to a young man, and 
placed him in the care of a bishop, while he (John) was attending 
to some of his pastoral duties, with the admonition that he should 
look carefully after the training of the youth. When John returned 
to the place after a prolonged absence, he inquired after the young 
man, and found to his sorrow that he had become a bandit chief. 
Without any hesitancy, the aged Apostle sought him out, and was 
taken captive by the band. At his own request he was brought 



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LIVES OF THE APOSTLES. 287 

into the presence of the chief, and, by his nobility and self-sacri- 
fice in looking after the souls of others, he rescued the bandit 
from his downward course. 

The doubtful legends will be briefly mentioned. One is to the 
effect that while he was in Rome, he was doomed to martyrdom, 
his end to be accomplished by his being boiled in oil. But instead 
of the oil producing any harmful effect, it only served to make 
him more youthful and vigorous. This tradition is seriously 
doubted becase it is mentioned by only one writer, Tertullian, who 
was rather undiscriminating, and for the further reason thiat boil- 
ing in oil was an unusual, not to say unknown, method of execu- 
tion. There is another tradition, equally doubtful, to the effect 
that he was given the poisoned hemlock, as in the case of Socrates, 
but escaped unharmed after drinking it. The last tradition to be 
referred to, has to do with the death of the Apostle. It relates 
that John died at Ephesus in the hundredth or one hundred and 
twentieth year of his life, and that his grave was often pointed 
out by his followers, to wondering visitors. It was distinguished 
from the surrounding sepulchres, by the alternate rising and falling 
of the ground above the Apostle's breast, occasioned by his breath- 
ing as he lay in immortal sleep. It is also stated that the grave 
was opened at a later period and found empty, the body having been 
raised and immortalized. For the traditions last named there is 
scarcely a shred of authority. 

With reference to the death of John. It was a common belief 
during the early Christian century, that he did not die, but that he 
was given the privilege of remaining on the earth until the second 
coming of the Savior. This opinion had its rise from the passage 
which occurs in the last chapter of the Gospel of John, where the 
Messiah, in answer to the question of Peter, ''What shall this man 
dor said, ''If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee? 
Follow thou me." The next verse says, "Then went this saying 
abroad among the brethren, that that disciple should not die." 
From that time until the present, some Bible authorities have been 
of the opinion that John did not die, while others are of opinion 
that the legend of his death is true. All doubt is set at rest, how- 
ever, by the unequivocal testimony of Jesus when speaking to his 
Nephite disciples, and by the word of the Lord to the Prophet 



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288 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Joseph Smith. In both these passages it is clearly stated that 
John was permitted to remain on the earth until the second com- 
ing of Christ should occur. * 

It now remains only to give a brief estimate of the character 
of John. We would first say that he was quick to respond to 
the influence of good. On this account, perhaps as much as on 
any other, his Master loved him especially. In at least three 
instances this quickness of response is illustrated. One was where 
he followed the Savior so closely on the way to the final agony of 
the cross, his natural feeling of reverence overcoming the tendency 
toward fear. The next incident was when he first heard of the 
resurrection of the Lord. With his usual quick response, he ran 
at full speed to the sepulchre, his youth and his zealous respon- 
siveness enabling him to distance Peter and arrive first at the 
tomb. But the difference between the two characters is well 
illustrated in the fact that although John first arrived at the tomb» 
his awe restrained him from entering at once, while the bold» 
impetuous Peter rushed past him into the tomb without a moment's 
hesitation. The third occasion was when Jesus appeared to the 
Apostles on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, after the resurrection. 
Peter, James, John, and some others of the disciples had gone 
back to their nets, and had toiled all the night without taking any 
fish. In the morning Jesus appeared on the shore, and asked them 
if they had any meat. On their answering in the negative, he 
told them to cast their nets on the right side of the ship. They 
did so, and were unable to draw the net on account of the great 
multitude of fishes. With his usual quickness of impression, John 
recognized Jesus, and exclaimed, 'It is the Lord." But if John 
was the first to recognize him, Peter was was the first to supple- 
ment thought with action. He immediately girt his fisherman's 
cloak about him, cast himself into the sea, and swam to the shore. 

In John's case impulsiveness was the outcome of reverent 
love for his Master. This love was mutual, and the proudest title 
that John gives himself throughout his Gospel, is ''that disciple 
whom Jesus loved." Nor do we think that this is said boastingly 
but with the conviction that the love of such a One was enough to 
satisfy the most holy yearnings of the human heart. It was this 
mutual love which prompted John to show devotion where the 



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LIVES OF THE APOSTLES. 289 

other disciples failed in the supreme test. For what stronger 
incentive can one have than love? 

The tenderness and gentleness which John displayed in his 
old age may be considered the durect outcome of the affectionate 
disposition he manifested toward the Savior and his associates. It 
became mellowed and ripened with age, without sinking into the 
weakness and effeminacy so often displayed by people of this dis- 
position. Surely the opposite from effeminacy is shown in his 
resistance to the demands of the Jewish and Roman officers, in his 
endurance of pains and banishment, and in his strong and wise 
administration of the affaurs of the churches evidently under his 
presidency. Briefly, therefore, his nature may be summed up in 
the two words, strength and sweetness. 

It is fitting to close this brief account with the estimate 
placed on the character and disposition of John given by Canon 
Parrar in his Life of Christ: 

'^he character of St. John has been often mistaken. Filled as he 
was with a most divine tenderness, — ^realizing as he did to a greater 
extent than any of the Apostles the full depth and significance of our 
Lord's new commandment — rich as his epistles and his gospel are with 
a meditative and absorbing reverence — dear as he has ever been in con- 
sequence to the heart of the mystic and the saint — ^yet he was something 
indefinitely far removed from that effebiinate pietist that has furnished 
the usual type under which he has been represented. The name Boan- 
erges, or '^ons of Thunder,'' which he shared with his brother James, 
their joint petition for precedence in the kingdom of God, their pas- 
sionate request to call down fire from heaven on the offending village of 
the Samaritans, the burning energy of the language in which the Apoca- 
lypse is written, the impetuous horror with which, according to tradition, 
St. John recoiled from the presence of the heretic Cerinthus, all show 
that in him was the spirit of the eagle, which, rather than the dove, has 
been his immemorial symbol. And since zeal and efathusiasm, dead as 
they are, and scorned in these days by an effete and comfortable relig- 
ionism, yet have ever been indispensable instruments in spreading the 
Kingdom of heaven, doubtless it was the existence of these elements in 
his character, side by side with tenderness and devotion, which endeared 
him so greatly to his Master, and made him 'the disciple whom Jesus 
loved.' The depth and power of his imagination, the rare combination 
of contemplativeness and passion, of strength and sweetness, in the same 



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290 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

soul — the perfect faith which inspired his devotion, and the perfect love 
which preclnded fear—these were the gifts and graces which rendered 
him worthy of leaning his young head on the bosom of his Lord." 



I HEAR IT YET. 



I hear it yet, that bugle-note, 
Far down our peaceful valley float; 
And 'tis the self-same mournful blast 

They blew the very day 
My love upon me look'd his last, 

And went away. 

Again it peals — so wild a strain 
Were fitter for the battle-plain: 
Alas! 'tis thence indeed it comes, 

Mix'd with the cannon's roar. 
And maddening shouts, and deafening drums, 

Heard evermore! 

No marvel they should haunt me still. 
In sadness, wander where I will. 
These notes, to love's last deep adieu. 

So closely, darkly bound: 
No marvel if all senses grew 

Absorbed in sound. 

wo! his was a bloody bed! 

With Spain's far earth beneath his head. 

Not one to watch by him, and mourn. 

Not one to say, farewell! 
But that heart-breaking bugle-horn, 

And battle's swell! 

Kennedy. 



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GOSPEL STUDIES- 

n. 



AN OUTWARD KINGDOM OP GOD NECESSARY TO 
SALVATION. 

BY PROFESSOR N. L. NELSON. 



Before proceeding to discuss the above proposition, let ns by 
ivay of review try to realize more fully the meaning of its correl- 
-ative, as discussed in the last number of the Era; viz: '* An Inward 
Kingdon of God Necessary to Salvation." 

Suppose it should suit the purposes of the Jesuit propaganda 
to select one of its emissaries and give him the mission to sift the 
heights and depths of "Mormonism." Under the rule of the order, 
''AH Things for Christ/' nothing would hinder his conscience from 
receiving baptism at the hands of our Elders. He would perhaps 
come and live among us, pay his tithes and offerings, attend punc- 
tiliously to his Church duties and obligations, perhaps go on a 
mission, if such a step would tend to open to him the doors of the 
Temple — in short, to live in outward seeming the life of a Latter- 
day Saint for as long a period of time as might be necessary to 
accomplish his mission or demonstrate the futility of it. 

Whether his lamb's covering would be pulled off or not is a 

•question that may be left to await a real case. For the purpose of 

this illustration, we may suppose that he so ingratiates himself 

that every honor and privilege of the Church are heaped upon him. 

He is in the Kingdom of Grod truly, but is he qf it? No more than 



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292 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

a wolf in the fold is a sheep, however carefully concealed in wooL 
The Kingdom of God is not within him, hence it cannot be without 
him; that is, his outward acts will not help to save him. 

Whether or not this case has taken place or will take place, it 
is evident to all of us that occasionally men unite themselves with 
the body of Christ for merely ulterior reasons. Though in the 
Church they are not of the Church. There is in fact no way for a 
man to become part of the Kingdom of Grod, save by having the 
Kingdom formed within him. 

If this thought be true in totality it must likewise be true in 
part. Though all members may be equally in the Kingdom they 
are not all equally of the Kingdom, nor is any one of the Kingdom 
equally day arfter day. Whatever part of the Kingdom is truly 
formed within us will be truly expressed without us. And if there 
be expressed outwardly some good that has not its correlative con- 
ception or conviction within, no credit toward salvation will accme^ 
therefrom; for as observed in my last paper, salvation begins to- 
take place in the very centre of the being, not in his external life; 
and consequently acts not springing out of this centre, cannot 
influence it for good, but may, when they are hypocritical, often 
influence it for bad. The Ananiases and Sapphiras of the Church, 
though they do not always fall dead, do not on that account 
escape judgment. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that having the " Kingdom 
of God within you," being " born again," passing " from death unto- 
life," and receiving a "testimony of the Grospel" are all expressions 
signifying the same thing, viz: the quickening of faith within ns. 
The examples I have adduced showing the futility of mere outward 
acts — acts unconnected with the heart — are only illustrations of 
the law that works without faith are dead; which (so far as the 
salvation of the doer is concerned) is quite as true a law as its con- 
verse: faith without works is dead. 

Now this very converse expresses in terser form the theme of 
the present papei*; for granting that the inward Kingdom stands 
for faith, what is the outward Kingdom but an expression of that 
faith in works? Let us then proceed to trace the steps whereby 
the outward Kingdom results from the inward. 

The moment any being receives the change which is figura- 



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GOSPEL STUDIES. 293 

-dvely called "the Kingdom of Grod within yon," that moment he 
discovers himself out of joint with mankind. To pat it in scrip- 
tural terms, he is no longer of the world, for the Lord has chosen 
him out of the world. His life plans have been upset, his ideas of 
Tight and wrong changed, his ideals re-adjusted. He sees through 
new eyes— he is bom again. 

It is not wonderful that the world begins to hate him, fordoes 
he not immediately manifest his hate for the world? — ^for the 
wrongs and shams that make up the warp, if not also the woof, of 
the world's doings? It counts for little or nothing if, by way of 
-compensation, he manifests a love ten-fold increased for the beings 
that consent to, these doings; that he, recently, one of them, should 
now turn round and despise what they hold dear — this is not to be 
tolerated nor lightly forgiven. 

Thus is the man isolated, buffeted, ostracized. It could hardly 
be otherwise; for he ia imbued with a harmony, be it little or much, 
which is discord to the world. But he feels and knows that it is 
the true harmony, the eternal harmony of the universe, which has 
attuned his soul. He cannot consent, even if he had the power, to 
give up this sweet music of the spheres for the fragmentary mel- 
odies of the world. Whatever betide, he must suffer the worst that 
men can do and get balm for his wounds from above. Though in 
the world he has ceased to be of the world. Nor can he again be 
joined to the world as long as the Kingdom of God is within him. 

This isolation then must serve as a criterion of the true con- 
vert. If after conversion he remain wedded to the idols of his 
previous life, if religion merely completes the pleasures of exist- 
•ence, and otherwise smooths the way for his worldliness, we may 
well doubt whether it was the Kingdom of God which was planted 
in his bosom. In this day of imitations we should not be surprised 
to find even shoddy conversions. He certainly deserves least to be 
counted in the fold of Christ who rests content in the conviction 
that the Kingdom of God is within him and that therefore he need 
take no further thought of salvation; for true Converts cannot be 
at rest in the midst of worldly environments. As Paul puts it, 
these count themselves "strangers and pilgrims on earth. For 
they that say such things, declare that they seek a country * * * 
a better country, that is, an heavenly." 



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294 IMPBO VEMENT ERA. 

It is out of this very restlessness, this feeling on the part or 
the convert that he is a pilgrim, this longing for the society of 
beings with ideals and aspirations similar to his own, that the out- 
ward Kingdom of God grows. The law is as natural as that of 
gravitation. Who has not witnessed its operations and perhaps 
been thrilled by personal experience of it? Here at random is the 
voice of such a one — a young lady alone on the Isle of Wight, the 
only one of her family who has accepted the Gospel: 

''When I read in the Star today, I felt to thank our Heavenly 
Father from the depths of my heart that ever I had the privilege 
of meeting a Latter-day Saint Elder, and of being numbered as one 
of the people so despised. I have 9uch a strong testimony of the 
truth of the Gospel, and I am glad to say that the longer I am 
away from our people the more intense is my desire to be amongst 
them again, and to be in some way useful in helping to spread the 
Gospel in its fullness." * 

Here is a girl who writes a heart-to-heart letter to her mission^ 
ary friend, with no other motive than to relieve the longing for love 
and companionship. Her words are the voice of her soul — no artifice, 
no thought of the spiritual significance of what she was saying. 
Least of all did she dream that she was giving expression to the 
divine law of which I have been speaking. Yet note how perfect 
is the expression. She first declares that she has a strong testi- 
mony of the truth of the Gospel; in other words the Kingdom of 
God is strongly formed within her. Then she speaks of her intense 
desire, first, to unite with the Latter-day Saints, second to help 
spread the Gospel in its fullness; which last two ideas embody, both 
in its essence and purpose, the outward Kingdom of God. Note 
that her testimony, or the Kingdom of God within her, and her 
desire, which points to the Kingdom of God without her, are related 
as cause and effect. It is by no means an unusual case. Every 
convert in the world, every missionary out of Zion, feels the same 
intense longing; feels it with an intensity proportionate to the full- 
ness of the Kingddb-of-God idea within him. 

Let us now, before proceeding to the next division, sum up Ib 



* From a letter by Miss Jennie Brimhall in the January (1899) num- 
ber of the Young Woman^s Journal. 



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GOSPEL STUDIES. 295 

brief the points made in this progress from the inward to the out- 
ward Kingdom. First, receiving of the Kingdom within (that is, a 
testimony of the Gospel) pnts a man at cross angles with his previ- 
ous bearings, the extent of his isolation depending upon the fullness 
of the new ideal that has taken possession of him. Second, as he 
now hates what the world loves, the world naturally turns round 
and hates him, adding persecution by way of interest. Third, cut 
loose from every tie of kinship and friendship, he becomes in spirit 
a ''pilgrim seeking a better country, that is, an heavenly;" in other 
words, an outward Kingdom that shall not jar with his inward King- 
dom. 

It is really heaven that he is seeking; but heaven, it must be 
remembered, is a relative term. It means a place where the laws 
of God are obeyed. The nearest approach to heaven on this earth 
is the Church or Kingdom of God. He will never be "at home" or 
comfortable until he reaches that degree of heaven, or the out- 
ward Kingdom, which the ideal or inward Kingdom fits him for; that 
is, he will never be at ease in a system of order or harmony either 
much above or much below the order and harmony that is within 
him. Now as there could never be salvation where there is unrest, 
I think that I have proved that an outward Kingdom of God, being 
necessary to happiness, must be necessary to salvation. 

But there is another side to this question. Suppose there 
were on earth no outward Kingdom with which to unite, what would 
become of those in whom the Kingdom had been planted by the 
Spirit? Granting that they would remain true to theu: "first love," 
there would be no spiritual life for them save that of hermits, and 
this, too, even though they lived in the heart of the most populous 
city on earth. I have often wondered if this spiritual isolation did 
not, at a time when the Kingdom of God was taken from the earth, 
first induce that migration of holy men to deserts and lonely places, 
which at length became the reproach of human intelligence. Who 
shall say? It would not be the first instance of things opposite in 
character yet alike in outward seeming. ^ 

But returning to the first question, if there were no outward 
Kingdom with which converts might unite, would men retain their 
heaven-bestowed ideals, that is, keep themselves apart from the 
world; or, granting that some would keep alive within them the 



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296 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

glimpse given them of the Kingdom of God, would they without an 
outward Eingdom'advance beyond that first glimpse and get a higher 
ideal? This question brings us faurly to the next division of my 
theme; viz: an outward Kingdom is necessary to keep alive and 
make progressive the inward Kingdom; and therefore of course 
necessary to salvation. 

Consider for a moment what would have happened to Cornelius 
and his family, if, after having had the Kingdom of God formed 
within them, they had refused to obey Peter's command to unite 
themselves with the outward Kingdom. Yet such things occur in 
the experience of every Elder. I am convinced that for every per- 
son that accepted the Gospel under my administration th^e were 
a hundred in whose bosoms the Spirit had planted the Kingdom of 
God; but their testimonies were transitory, lasting only long enough 
for them to make the act of will which, to say the least, postpones 
indefinitely their day of grace. Many of those whose testimonies 
are worked into the reality of fact, fall — more's the pity — back 
into the ways of the world; but all who receive of the Spirit yet 
do nothing, fall away. The image of the Kingdom which the Spirit 
impresses upon their hearts may be likened to that image which 
the sun prints upon the "proof paper of the photographer. If 
* 'developed" by further work, it remains "fixed" for all time; but if 
left as first impressed, it gradually fades into a black indistinguish- 
able surface comparable to nothing so much as the mental and 
spiritual confusion out of which mobocracy grows. A Kingdom in 
the heart is not possible for very long -without the corresponding 
outward Kingdom of noble thoughts wrought out in deeds. Faith 
when not immediately followed by works lives only an ephemeral 
life. 

The outward Kingdom of God is necessary to salvation, (1) for 
the rest and happiness of him in whom the inward Kingdom had been 
formed; (2) for the fixing of that inward Kingdom; (3) for the pro- 
gressive growth and enlargement of that inner Kingdom; and (4) 
for the extension of that Kingdom to others. The first two ideas 
have been ahready discussed, we proceed therefore to the third. 

Man is not fitted to advance by isolation. A hermit life can 
help no one. For he who has the inner force to profit by a life of 
contemplation has already enough power of introspection and needs 



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GOSPEL STUDIES. 297 

to be developed in the lines of action, while he who has not enough 
inner force to keep his mind active in a hermit's cell, though he 
might profit by a few years of silent thinking, cannot be trusted to 
•develop this power by himself. Isolation to him would mean mental 
atrophy. 

Man therefore needs society — needs it first to knock off the 
rough comers and polish his exterior self. The smooth, round 
Btone on the beach was once a rugged fragment broken from some 
shelving cliff on the mountain. Its angles would never have dis- 
appeared had it not dropped into the stream and been jostled and 
tossed a million times on its way towards its destination. Granting 
that the bed of the river and the water may stand for nature's 
share in the fashioning of man, the ten thousand similar stones 
going down the stream together must stand for the influence of 
society upon him. 

But there is something besides — ^viz: the development of the 
inner life of man — which my illustration fails to show; unless indeed 
some agency could be supposed acting upon the unorganized parti- 
cles of the stone, so adjusting them that instead of the dull 
gray and brown and red of river rock, we should have 
pure crystal and sparkling diamond. Even this agency, how- 
ever, though it comes direct from God, is largely dependent upon 
the efforts of man with his fellow-man. No one will deny that if 
this crude conglomeration of conflicting sins and weaknesses which 
we denominate our inner life, is to be attuned and harmonized it 
must be done by the Spirit of God; but who shall labor with the 
sinner so that he will consent to admit this regenerating power? 
Who shall go to him when darkness and doubt have almost shut 
his heart against heaven? Man's upward growth is ''from faith to 
f aitL" The Spirit is ever ready to put into his heart a more per- 
fect Kingdom of God — ^when he shall have realized in deed the one 
flrst given him. But who shall urge him on to renewed effort, 
when he has come almost to a stand-still? On every side man 
needs the correcting, the supporting, the inspiring arm of society. 

What society? Not the guilds and combinations among man- 
kind that pass under this name; though these are better for the 
upbuilding of the race than the isolation of the hermit. I refer to 
an ideal society— heaven's ideal for earth — the Church or Kingdom 



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298 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

of Grod. In theory this society is fitted perfectly to give men J07 
in this life, and prepare them for joy in eternity; prepare them by 
correcting evil tendencies, eradicating sins, strengthening weak- 
nesses and keeping the mind in that state of humility whereby the 
spirit can enter and adjust the inner life to the harmony of the 
universe. Practically it fails to do these things — at least in part; 
but it is not because of defect in the organization of the society; 
failure comes when it does come, not from faulty laws, but from 
faulty execution. 

Paul recognized regeneration as the supreme function of the 
Church, which he said was for the ''perfecting of the Saints, for 
the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ, 
till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of 
the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the 
stature of the fullness of Christ." And that man can never attain 
this fullness outside the Church, is abundantly proved not only by 
the foregoing discussion, but by the whole tenor of New Testament 
Scripture. That the Kingdom is in imperfect hands, counts nothing 
against its divine functions; it is the best — ^the only society fitted 
to nurture and develop to glorious realization the Kingdom of God 
as planted in the human heart. 

What then shall be said of those who, persuaded that the 
Kingdom of God is an inner Kingdom, which at some camp-meeting 
or revival was planted in them, deny the efiicacy of an outward 
Kingdom and refuse to unite with it? Only this, that of all cun- 
ning and fatal delusions invented by the evil one, they are in the 
meshes of the worst — ^worst because it seems 'to promise them the 
greatest security. 



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THE LAW OF TITHING 



BY W. B. PRESTON, PRESIDING BISHOP OP THE CHURCH. 

[The following question, answered by Bishop Preston, was received 
at the Era office with a request that it be answei^ed through our pages. 
Thinking that the Presiding Bishop of the Church would be the most 
satisfactory person to answer such a question, it was referred to him and 
he wrote the brief article following. — Editors.\ 

I beg to acknowledge receipt of the following query, respect- 
ing the interpretation of the law of tithing: 

"Mr. A. — contends that it is the law of tithing to pay one-tenth 
of all his earnings as an honest tithe to the Lord. Mr. B. — says not 
so: I must first pay my debts and take out my expenses of living, 
and then pay one-tenth of that which is left; which he claims is 
the real increase. One of our home missionaries also takes this 
view. Which is right — Mr. A. — or Mr. B. — ? I understand that the 
law reads we should pay one-tenth of our interest annually; but 
does the word 'interesf mean increase as Mr. A. — contends, or as 
Mr. B. — construes the term?" 

The law to Israel was that the people should pay one-tenth of 
the products of the land, the fruit of the trees, of the. herds and 
flocks, and in fact, one-tenth of all that they produced. 

In the revelation given to the Prophet Joseph Smith, the Lord 
required all the surplus property of the Saints, as a beginning of 
their tithing, and after that, ''Those who had then been tithed 
shall pay one-tenth of their irderest annually." 

During the days of Nauvoo, and while the temple was being 
built, and in the early history of Utah, the Saints were required to 
pay one-tenth of all they produced, one-tenth of all that waa 



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800 IMPROVEMENT ERA, 

accumulated by their industry, and laboring men usually worked 
one-tenth of then: time on the temple, which was credited to them 
as their tithing. 

We have been endowed with different gifts, and various 
degrees of ability, by which we may surround ourselves with the 
necessities and comforts of life. God, our Father, through our 
Elder Brother Jesus Christ, has permitted us to enjoy the fruits of 
the earth, and tempered itbe elements for our good. All the men- 
tal and physical powers which we possess are his gifts to us. It 
might be said, as a capital stock, for which he requires one-tenth 
of all we produce or earn, whether it be on the farm, in the office, 
or any other occupation. The other nine- tenths is for our personal 
use. 

The Lord has said in the revelation to the Prophet Joseph 
Smith, that 'If my people observe not this law to keep it holy, and 
by this law sanctify the land of Zion unto me, that my statutes 
and my judgments may be kept thereon, that it may be most holy, 
behold, verily I say unto you, it shall not be a land of Zion unto 
you." The Lord further says, through his servant Malachi, 
''Bring ye all the tithes into the storehouse, that there may be 
meat in mine house, and prove me now herewith, saith the Lord of 
hosts, if I will not open you the windows of heaven, and pour you 
out a blessing, that there shall not be room to receive it." There 
is no law given through which we can receive so many of the 
blessings of heaven and earth, as through obedience to the law of 
tithes and offerings. 

A. — is correct. One-tenth of all his earnings is an honest tithe 
to the Lord. B. — is in error, and cannot be sustained by the spirit 
and tenor of the revelation recorded in Section 119, in the book 
of Doctrine and Covenants. 



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INCONSISTENCY OF AGNOSTICS- 



BY EDWIN P. PARRY. 

In number two of the present volume of the Era appeared an 
article entitled "What Agnosticism is," contributed by Mr. W. H. 
Lamaster. In the following issue of the Era the editor reviewed 
the article mentioned, and gave a sufficient answer to the claims 
made therein. My object in referring to Mr. Lamasterfs article is 
merely to call attention to one statement which he makes. He 
says: "The Christian relies on faith for his belief in the existence 
of an infinite God. * * * This may meet all the requirements 
of theology, but philosophy demands something more logical and 
reasonable in order to satisfy it of the existence of any being 
either finite or infinite." 

Statements similar to the above are frequently made by 
agnostics and infidels, and they are misleading because they do not 
set forth the whole truth respecting the Christian's position. 

It may be true that "the Christian relies on faith for his belief 
in the existence of an infinite God;" but he does not rest satisfied 
with belief alone. In his search for knowledge he recognizes the 
great truth that faith is necessary to the attainment of knowledge 
— that faith leads to knowledge, and that the only way to acquure 
the latter is through the exercise of faith. All knowledge is the 
result of action or experience, and faith is the "moving cause of 
all action;" hence knowledge is the result of faitL 

True Christianity teaches that the way to know God is to keep 
his commandments. St. John says, "Hereby we do know that we 
know him, if we keep his commandments." (I John 2: 8.) This 
is true philosophy. All our knowledge is the result of obedience 



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302 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

to certain principles or laws, and intelligent obedience is always 
preceded by faith. It is therefore folly to reject faith as a means 
of gaining knowledge. 

The remark of Mr. Lamaster, that "philosphy demands some- 
thing more logical and reasonable in order to satisfy it of the 
existence of any being either finite or infinite/' is most absurd to 
the intelligent Christian believer. There can be nothing more 
logical and reasonable than the Christian method of satisfying the 
mind of the existence of an Infinite Being. The trae Christian 
who has a knowledge of the existence of God has gained that 
knowledge in the only logical and reasonable way there is to arrive 
at facts. He is informed that there is a God. The scriptures tell 
him how he may know there is a God. He has faith sufficient to 
test the promises of the scriptures; and after having complied 
with the requirements therein set forth he obtains the knowledge 
sought after, thus verifying the truth of those scriptures. This 
is precisely the same way in which all facts sought for are gained. 
Philosophy cannot demand a more logical way of arriving at truths. 

The mathematician claims to be able to measre the distance 
between the earth and the sun. To prove his claim philosophy 
demands that the principles employed by the mathematician in 
reaching his conclusions be learned and put into operation. To do 
this some faith in his claims must be exercised, or no effort would 
be made towards a demonstration. This is the only reasonable 
method of testing his statements. 

The claims of true theology will bear the same test. Bnt^ 
strange to say, the agnostic or the infidel is not willing to submit 
to this process of learning religious truths. He refuses to test 
them in the same way as he would secular truths. He refuses to 
entertain belief in the supernatural because he considers it too 
wonderful or strange to accept. Thus he rejects the only method 
whereby he can make a philosophical test of religion. With equal 
consistency a man ignorant of mathematics might refuse to investi- 
gate the principles by which the mathematician measures the dis- 
tance between the earth and the sun, and declare that such a thing 
is impossible because it is such a remarkable or'wonderful feat. No 
one is justified in rejectmg the Christian's testimony that there is 
a Supreme Being without having exercised faith in, and rendered 



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INCONSISTENCY OF AGNOSTICS 303 

-obedience to, the requirements necessary to the attainment of a 
knowledge of the existence of God. No investigation short of 
this is sufficient to be called a fair test of the Christian's claims. 



THE LAWS OP RELIGION. 

MONTESQUE. 



The laws of religion should never inspire an aversion to any- 
thing but vice, and above all they should never estrange man from 
B love and tenderness for his own species. 

***** 

The Mohammedan and Indian (Hindu) religions embrace an 
infinite number of people, the Indians hate the Mohammmedans, 
because they eat cows; the Mohammedans detest the Indians because 
they eat hogs. 



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SCENERY OF THE CLYDR 



ANON. 



Many people living in Utah and the several mountain states 
surrounding her, hail from the "Land o' the LeaF — Old Scotia; 
and to thepi the scenes and tales of the land of their birth are still 
dear. Loyalty to the memory of native land — ^to her scenes, her 
mountains, her vales, her streams and lochs, her traditions and 
customs —is the very chiefest of Scotch characteristics. It is the 
recognition of this that leads one of our writers for the Era to 
believe that the following description of the scenery along the Clyde 
will be particularly interesting to our Scotch readers and to many 
others of our readers who have been enchanted with the scenery 
along the Clyde. 

Most people, we suppose, have heard of the Clyde. It is the 
finest river in Scotland; and Scotland is rich in fine rivers. There 
is the Forth, which takes its rise from a small, clear pool at the 
bottom of Ben Lomond, and after winding away for miles, like a 
silver thread, through the wild and beautiful scenery of Stirling- 
shire expands below Alloa, into a broad and majestic sheet of water, 
rolling on silently and slowly to the German Ocean. There is the 
Tay, drawing its source from the distant mountains of Breadalbane, 
and flowing through the enchanting lake which bears its name, 
whose wooded banks and little tufted island (romantic with the 
ruins of its ancient priory) no admirer of the picturesque should 
fail of seeing; and let him follow the gentle stream, as it sweeps 
past the royal borough of Perth, and gliding under the nine-arched 
bridge, enters the "Carse of Gowrie" — the Caledonian Arcadia — 
and at length, swelling into a frith, ceases to exist "betwixt St. 



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SCENERY OF THE CLYDE. 305 

Johnston and bonnie Dundee.'* Then there is the Tweed — the very 
Avon of the north — with its classic tributaries, the "Galla Water," 
and the Tivot, whose "wild and willowed shore" lives in immortal 
song. Then there is the Esk, too, or rather the Esks — the North 
and the South — tracing their origin up to the Grampian Hills, and 
after finding their way by different channels, through their native 
shire of Angus, meeting for the first and last time, just as they are 
passing into their common grave in the neighborhood of Montrose. 
And there are the Don and the Dee — the noblest of Scotch High- 
land streams, whose course lies among rocks, and moors, and glens 
and heathy hills, softening the stem aspect of the mountains of 
Mar Forest, and giving a softer beauty to the vale of Braemar. 
And there are the Nith and the Annan, rolling on in placid quiet, 
to the boisterous Solway. He who does not know their charms 
must learn them from Cunningham, not from me. Though last, not 
least, there is the Devron, a narrow, but romantic stream, and the 
chief ornament of Banffshire, giving luxuriance to the sweet valley 
of Porgien— sweeping round the foot of the green hill, on whose 
brow stands the cottage of Eden — ^winding among the woods of 
Mount Coffre — sleeping like liquid crystal under the bridge of Alva, 
and then meandering on through the noble parks of Duff House, as 
if loath to leave these favorite scenes for the rude billows of the 
Murray Frith. 

Yet still the Clyde keeps its own ground, and remains unri- 
valled. Let me carry you along with me, whilst we visit its lead- 
ing beauties. 

We shall set out from Lanark. Here is a path along the north- 
em bank. It is shaded by trees, and its aspect is rural, but you 
may perceive by its breadth that it is one over which many have 
trod. The stream flows on beside us, somewhat rapidly, confined 
within a narrow bed by those high perpendicular walls of equila- 
teral rocks. Now you may hear a noise in the distance, like a 
NoveAiber wind sounding among the dry crashing branches of the 
forest. It increases, and the surrounding trees and rocks throw a 
deeper gloom over the path. Is it the roar of approaching thunder? 
No; the sky is blue and serene, and the sunbeams, though they can- 
not penetrate here, have all the brightness of April. We must 
ascend out of this darkness. The little by-road will conduct us to 



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306 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

yonder old tower that stands upon the height before ns. The sit- 
nation here is more airy, but the noise is louder than ever. Nay, 
do not fear it. Follow me to the tower. Now, look there! This 
is Cora-linn! There is the cataract before us, tumbling down from 
rock to rock, dashing from chasm to chasm, foaming, boiling, roar- 
ing till the brain becomes dizzy, and the sense of hearing suffers a 
temporary annihilation. See how its waters seem to burst forth from 
the caves of the surrounding rocks! See how the boughs of the 
impending trees are whitened by its spray! Look how the river 
slides along with silent velocity of light, till it reaches the edge of 
the precipice, and then mark how it leaps into the gulf below, and 
frightens the mountain-echoes with its earthquake voice. Look 
yonder, where for a moment it catches the sunlight in its fall; see 
how every drop glitters with a different hue, laughing to scorn the 
brightness of the rainbow. When did water ever suggest so many 
varied emotions — ^wonder, fear, delight and awe! Every faculty is 
absorbed; the mind is put upon its utmost stretch; the very excess 
of pleasure becomes pain. We shall gaze no more. Yet it was in 
this savage retreat, among those rugged, inaccessible cliffs, that 
the patriot Wallace is said to have concealed himself for a time, 
meditating the deliverance of his injured country. 

Let us pass on — still nobler prospects await us. Those orchards 
and luxuriant fields through which the stream now winds wiU not 
detain us. We are bent upon exploring more distant beauties. 
Here is the smoky city of Glasgow. Let us get through it, I beseech 
you, as expeditiously as possible. What a multitude of steamboats 
are at the quay! We shall ^o on board the Inverary CJadle. It 
is large and commodious, and, what is more, sails fast and smoothly. 
Some of them (though not many) are so ill fitted with engines, that 
you run some danger of being shaken to pieces. 

For about ten miles the river turns and winds like a cork- 
screw. It presents a perpetual succession of sinuosities; and in its 
course a painter may discover Hogarth's line of beauty multiplied 
ad ivfinitum. But in some of its bolder sweeps, as well as in nriany 
of its more abrupt and geometrical meanderings, how beautiful are 
the pictures of nature which are continually presenting them- 
selves! Here, for example, on the bank to the right, is a hamlet, 
or rather a few detached houses, to which they have given the 



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SCENERY OF THE CLYDE. 307 

name of Dunglass. It stands almost embosomed in trees, and 
immediately behind, a richly-wooded hill rises in a gentle acclivity. 
I know not well how to account for the many delightful sensations 
which this secluded spot, "unsung in tale or history," awakens in 
the bosom. I have seen such scenes before, in England, and I have 
read of others which my imagination clothed perhaps in ideal 
charms, but here those charms are realized. They remind me of 
the vicinity of Litchfield. They place before me Weston, the 
*l)eloved Weston" of the gentle poetCowper; and, for the moment, 
I can almost fancy myself surrounded by the spirits — but we have 
already left Dunglass far behind. 

Turn again to the right. You have heard of Dumbarton rock 
and castle; they are there before you. Whence came this immense 
mass, you inquire, isolated as it is, and unnconnected with any 
neighboring mountain? The question is more easily asked than 
answered. An effect is often apparent, though the cause be con- 
cealed. Neither Button nor Werner can explain the mystery. They 
know no more of the matter than the humblest fisherman. The rock 
is there, and there it hath stood for ages. Look beyond it, over 
the town of Dumbarton, and across the rich country that intervenes, 
and your eye will rest upon a still nobler object, a still more mag- 
nificent production of Nature — Ben Lomond, "giant of the North- 
ern landf^ looking, if not over "half the world," at least over more 
than half of Scotland. How sublimely does it rise into the "second 
heavens r hiding its haughty head, not, in the figurative signification 
of poetry, but literally and truly, among the clouds of the air, as 
often, at all events, as the air contains clouds, which, in this region, 
is at least during ten months of the year. Far below, but invisible 
from our present station lies the prince of Caledonian lakes— Loch 
Lomond. Nor let me forget the " Crystal Leven," which, flowing 
from the southwest end of Loch Lomond, falls into the Clyde, after 
a short but beautiful course of a little more than six miles. It is 
a stream unequalled for the pure transparency of its waves, and the 
romantic loveliness of its banks. 

Hitherto we have been moving within a narrow channel, and 
the banks have been marked with the characteristics of inland and 
fresh water rivers. But we are now entering upon a broader 
expanse. The banks are changed into shores, and their minuter 



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308 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

charms are seen indistinctly in the distance. As if to compensate, 
however, for this loss, the features of the scenery become at once 
bolder and more decided. We can hardly talk any longer of their 
beauty, we must speak now of their grandeur and sublimity. How 
noble the prospect which opens upon you! The river itself is glit- 
tering in the sunshine like a plain of liquid silver. On either side 
appear towns, villages and hamlets; and behind those, on the right, 
are seen the wild and irregular mountains of Argyleshire, bare and 
barren, but, in the clear atmosphere of summer, rising with an 
imposing solemnity and majestic stillness into the calm blue air. 
Yonder is Roseneath,.a beautiful wooded peninsula, where the Duke 
of Argyle has left the finest model of a nobleman's country resi- 
dence which Scotland at this instant possesses. By the way, talk- 
ing of Roseneath, I cannot help adverting to the very imperfect 
knowledge of its localities shown by the author of "Waverley," in 
the last volume of the '' Heart of Mid-Lothian.'' He talks of it 
again and again as an island — describes views to be had from it 
which even an Argus could never have discovered — and, above all, 
displays a total ignorance of the breadth and general appearance 
of the lochs by which it is cut off from the main land on the east 
and west. The reader feels disappointed when he makes this dis- 
covery; his confidence in his author's accuracy is shaken; and he 
consequently peruses with less pleasure the descriptions of scenery 
with which he may subsequently meet. 

We have not yet come in sight of the ocean, for even after it 
has increased to its greatest breadth, the Clyde still retains its love 
of abrupt turnings and windings; so that, to the eye of a stranger, 
it frequently appears land-locked; and it is not till he has followed 
its meanderings more than once that he is able to distinguish its 
course from a distance. But we have passed Port-Glasgow, with 
its hanging steeple — and Greenock, with its stately Custom House— 
and Grourock, the most celebrated of watering places — and Dunoon, 
with its little Grothic church and fine romantic site — and we are 
bearing rapidly down on the Cloch Light-house. Now at length the 
far-off Atlantic appears in view. Where have you seen a noble 
river mingling more beautifully with the sea? The firth is stud- 
ded with islands, and all of them remarkable for some character- 
istic attraction. In the foreground are the two Cumbrays placed, 



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SCENERY OF THE CLYDE. 809 

as if to shelter the cahn bay of Largs, and offering no little temp- 
tation to the antiquary in the shape of an ancient cathedral, now 
in ruins — dedicated to Saint Columba. Further off is Bute, thei 
most level island, perhaps in the Scottish seas, but rich and fertile, 
and proud of its romantic kyles, and little sunny creeks. On the 
southwest lies Inchmaniock, as fair an inch as eye can rest on, with 
its strata of coral and shells and its old chapel, long since deserted 
by its patron saint. At a still greater distance rise the mountains 
of Arran — st«m, rugged, and vast. It is there that tradition pre- 
serves the memory of Fingal, and there "The Lay of the Last Min- 
strer places before us " the Bruce of Bannockbum." 



A SCOTCH CHARACTERISTIC. 



Speaking of the familiarity with which the Scots treat the Creator, 
Max CRell, in his charming selection of Scotch anecdotes, under the 
title of 'Triend MacDonald,'' says that the Scot addresses the Creator 
"very much as if he was his next-door neighbor. He tells him all his little 
needs, and will go so far as to gently reproach him if they are not sup- 
plied. "If he has dined well, he is lavish in returning thanks to the 
Lord for his infinite favors; his gratitude is boundless. If he has a meagre 
repast, he thanks him for the least of his mercies. The thanks are not 
omitted, but at the same time Donald gives the Lord to understand that 
he has made a poor dinner." And then he sustains this opinion which he 
formed of "Friend Donald'' by the following anecdote, the first part of 
which, however, 0*Rell admits is to be found in Dr. Ramsey's Reminis- 
cences, and as for the second part — wherein lies the point of the matter 
— he leaves the responsibility for it upon his host who related the story 
to him. Here it is: 

"A Presbyterian minister had just cut his hay, and the weather not 
being very propitious for making it, he knelt near his open window 
and addressed to Heaven the following prayer: 

" '0 Lord, send us wind for the hay; no a rantin', tantin', tearin' 
wind, but a noughin', winnin' wind .' 

"His prayer was here interrupted by a puff of wind that made the 
panes rattle, and scattered in all directions the papers lying on his table. 

" The minister straightway got up and closed his window, exclaiming: 

"'Now, Lord, that's ridik'lousr 

"If this ending of the anecdote is not authentic,'' adds CRell, "I 
feel quite sure that none but a Scotchman could have invented it." 



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EDITOR'S TABLE. 



ATTITUDE OP THE CHURCH TOWARDS REFORM- 
POLITICAL PARTIES. 



From M. D. Fitzgerald, of Lynn, Massachusetts, the editors of 
the Era received the following, under date of January 4th, in rela- 
tion to the evils of the world and the plans proposed by the Social 
Labor Party to eradicate the same. 



I am prompted to write yon this letter because I have been favored 
in making the acquaintance of Elder Charles Westover of your Chorch. 
The doctrine, etc., of the Church so far as I understand it from a simple 
study of its cardinal principles, are certainly "Godlike," and superior to 
many conflicting doctrines that surround me here. I am a Catholic by 
baptism and education, and can only fiod a reason for deviation from the 
doctrine of our Savior Jesus Christ by so-called Christian Churches in this 
fact, that they have admitted the right of private ownership of the means 
of production and distribution, thus entailing usury, the competitive 
system, the disinheriting of the masses, wars, having an economic basis, 
and other evils too numerous to recapitulate in this short letter. 

On this New Eni;:land coast are many cities containing thousands of 
idle men and women, living in poverty, in enforced idleness, while the 
means, i. e. natural resources and machinery, capable of being united to 
and operated by their intelligence for the purpose of producing untold 
wealth, are also lying comparatively idle. Churchmen and statesmen are 
continually tinkering or vainly endeavoring to remedy this deplorable 
condition; I believe it can only be aggravated by these so-called panaceas, 
viz: free trade, protection, monetary reform, expansion, (imperialism,) etc 



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EDITORS TABLE. 311 

I know from a study of industrial evolution that nothing short of 
a social revolution can emancipate the proletariat from the awful economic 
conditions that surround them in the United States and elsewhere. Thus 
believing I have allied myself with the only political party destined to 
bring it about, i. e.: "The Socialistic Labor Party .'^ We suffer and have had 
martyrs like the Mormon Church. I have faith in Christ, but I also be- 
lieve in work, i. e. propaganda to bring his kingdom on earth. Scientific 
Socialism is absolute truth. Why then do Christian Churches oppose or 
remain neutral on it? They must exercise their franchise or else be 
political nonenities. Many ministers support it in a Utopian manner, 
others oppose it, and yet no one can point out any demand of modem 
Socialism that conflicts with the teachings of Jesus Christ. I will ask 
Elder Westover to send you thi s letter with the platform and constit ution 
of ''The Socialist Labor Party,** and if your editorial functions permit 
you to express the attitude of the Mormon Church toward our movement 
I will be duly grateful to you if you will kindly forward to me that num- 
ber of the Improvement Era containing it. 

We begin our remarks on the above with reference to a clause 
in the closing sentence — " Express the attitude of the Mormon 
Church toward our movement." The attitude of The Church 
towards the Socialistic Labor Party movement, is just what the 
position of The Church is toward other political parties— ^non-inter- 
f^ence with it; non-cooperation with it. The Church is not asso- 
ciated with any political party, nor does it oppose any of them. For 
their respective panaceas for the ills of humanity The Church may 
be said to hold that they are inadequate to the curing of those ills; 
and it may also be said that The Church regards in the same way 
the efforts of communists and socialists, apart from political 
parties. The Church believes that the only thing that can per- 
manently eradicate the evils under which humanity suffers is the 
Gospel of the Son of God; and that however praiseworthy the 
efforts of philanthropists and social and political reformers to 
ameliorate the hard conditions under which mankind suffers may 
be, they will not succeed to any very great extent. It is a world 
that has gone wrong; it will require the wisdom and power of God 
to set it right, and do away with the evils complained of. 

This may be a very unsatisfactory statement to make to those 
who are fired with a zeal to correct all evils, to make of earth a 
heaven, and who fondly believe that they have at last hit upon the 



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312 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

right combination of principles and forces to accomplish this very 
desirable result. Bat reformers before now with equal zeal, with 
intentions as pure and unselfish as those of our present reformers 
have dreamed that they, too, had found the .combination of prin- 
ciples and forces that would cure all the ills that flesh is heir to; 
but they have awakened to find that they but dreamed; and the 
evils they so bravely fought still remained, and, in fact, increased. 
And so they died, leaving the problems unsolved, just as our pres- 
ent generation of reformers will die and leave social, political, and 
economic problems unsolved, and industrial evils uncured. But the 
time will come when the earth shall rest from its sorrows; when 
mankind shall be emancipated from the injustice and inequality 
that now obtains, and from which so large a part of earth's inhabit- 
ants now suffer. But the relief will come through the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ — ^the plan ordained of God to redeem the world, from 
all evils both temporal and spiritual. It has been restored for that 
purpose. It is beguming that work — the cuhnination of which we 
have abready mentioned — ^by teaching faith in God, and repentance. 
By which means righteousness shall be brought to pass and the 
elements made ready for the introduction of that better order of 
things predicted by all the prophets, and which shall relieve man- 
kind of the distresses and inequalities under which they now groan. 
This is to be brought about by — but we only at this writing 
undertook to say what attitude the Church occupied with refer- 
ence to political parties and we have not space to do more. 



NOTES. 



Deliberate with caution, but act with decision; yield with gracious- 
ness, but oppose with firmness. 

A character which combines the love of enjoyment with the love of 
duty and the ability to perform it is the one whose unfoldings give the 
greatest promise of perfection. 



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NOTES. 313 

It is best to be ourselves. To ape the mannerism of another is not 
the wise way to grow. If we devote ourselves to the cultivation of a 
right spirit within, our outward ways will have truest attractiveness. 

Hope is a duty as well as a comfort. He who ceases to look forward 
to the future with hope ceases to work with a will in the present. As 
long as we have work to do or burdens to carry, let us hope for something 
better than is now in our possession. We ought not to be satisfied with, 
though we have to be contented in, that which the present gives us. 

It is a beautiful world once we learn how to live. There is beauty 
in every menial duty, there is inspiration in every hardship and sacrifice, 
if only once we learn that each hardship and each sacrifice form but one 
more stepping-stone that lifts us up above the level of the commonplace 
and nearer the heights of divine endurance that makes life a glorification 
of the spirit. 

Those who push themselves forward, recounting their own deeds and 
successes, and claiming the applause and gratitude of the world, are by 
no means the greatest benefactors of their race. Often indeed they are 
wearing the stolen plumage of their more modest brothers who have done 
great deeds without notice or edat, and are contented to be what the 
others greatly wish to appear. 

When it comes to be realized by the great majority of the universe 
that severity and harshness are usually the result of a poverty of intellect 
that fails to comprehend human nature, and that charity, sympathy, 
gentleness, and good feeling are the sure fruits, not only of a kindly 
heart, but of an educated brain, a long step will have been taken towards 
the increase of human welfare and happiness. 

The lesson, not of stoicism, but of quiet manly endurance, is one 
which is much needed in this sympathetic age. Especially is this the 
isase in all the smaller miseries of life. Every one has petty vexations, 
annoyances, disappointments, hindrances, aches of both body and mind, 
some of which can be remedied and others only endured, but none of 
which he has any right to add to the load which his neighbor has to carry. 
A due regard to the comfort of others and also to his own dignity 
demand that such things be relegated to silence, and not suffered to 
intrude upon and spoil seasons of intercourse which might otherwise be 
gladdening and elevating. 



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m LIGHTER MOOD. 



An elderly fat gentleman, in discussing a warm beefsteak at a High- 
land inn, called to the waiting boy: 'Donald, bring me more bread; for 
I eat a great deal of bread to my steak." 

"Ay, and please your honor, ye eat a great deal of steak to your 

bread." 

* * » 

Will Hamilton, the ''daft man o' Ayr," was once hanging abont the 
vicinity of a loch which was partially frozen. Three young ladies were 
deliberating as to whether they should venture upon the ice, when one 
of them suggested that Will should be asked to walk on it first. On the 
proposal being made to him, he responded: "Though* Fm daft, Fm no' 
ill bred. After you, leddies." 

* ♦ * 

Said a pompous man of money to Professor Agassiz — "I once took 
some interest in natural science, but I became a banker, and I am what 
lam." 

"Ah," replied Agassiz, "my father procured a place for me in a bank; 

but I begged for one more year of study, then for a second, then for a 
third. That fixed my fate. Sir, if it had not been for that little firm- 
ness of mine, I would now myself have been nothing but a bankerP 

* * * 

A story is told of a shrewish old Scotchwoman, who tried to wean 
her husband from the dram-shop by employing her brother to act the 
part of a ghost, and frighten John on his way home. 

"Who are you," asked the farmer, as the apparition rose before him 
from behind a bush. 

"I am Auld Nick," was the reply. 

"Are ye really?" exclaimed the old reprobate, with much satisfac- 
tion, instead of terror, "Man come awa'; gi'e's a shake o' your haun; Fm 
merrit tae a sister o' yours!" 

* * « 
Upon some hasty errand Tom was sent. 
And met his parish curate as he went; 
But just like what he was —a sorry clown. 

It seems he passed him with a covered crown. 
The gown man stopt, and frowning, sternly said: 
"I doubt, my lad, you're far worse taught than fed." 
"Why, aye," says Tom, still jogging on, "that's true; 
Thank God! he feeds me, but Fm taught by you." 



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OUR WORK. 



GENERAL IMPROVEMENT FUND. 



We desire to remind tha Superintendents of Stakes and the Presidents 
of Associations and the members generally that by action of the Y.M. 
M. L A. General Conference, held in May last, what had up to that time 
been called the ''fifty cent fund" was changed in title to General Improve- 
ment Fand; and the amonnt to be contributed by each member of the 
associations to meet the general expenses of this institution, was cut 
down from fifty cents to twenty-five cents; the full amount however to 
be remitted by the proper officers of the associations to the General 
Treasurer, Thomas Hull. 

The first week in December and the first week in February were 
decided upon as Ck>llection Weeks for this fund, audit was further decided 
that the ward treasurers should make remittance to the stake superin- 
tendents on January Ist and February 20th; and that the respective 
stake treasurers should remit immediately to the General Treasurer at 
Salt Lake City. We call attention to this matter at this time because 
the last week set apart as Collection Week for this fund has now arrived; 
and up to the present time the returns from the December collections 
have been very, very meagre; and we wish to urge upon the officers in 
the stakes and the wards that the collection of this fund ought to be 
vigorously pushed. 

We suggest to presidents that it would be a good thing to organize 
a large committee to attend to this business; and apportion the names 
of members of the associations to individuals of said committee, giving 
each person say from eight to ten or twelve names, and charge him with 
the duty of seeing each of the persons whose names are assigned to him 
during Collection Week, and make this collection. If the work is thus 



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316 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

apportioned among the members it will be light and easy to accomplish; 
bnt it requires the immediate attention of the officers. 

It needs no argument to prove the necessity there is for the exist- 
ence of this fond. All the stake and ward officers who were in attend- 
ance at the General Conference were convinced of its necessity, and they 
were charged with the duty of explaining it to the members of the 
associations and attending to its collection. Let this business now be 
heartily taken up and pushed to a successful conclusion. 



READING NEWSPAPERS. 



A long time ago, as early at least as 1832, the Lord gave a com- 
mandment to the Elders of the Church to teach each other diligently all 
things that pertain unto the Kingdom of God that were expedient for 
them to understand — ''all things both in heaven and in earth, and und^ 
the earth; things which have been, things which are, things which must 
shortly come to pass; things which are at home; things which are 
abroad, the wars and the perplexities of the nations and the judgments 
which are on the land and a knowledge also of countries and kingdoms." 
And all this that they might be prepared in all things to magnify the 
calling whereunto he, the Lord, had called them, and fill the mission with 
which he had commissioned them. (Doctrine and Covenants, Sec» 88; 
77-80.) 

In this age of immediate communication with all parts of the world, 
when events tread upon each other's heels, so fast they follow — ^the only 
way to keep abreast of the times, and comply with this commandment 
that the Lord gave to his servants so long ago, is for our young men to 
read the daily events as they daily occur; and this makes necessary the 
reading of the daily newspapers. No young man can be up with the 
spirit of the times — in touch with the events that are transpiring in the 
world around him — without reading the daily papers) and we therefore 
urge the members of the Improvement Association to become subscribers 
to and readers of daily papers; and especially do we commend to th^ 
attention the daily paper now published by the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints, and which is the Church organ, viz. The Deteret 
Evening News. 



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OUR WORK. 317 

, This paper recently reverted to the control of the Church and is 
now published with the announcemet that it is the organ of the Church, 
Lorenzo Snow, President and Trustee-in-Trust. This should cause every 
member of the Church to regard this newspaper with especial pride, and 
take a personal interest in its success. In fact, in our judgment, it 
becomes the duty of the Church members to so regard it, and we trust 
that our young men will be imbued with this spirit and give their loyal 
support to the Deseret I^ews. When it reverted to the control of the 
Cbnrch, on the first of the year, a new business management and edi- 
torial staff was given to the paper which insures business capacity in its 
management and force and literary ability in its editorial utterances; 
while unquestionably its news service will be equal, and in some respects 
superior, to that of any other paper published in the State or even in the 
inter-mountain region of the west. Horace G. Whitney is in control of 
the business department, and C. W. Penrose is at the head of the editorial 
staff; so that in speaking this word for the News to our young men, we 
do not urge them to support the Church organ as a matter of duty alone, 
but we feel sure that in subscribing for that paper and in giving to 
it their support they will be receiving the most reliable daily newspaper 
within their reach. The area that can now be covered by the service of 
the daily mail should warrant a very large circulation of the DaUy News, 
and everywhere it can reach on the day of its publication or the morning 
following, we would suggest to our young men that they get the daily 
Evening News, and where the mail service does not warrant the people in 
taking the daily paper, they should most assuredly become subscribers for 
the semi-weekly. 

We have no selfish purpose in thus recommending the Deseret News 
to the readers of the Era. Neither the business management nor the 
editorial department, nor any one connected with the News is aware of 
the fact that we are presenting this matter to our young men. We do 
it because we feel that we ought, first to discharge our duty in the mat- 
ter of recommending the Church organ to the attention of our young 
people; and second, because we desire to do our young people a service 
in urging them to make themselves acquainted with current events, and 
with current thought as connected with those events. 



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EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 

BY THOMAS HULL, SECRETARY OF THE GENERAL BOARD OF Y. M. If. L A. 



December 20th, 1898: Samuel Gompers is re-elected president of 
the American Federation of Labor at the annual convention of that 
organization at Kansas City. 

2l8t: Secretary of the Interior Bliss having resigned, Ethan A. 
Hitchcock is appointed to succeed him. 

22nd: Governor Wells receives a petition signed by all the officers 
of the Utah Batteries in Manila asking him to use his influence to secure 
the muster-out of the troops. 

23rd: The first troop of Utah Volunteer Cavalry is mustered out 
of the service of the United States. 

24th : The American peace commission delivers to President McKinley 
the treaty of peace between the United States and Spain. 

28th: Dispatches received at the State department in Washington, 
D. G. state that Iloilo, Philippine Islands was captured December 24th, 
by the insurgents. 

29th: On account of the refusal of General Brooke to permit the 
Cuban troops to participate in the exercises of evacuation day in Havana, 
intense feeling is manifested there and the United States flag is torn down 
from many houses. ♦ ♦ ♦ President McKinley approves an 
executive order regulating the financial system of Cuba and providing 
that all customs, taxes, public and postal dues in the island shall be paid 
in the United States money or in foreign gold coin and fixing the Value at 
which such foreign coin shall be received. It also provides that certain 
Spanish silver coins shall be received for customs, taxes and public and 
postal dues at rates fixed in the order. 

30th: Senor Don Maties Romero, the Mexican Ambassador to the 
United States dies in Washington after having been operated upon for 
appendicitis. 

January 1st, 1899: The government of the island of Cuba is for^ 
mally surrendered by the Spanish to the United States and the American 
flag is raised on all public buildings, etc., in Havana. 

2nd: President and Mrs. McKinley hold their first New Year 
reception at the White House. 



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EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 319 

3rd: George W. Bartch is sworn in as Chief Justice and R. N. 
Baskin as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Utah: 

4th: Hon. George E. Roberts, director of the mint, issues his 
estimate of the production of gold in the United States, showing a 
total of $65,782,677. Utah is credited with $2,170,543. ♦ ♦ ♦ 
The president transmits to the senate the treaty of peace between the 
UnitCNi States and Spain. The following is his message: 

To the Senate of the United States: — I transmit, 
herewith, with a view to its ratification, a treaty of 
peace between the United States and Spain, signed at 
the city of Paris, on December 10, 1898, together with 
the protocols and papers indicated in the list accom- 
panying the report of the Secretary of State. 

WiLLUM McKlNLEY. 

Executive Mansion, Washington, D. C, January 
4, 1899. 

7th: The Salt Lake ministers. Dr. Iliff, of the M. E. Church; W. M. 
Paden, of the First Presbyterian, and Clarence T. Brown, of the First 
Congregational church, forward to Washington a formal protest against 
the seating of B. H. Roberts in Congress. 

9th: The third Utah Legislature convenes in Salt Lake City. Aquila 
Nebeker is chosen as president of the Senate and Wm. M. Roylance as 
speaker of the House. 

10th: Governor Wells presents his message to the Legislature. It 
is a voluminous document, and refers to: the evidence of prosperity, con- 
gratulating the State upon the improved business conditions; the call for 
Tolunteers and the ready response of the State; the codification of the 
laws of the State and recommending new legislation; the election of a 
United States Senator; date of convening the Legislature, recommending 
that an amendment to the constitution be proposed providing that the 
Legislature be convened on the third instead of the second Tuesday in 
January; refunding the State bonds; the finances of the State, showing 
that after all revenues are collected and current indebtedness paid, there 
will remain in the general fund a balance of more than $175,000; the 
State lands, submitting a statement of the amounts received from the 
sale of lands and the investment thereof; educational matters, showing 
that great progress has been made. Under the head of ''State Institutions'* 
the message refers to and reports the condition of the University, Agri- 
cultural College, School for Deaf, Dumb and Blind, Industrial School, 
Insane Asylum, Board of Pardons and Paroles, recommending legislation 
conferring the power on the State Board of Pardons to exercise parole 
clemency and recommending the appropriation of $500 for the care of 
Hawaiian lepers in Tooele County. Consideration is then given to the 



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320 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

National Guard, irrigation, forest preservation, Board of Health, horti- 
culture, fish and game, the Semi-Centennial Commission; recommends 
suitable appropriation for a first-class State fair in October, 1899; foster- 
ing legislation for home industries and the creation of a bureau of star 
tistics and immigration are advised. Reference is made to outlawry in 
the eastern and south-eastern portions of the State, to the charges made 
against the judge of the Fourth Judicial district, to the opening of the 
Uncompahgre reservation and the failure to open the Uintah reservation; 
for the constitutional provision requiring the Legislature to enact laws 
fixing reasonable maximum charges for railway transportation and ex- 
pressing the earnest hope that action will be taken upon the subject; to 
the Paris Exposition, recommending an appropriation for a State exhibit 
there. The governor recommends an increase in the salaries of State 
officials, and the memorializing of Ck)ngress for public buildings in Salt 
Lake City and Ogden, and on other subjects, and concludes his message in 
the following words: 

'In a manner much less brief than could have been desired, I liave 
sought to place before you a comprehensive account of the affairs of the 
State. My hearty co-operation and support are extended in every effort 
you may make to advance the interests of Utah and the welfare of her 
citizens. 

In all our deliberations may reason prevail over passion and preja- 
dice, and in the discharge of our duties may we be truly representative 
of the best thought and the highest aspiration of an intelligent, patriotic 
and progressive people, to the end that our efforts may perpetuate the 
honor and fame of our grand young commonwealth." ♦ ♦ ♦ 

A great sensation is created in the Montana legislature when $40,000 
is sent to the presiding officer's desk with the statement of a member 
that it had been paid to him for bribe money in the interest of the 
election of one of the senatorial candidates. 

11th: Charles M. Cannon, son of President Angus M. Cannon, of 
Salt Lake City, dies of valvular disease of the heart. ♦ ♦ ♦ Presi- 
dent McKinley nominates Joseph H. Choate to be embassador to Great 
Britain. 

12th: Elder George Goddard, well and widely known throughout 
the State, dies this morning. 

13th: Hon. Nelson Dingley, of Maine, dies of pneumonia, in Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

14th: The United States cruiser Albany is successfully launched 
at Newcastle, England. 

17th: The Utah Legislature begins balloting for United States 
Senator. Hon. W. H. King, A. W. McCune, Judge 0. W. Powers and 
Hon. Frank J. Cannon are candidates for the office. 



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IMPROVEMENT EE^ 



TOL. n. MARCH, 1899. • No. 5. 



DREYFUS AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF 
LAW IN FRANCE. 

BY J. M. TANNER, PRESIDENT AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, 
LOGAN, UTAH. 



No trial of modem times has created such nniversal attention 
as today attends that of Dreyfus, an Alsatian Jew in the engineer- 
ing corps of the French army. The circumstances of his trial and 
conviction and the subsequent developments, together with the 
tragic trial of Zola and the suicide of Col. Henry, have turned the 
eyes of the whole world to France and to the peculiarities of her 
administration of the law. 

Before the circumstances of his trial are given, a brief expla- 
nation of the administration of law in France is necessary in order 
to comprehend how it is possible for a man to be tried and con- 
victed according to the procedure adopted in the case of Dreyfus. 

France is a republic, but a republic in name only, for civil 
rights and the great bulwarks of liberty are no more enjoyed on 
the west than they are on the east of the Rhine. France, like 
her neighbor, Germany, is a military despotism, but poses before 
the world in the name of a republic. There is a fundamental differ- 



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322 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

ence between the Germanic and the Romanic idea of the state. 
The Roman power was that of the strongest centralization wherdn 
the individual is supposed to contribute to some ideal that is con- 
stantly held up as the chief purpose of his existence. Among the 
Teutonic races there is much more of individual liberty enjoyed 
in the administration of government ; and this liberty and the 
principles of free institutions have been most highly developed in 
England and America. 

There are, therefore, fundamental differences between the 
administration of law in France and its administration in English- 
speaking lands. Inihe first place, France has a peculiar kind of 
law, known, it is true, to continental countries, but hardly compre- 
hensible to minds that have been brought up under the influence 
and effects of the common law. This French law is sometimes 
called droit odminUtrabifj or administrative law. The traveler in 
France soon learns, if America is his home, that the law does not 
work there as in his native land; that officers are overbearing, 
that they are inconsiderate, that they do very much as they please, 
and that there is often no remedy against what may prove to be 
merely their whims. This grows out of that pecxdiar administra- 
tive law, a law by which the administrative officers of the entire 
government are controlled. In America when an officer oversteps 
his bounds there is always an appeal to an independent system, to 
the judiciary. The facts are gone into, and he enjoys all the legal 
advantages of an independent investigation. Such, however, is 
not the case in France. If an officer oversteps his authority; if 
he acts unreasonably or unjust he is in no way responsible to an 
independent judiciary. He is tried before his superior officers in 
the same department, whose chief question seems to be whether or 
not the inferior officer has carried out the policy of his superior. 
If so, there is no cause of action. All remedy is lost In military 
countries the executive department has its policy. If that is car- 
ried out inferior officers may generally depend upon the good-will 
of their superiors and do very much as they please. 

This is further understood when we realize that in France 
there is no such thing as a habeas corpus. If a man is thrown 
into prison he must await there the pleasure of those who sent 
him. The executive department and its officers cannot be ques- 



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DREYFUS. 323 

tioned. No judge can ask whether or not the facts warrant his 
imprisonment, or whether it is jnst for him to remain in durance 
vile. Trials, too, in Prance are wholly unlike those in this country. 
In the first place, if a man happens to be an official his case goes 
under an administrative department, where there are no scientific 
principles of evidence and pleadings to be considered. The officer in 
charge takes the case in his own hand and disposes of it in his 
own peculiar way. He is not hampered by any precedents; he is 
not governed by any principles, except those which he chooses to 
apply in each individual case. There is no examination of wit- 
nesses, as it is understood in this country. The attorney puts his 
question to the presiding judge, who, in turn, puts it in his own 
way to the witness on the stand. There is no system of cross 
examination by which it is easy to break down the testimony, and 
when evidence might often be shaken the witness who is frequently 
an officer of the government, protects himself behind his preroga- 
tives by saying that he declines to answer the question. In almost 
all criminal proceedings these officers give the great bulk of the 
evidence, and the arbitrary disposition of the rights of the citizens 
is something incomprehensible to those brought up under a system 
of the common law. The whole thing is political; the court room 
is political, and newspapers do not hesitate to address judges in 
the same manner that they would address a candidate for election. 
National policy dictates the court often in an unusual manner, and 
the truth of this exposition of French law is strikingly exemplified 
in the trial of Alfred Dreyfus, a eav^e celebre. 

What were the circumstances of his trial? and why have they 
produced so much excitement throughout Europe and America? 

In the fall of 1894 La Libre Parole, an intensely anti-Jewish 
paper in the city of Paris announced the arrest of Captain Dreyfus 
on the charge of having given away army secrets to a foreign 
nation. Dreyfus was called to trial, but not without some hesi- 
tancy on the part of those who had his case in hand. A number 
of documents, conmionly called a bordereau, had been discovered. 
These documents were unsigned, but they had evidently been com- 
municated to a foreign nation, and there was some doubt whether, 
after all Mr. Dreyfus was the author of this bordereau. Dreyfus 
was subject to a military tribunal, which is supposed to act as a 



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324 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

court of justice in the trial of the accused. The hesitancy of the 
ministry of war was condemned at once by an anti-Semitic leader, 
Mr. Drumont, in his paper, La Libre Parole. This is how Mr. 
Drumont talks to the ministry of war in its capacity of a hi^ 
court of justice: 

''Look at this ministry of war, which ought to be the sanc- 
tuary of patriotism and which is a cavern, the hole of perpetoal 
scandals, the cloaca which cannot be compared to the Augean 
stables because no Hercules has yet undertaken to clean it. Snch 
a house should be perfumed with honor and virtue; instead it gives 
forth a constant stench. * * * Tomorrow, doubtless, 
they will applaud the minister of war when he boasts of the 
measures he has taken to save Dreyfus." 

This menace seemed to have had the desired effect, and Gen- 
eral Mercier, minister of war, at once proceeded to the trial of 
Alfred Dreyfus. But the nature of his trial must remain largely 
secret to the world. It was an executive session of the courts and 
it was said that even the prisoner himself had not the opportunity 
of confronting some of the accusations made against him. It 
appears that he was convicted largely upon a document which he 
had not the opportunity of even seeing; neither had his counsel 
So that he was sentenced to transportation for life on the malarial 
island called the Devil's Island, off the Cioast of South America. 
He had not even the privileges of the French criminal when he 
was sentenced to transportation to New Caledonia where he may be 
permitted to take his wife and family. Upon his conviction, Drey- 
fus underwent degradation before the army in the presence of 
thousands of spectators who, fully sanguine of his guilt, took great 
pleasure in his humiliation. He was marched before the soldiers 
of his company, and in the presence of his comrades he was 
stripped of the insignia of his office and the buttons were torn 
from his coat. His sword was broken before his eyes and he was 
conducted out of the country. 

He had scarcely been sentenced to this punishment of living 
death when suspicions began to arise because of those who had 
been foremost in his conviction, and because of the secrecy of bis 
trial. In the days of Gambetta the Jews had been highly honored 
among the ruling classes of France, and that circumstance had 



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DREYFUS. 326 

aroused, it is said, the intense hatred and jealonsy of the Jesuit 
Catholic portion of the country; and the Jesuits at once got into 
control of the military schools and began as rapidly as possible to 
reverse the order of things. The honored position held by Drey- 
fus, and the distinguished favor which he had received, it is said, 
awakened their jealousy. Hence, they became jubilant over his 
misfortune. But that excessive jubilation awakened feelings of 
suspicion and gave rise to the agitation which has followed it. 

What was this secret document? Its character has never 
been revealed. Policy of state is said to prevent its publicity. It 
might bring on a war between Germany and France. The highest 
policy of the state forbade any knowledge of it beyond the officers 
who stood at the head of the army. It did not appear at the trial 
exactly what nation had been guilty of buying the military secrets 
of France, but it was generally said that these secrets were con- 
veyed to Germany and Italy. Both nations did not hesitate to 
deny that they had anything whatever to do with Captain Dreyfus, 
and said that so far as the accusations against him were associated 
with them they were utterly false. This gave rise to newspaper 
comment on all parts of the continent and in England. Protests 
were made from abroad in which it was pointed out that the means 
of his conviction were indeed open to question. This foreign 
interference inflamed the minds of the French and their chief pur- 
pose seemed now to be to convince themselves as firmly as possible 
that Dreyfus was guilty of the charges made against him. Besides 
these criticisms affected the honor of the French army, whose 
generals must be sustained, because a loss of confidence in them 
on the part of the soldiers would be suicidal to France. Besides 
the matter had been heard. It was in English law, res ajudicatOy 
what is called in France cJiose jugee. Why should Europe be 
interested in opening the question that had already been settled 
according to the law of France? 

It appeared from the evidence that five experts in writing had 
been called in to testify. Two were convinced that the writing was 
not that of Dreyfus; three pronounced against him. Not long, 
however, after his conviction, which took place on the 10th of 
January, 1895, his attorney, Maitre Damange, expressed his most 
earnest conviction that Dreyfus was innocent of the charge 



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326 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

against him. Criticisms abroad led to an independent and investi- 
gating spirit at home. Col. Picquart, one of the chiefs of the 
secret service, declared that in his opinion Dreyfus was innocent, 
and famished evidence at his command to the vice-president of the 
French Senate, M. Scheurer-Eestner. The vice-president, a man 
of superior ability and enjoying the confidence of the French peo- 
ple, interpolated the government and declared his intention to ask 
for a new trial, saying that he would undertake the rehabilitation 
of Captain Dreyfus ; that, as a matter of fact, he was not the 
real culprit. Thereupon Mathieu Dreyfus, the brother of Alfred 
who was convicted, at once visited the vice-president of the Senate, 
when the following conversation took place: 

''You know the name of the real author of the bordereau ? " 

"Yes,'' M. Scheurer-Kestner, replied, **but I have no authority 
to speak of if 

"But if I should speak it, would you not deny it?" 

"No." 

"Esterhazy?" 

"That is the name," replied M. Scheurer-Eestner. "How did 
you know it?" 

"A banker, M. Castro, bought the fac-simile of the bordereau 
on the street. He instantly recognized the hand-writing as that 
of one of his former customers. He compared it with the letters 
which he had received from him, and on November 7th he came to 
give me this name and the proofs." 

Mathieu Dreyfus now brought charge against Esterhazy as 
the actual culprit. This led to the trial of Esterhazy, but singu- 
larly enough, and notwithstanding what appeared to be very strong 
evidence, he was acquitted and complimented by the presiding 
judge. Esterhazy was now held as the martyr of the Jews and 
there seemed to be a general disposition on the part of the French 
people to insist upon the guilt of Dreyfus as a defense by France 
against the charges of foreign countries. To their minds, France 
was on trial. Dreyfus was a secondary consideration, except so 
far as it was necessary to establish his guilt in order to maintain 
French honor. 

When one comes to consider the character of Esterhazy and 
some of the evidence found in his possession, it is remarkable that 



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DREYFUS. 327 

he should have been made the hero of the hour, as he was upon 
his acquital. He seemed to be a man of low character. He had 
ruined his wife and children. He had become persona non grata 
wherever he had been in the French army; was financially irre- 
sponsible, and at the time was living with a dissolute woman. 
When his house was searched two letters were found. In them 
he expressed hope that Germany would conquer France, and in 
further contempt of his country declared that beyond a certain 
I>oint the Germans could throw away their swords and drive the 
French back with riding whips. Among the experts at the trial 
of Esterhazy and Dreyfus, it seems that five out of eight testified 
in favor of Dreyfus, two in the declairation that the writing was 
not that of Dreyfus and three in the declaration that the writing 
was that of Esterhazy. 

The agitation over this celebrated case led to constant inter- 
polations of the ministry in the chamber of deputies at Paris, each 
minister of war declaring his absolute belief that Dreyfus was 
guilty, Cavagnac, even, going so far as to say that he had received 
subsequent evidence which took the question beyond all doubt. 
This was correspondence carried on between agents of the German 
and Italian governments, and had been furnished him by Col. Henry. 
This additional evidence of guilt was now ordered to be posted up 
throughout France as fresh evidence of the just policy of the army 
officers who had tried the unfortunate Jew. France and Germany 
at once hastened to deny the truthfulness of this latter evidence, 
and when Col. Henry, who had been in the secret service, was 
questioned as to the truthfulness of the documents he had pro- 
duced, he confessed that he had been guilty of forgery. He was 
thereupon seized and imprisoned, not in Cherche Midi, but in the 
fortress at Mont Valerien. Soon after it was announced that he 
had committed suicide by cutting his throat, but the unusual cir- 
cumstances of his imprisonment led to the suspicion that Col. 
Henry, who had been known as a straight-forward officer and 
whose work could always be relied upon, had been murdered in 
order that some of the army generals might escape the disgrace 
from evidence that he was likely to give in the matter. 

This has led to a general revulsion of feeling throughout 
France, and the belief began to grow that, whether or not the 



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328 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

forgery of Henry had anjrthing to do with the establishment of 
the guilt or innocence of Dreyfus, the latter was etititled to a 
rehearing. Besides a new factor had entered into this celebrated 
case by an accusation made by Zola against the French President 
and military tribunal immediately after the acquital of Esterhazy. 
Zola was brought up and tried on the charge of defamation, and 
the publicity given to his trial has brought forward some striking 
peculiarities in the administration of French justice- 

The Echo de Paris, a staff newspaper, thus describes a scene 
during the trial of Zola: ''A flood of insults drowns the voice of 
the advocate. The audience rises to its feet. There is whistling, 
groans; and canes are pounding the floor in cadence. If one closes 
one's eyes, the illusion is complete that the palace is about to tum- 
ble to pieces. Each minute the audience becomes more excited. 
Finally, it breaks down. The most offensive cries and shouts min- 
gle with hisses and whistles. One by one, under the fixed stare of 
the spectators, the jurors quit the hall.'' 

Such a scene in a court of justice is not more astounding 
than the manner in which testimony was offered. General Pelliieux 
takes the stand. Read his testimony: '1 have a soul of a soldier 
which revolts at hearing the infamous aspersions shower upon us. 
I can keep silence no longer. I cannot stand them trying to 
detach the army from its chiefs, for if the soldier cease to have 
confidence in them, what will the chiefs do in the day of danger, 
which is, perhaps, nearer than people think? Then, gentlemen of 
the jury, your sons would be left to simple butchery." Labori, 
counsel for Zola, protested against some of these utterances and 
proposed to question the General. But we are told that the court 
forbade Labori to proceed. 

Zola was convicted of defamation and received the extreme 
penalty. He now appealed to the highest court of France, that 
of the Cassation. This court held that the procedure in bringing 
Zola to trial had been irregular, and that he was entitled to a 
re-hearing. Before his re-hearing could be heard Zola escaped 
from France, feeling as every disinterested person must have felt, 
that a re-trial would be a mockery of justice. 

After the confession of forgery and the death of Col. Henry, 
it became certain that there could be no peace in France until the 



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DREYFUS. 829 

case of Dreyfus received a new hearing. Feeling began to grow 
throughout France that, after all, Esterhazy might be the real 
culprit. Whereupon Esterhazy fled from his country to London, 
where, it is said, he is peddling confessions of his forgery that led 
to the conviction of Dreyfus. 

Now, the court of Cassation has decided to open the case 
anew. There were three courses open to the supreme court of 
France. First, a denial for revision; second, quashing of the 
judgment and order for a new trial; and, third, that more informa- 
tion was needed in the case of Dreyfus, and that such information 
would be sought for by the court in secret sitting, but with full 
power to call for all documents, summon witnesses, etc. The last 
course was adopted, but it is to be regretted that more publicity 
cannot be given to the investigations to be carried on, although in 
this investigation the counsel for the defendant will undoubtedly 
have the opportunity of presenting evidence in full and of over- 
throwing, if possible, all evidence brought against his client. He 
wiU also be tried under the new aw inaugurated in 1895 and 
extending in all criminal cases greater rights to the accused. This 
new law shows what has existed in France for centuries and is a 
remarkable illustration of the process of conducting cases of 
criminal procedure in a French court of justice. A certain Mar- 
quis de Nayve had been accused of murdering his wife's illegiti- 
mate son by throwing him over the rocks near Naples, a crime 
which he is said to have committed nine years before his trial. 
There is no grand jury in France, but the indictment — if such may 
be said to exist in France — is called the dossier^ and is gotten up 
by one of the judges of the court called the ^'juge-^inisrudionr 
This judge, who is a quasi prosecuting officer, may take his own 
time to investigate the case. The judge kept him there for seven 
months before getting out the indictment, or dossier. The trial of 
Nayve resulted in his acquittal. So outrageous an abuse of power 
led the French government to adopt measures for the trial of 
criminals which are more in consonance with the principles of right 
and liberty. 

The world will now await with deep interest and some anxiety 
the results of the additional investigations to be made in the case 
of Dreyfus; and yet, so far as the case is of interest to the Anglo- 



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330 IMPRO VEMENT ERA. 

Saxon, there is the wish that Dreyfus might enjoy the oppor- 
tunites of a new trial under the common law system; that is, that 
he might have the privilege of confronting the witnesses against 
him, of having the investigation open and public and the greatest 
scrutiny given to the bordereau upon which he is said to have been 
convicted, and, above all, that he might enjoy the right of that 
common law presumption that he is innocent until proven guilty, 
and also enjoy the resolving of all doubt in his favor. 

There are no motives assignable today why Dreyfus should 
have betrayed the interests of France. He is a wealthy Jew, of a 
wealthy family. Money could not be a consideration. There is no 
reason why he should, have favored Germany more than his native 
country, in which he enjoyed honors and emoluments, and to which 
he was attached by all the ties of birth and patriotism. The Drey- 
fus case, however, as a eaiue eekbre, whatever may happen to 
Dreyfus, will, in a large measure, alienate the sympathies of all &ee 
people for the republic of France. It will publish to the world 
the fact that, although France is a republic in name, it is repub- 
licanism little in common with that of this country. The spirit 
of liberty and justice as found in the republicanism of France is 
but a shadow of those undying principles of free institutions as 
exemplified in the administration of law and order in England and 
America. Indeed the President of the French republic, M. Faure, 
has but little more genuine liberty than has the Czar of Russia. 
Compared to the President of the United States, he is in absolute 
bondage, bound by the traditions and military rules that hamper 
and strangle civil liberty, wherever the military arm is dominant 



NOTE. 

Since the above was written, M. Quesnay de Beaurepaire, president 
of the civil section of the court of Cassation, has resigned his position 
and now charges the tribunal, with which he was associated, with bad 
faith and corruption in what he anticipates will be a favorable action in 
the revision of the Dreyfus case. The fact that M. de Beaurepaire is 
now contributing to the papers and charging the court, of which he was 
formerly a member, with bad faith, and appeals to the public to repudiate 
it and disrespect its integrity, must appeal to the crdinary Anglo-Saxon 
mind as something very remarkable. It shows that lack of respect which 



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DREYFUS. 331 

the Latin mind has always shown for the judiciary. Should such a thing 
happen in this country or in England, the act would be resented as an 
outrage upon the judicial system, which here receives such high respect, 
and which in France, evidently, is treated as a mere political institution 
not entitled to more respect than is shown to a legislative candidate for 
office. 



LAMENTATION ON THE DEATH OF A FATHER. 



Oh heart, my heart, when that brave spirit soared 
Above, beyond the bonds of earth and time, 
And those dear eyes forever closed on earth, 
Whose glance was wont to dwell with love on mine; 
And those kind hands accomplished their last task, 
Which had so oft been busy for mv weal, 
Did not some premonition haste thy beat. 
And thou prescience of disaster feel? 

Oh sad, sad heart! though many weary miles 
Divided me from him who loved me best, 
Ck)uld'st thou not know that other loyal heart 
Lay cold and pulseless in that manly breast? 
Could'st thou not feel some chill presentiment 
That thou had'st lost thy counselor and friend? 
And that last look must bridge the stream of time 
Between we two till earth and time shall end? 

Ck)uld'st thou not know, when we came home again 
No answering welcome we could meet from him — 
Instead of shouts of joy at our return 
Each face averted and each eye grown dim? 
That we could meet no loving, sheltering arms, 
No echo of that blessing which he gave? 
But go alone, oh anguish-bursting heart! 
To throb unanswered on his new-made grave. 

Sarah E. Pearson. 



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^TROM FAITH TO FAITH/^ 

BY NEPHI ANDERSON. 



As in the beginning God made all things spiritually before 
they took the form visible to mortal eyes, so ever after has it 
been the natural workings of the human mind to create first in 
the imagination the things that later have been fashioned by the 
hand or materialized in the daily life. 

The imagination flies before and spies out the land for the 
safer tread of fact. Faith leads to works. The idea precedes 
the expression. Fancy beckons from unknown lands. In vision 
we see the dim regions into which time soon sets us down and we 
experience its reality. ''The fantasies of one day are the deep 
realities of a future one,'' says Hawthorne. 

The inventor builds his machine of the finer material of the 
mind ere it assumes tangible shape. The painter's most beautiful 
picture is on the sensitive canvas of the mind, and that which he 
puts on the coarse-grained cloth by means of his pigments and 
brushes, is but an imperfect copy. 

The song which echoes through the inner chambers of the 
poef s soul is not perfectly reproduced by the insufficient words 
of man. The novelist's characters walk and talk in spiritual 
reality before they are delineated by the pen. 

Take the child. His sole ambition is a pocket knife, the end 
of his brightest hope is to be in possession of a bag of marbles. 
A few years and these are trifles. His ideal has moved on until 
it is now perchance a horse or a bicycle. Then when these have 
become commonplace his fancy mounts higher, and the occupation 
of some exalted station, the reaching of some noble place in life, 
becomes his objective point. These are also reached, and then 



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''FROM FAITH TO FAITHr 333 

the ever moonting ambition Boars still higher, and the mind 
through its sabtle eye of fdth sees newer and grander possibili- 
tiesy which if life and energies last, may also be folly realized. 

Then old age comes, and the physical senses become dnlled; 
but the ever-living sonl within looks on and on. Death may be a 
short passage throngh a dark valley, but the hills are shining 
brightly beyond the shadow. To the believer, whose inner eyes 
are touched by the Spirit of God, the grave is not the limit of 
thought or hope, but merely an incident in the onward march, an 
experience in God's school of immortality. By a divine faith he 
sees far into the eternities of the Father, into the kingdoms of 
glory, and the soul leaps in joy at the beautiful sight. 

If the highest aspirations of the child come true, may we not 
from analogy reason that our highest conceptions of the future 
life will some day be realized? We are the children of God, 
created in his image, and holy writ assures us that when Christ 
reveals himself again, they who have had this glorious hope and 
have purified themselves as he is pure, will see that they are like 
him. 

In thus reasonmg on this hope that ''springs eternal in the 
human breast^ we have many analyses to establish its truth. For 
example, we can plainly see the effect that environment has on 
life, both plant and animal. The geranium, which in Utah can 
reach to a height of about eighteen inches only, in other climates 
grows to the size of a small tree. The tall willow and pines of 
the temperate zone become mere dwafs in the arctic regions. 
Recently a French scientist has discovered the secret of the Hin- 
doo mango trick, in which a seed is planted in the presence of the 
audience and made to grow to a plant a foot high in an hour. 
The investigation showed that a prepared earth was used, obtained 
from ant hills and charged with formic acid which wonderfully 
quickened the germination of the seed and the growth of the 
plant. 

So in like manner animal life depends very much on its envi- 
ronments, and man is no exception. The child has all the attri- 
butes of the man; training and favorable surrounding develop some, 
while others lie dormant. Is it not equally true that man is a 
child of the Eternal Father, inheriting all his nature in germ form 



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334 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

as yet, very little of which may have made a begimiing in growth? 
But all the attributes are there, and when the transplanting is 
done and the mortal is taken from out the stunting effects of 
earthly environments into the divine influence of heavenly elements, 
is it not possible that man's inherent energies will expand in all 
directions towards the perfectness of his Father and God? 
'1 dimly guess from blessings known 
Of greater oat of sight.** 

says Whittier; but he does not put it nearly as strong as does the 
inspired apostle when he says: ''Eye hath not seen, neither ear 
heard, neither have entered into heart of man, the things which 
God hath prepared for them that love him." 

May we, then, not safely go from faith to faith, and build our 
castles in the air? Build them of gleaming marble and shining 
precious stones, and adorn them with all the beauties that the 
imagination can supply. All we have to do is to place founda- 
tions under them and illumine their towers with that glory which 
poets have caught a glimpse of and which the unbeliever has 
called — 'The light that never was on sea nor land." 



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SAMOA AND HER NEIGHBORS. 

BY W. 0. LEE, SAMOAN MISSIONARY. 



Generally speaking there are two races of people that inhabit 
the division of the earth called Oceania. The reader can readily 
understand where the two races meet by turning to a map of the 
Pacific Ocean and drawing a line a little west of south, from the 
west side of the Sandwich Islands to the west side of the Ellice 
group; thence south through Fiji and west of New Zealand. This 
line from north to south is a little over 4,000 miles long, starting 
some twenty-two degrees north of the equator, and ending at least 
forty-seven degrees south latitude. All of the native inhabitants 
on the islands east of this race-line belong to the finely-formed, 
brown Polynesians; while the inhabitants of the islands on the west 
of this line belong to what are called Papuans — a diminutive negro 
race supposed to have come originally from Africa, and nick-named 
"Black Boys" by foreigners in the South Pacific, because of their 
small stature and thin limbs. 

Growing out of these two races, the Polynesians and the Papu- 
ans where they have met and intermarried, there is a third race 
found on the Fiji and other groups near the center of the South 
Pacific. 

The Samoan or Navigator Islands, which group with its inhab- 
itants will form the main topic of our article, will be found near 
the center of what we call Polynesia, and are situated between 
thirteen and fifteen degrees south latitude and one hun- 
dred and sixty-nine and one hundred and seventy-three 
degrees west longitude. Samoa is 5,000 miles from Salt Lake .- 



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336 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

City, and it takes two weeks by steamer to reach there from San 
Francisco in a south-westerly direction, via Honolulu, which is the 
only land sighted and the half-way house en route. 

North of Samoa 2,100 miles are the Sandwich Islands, (Hawaii;) 
1,500 miles east are the Society Islands, (Tahiti); 400 miles south 
are the Friendly Islands, (Tonga); the same distance west of Samoa 
are the Fiji Islands, and some 1,600 miles south is New Zealand, 
(Maoriland.) On all of the above groups, except Fiji, the Latter- 
day Saints have established missons, and there is as much differ- 
ence between the native inhabitants of these islands as there is 
between the Indian tribes of South, Central and North America. 
Yet, like our own Indians, the Polynesians, or brown race, of the 
Pacific isles, undoubtedly all sprang from the same source, but 
time and location since their separation have made many changes m 
their language, mode of living and habits, the same as among the 
various tribes of American Indians. Most writers on the subject 
of their origin agree that the Polynesians belong to the Malay race 
of the East Indian Archipelago. The similarity in the language of 
the natives of these two places being the weightiest argument in 
favor of this theory. It seems strange to the writer that withtiie 
winds and ocean currents against the above supposition, some of 
its adherents did not look to the American continent for a more 
natural solution to the problem of the origin of the Polynesians. 

On this subject we copy the following from the Encyclopedia 
Britannica: 

'^he brown people who occupy the islands of Eastern Polyneda 
are generally regarded as having affinities with the Malays of the 
Indian Archipelago, and are sometimes spoken of as a branch of 
the Malay race, or family. They cannot, however, with any 
accuracy be so described. The Malays, as they now exist, are a 
comparatively modem people, who have become what they are by 
the mixture of several elements not found in the most primitive 
race. The Sawaioris (Polynesians) and the Tarapons (mixed race) 
of Polynesia, the Malagasy (Hovas) of Madagascar and the Malays 
are allied races, but no one of them can be regarded as the parent 
of the rest. The parent race has disappeared; but the Sawaiori 
(Polynesian) as the earliest off-shoot from it, and one which owing 
to the conditions under which it has lived, has remained almost free 



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SAMOA AND HER NEIGHBORS. 837 

from admixture of blood, may be taken as most nearly representing 
what the parent was.'' 

We readily agree with all of the above except this statement, 
'^e parent race has disappeared/' We Latter-day Saints believe 
that there are millions of the parent race of the Polynesians now 
living on the Western Hemisphere known as the red-brown race, or 
Indians; and we argue this way: Driftwood from the western 
shores of America is constantly being cast upon the shores of 
Hawaii, what more natural then, than the supposition drawn from 
the Book of Mormon account of lost ships, that parties coasting 
from one place to another on our Pacific shores, and being lost at 
sea, should drift where the wind and ocean currents would naturally 
take them — ^to some of the Pacific isles? 

How interesting it will be some day if our United States gov- 
ernment awakes to find that its new Hawaiian citizens and its 
Indian protegees are first cousins and as such entitled to the same 
privileges! We are reminded of the fact that our Hawaiian Saints 
in Utah came nearly being classed with the heathen Chinee, and 
denied papers of American citizenship. Then again, what if the 
Malay part of the population on our— to be, or not to be — ^Philip- 
pine Islands, has Lamanite-Polynesian blood in their veins? 

WhQe the ' Ved men" of America are classed as a different race 
from the Polynesians yet we contend, where the conditions are the 
same, both being civilized and dressed alike, only an expert can tell 
one from the other. Indians are red men for the same reason that 
some women have rosy cheeks— because they are painted. 

Once when we were showing some Samban natives the por- 
traits of their American cousins (Indians) they immediately ex- 
claimed, E ttisa lava ma Samoa! Exactly like Samoans! 

On the islands, native legends all point to the east as the 
direction they came from. 

Surely the natives of Samoa came from Hawaii, or vice versa, 
because they called the largest island in their new home after the 
one they had left behind them, that is, Hawaii and Savaii, the native 
names for the two largest islands on the Sandwich and the Samoan 
Islands respectively. The last mentioned group we will describe in 
our next. 



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ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS- 



CONFUCIANISM. 

BY KtJNG HSIEN HO, OP SHANGHAL 
{Prom the DaUy Reports cf the Parliament ofReligunu, Chicago, 1893.) 

The most important thing in the superior man's learning is to 
fear disobeying Heaven's will. Therefore, in our Confncian Relig- 
ion the most important thing is to follow the will of Heaven. The 
book of Yih King, says, 'In the changes of the world there is a great 
Supreme which produces two principles, and these two principles 
are Yin and Yang." By supreme is meant the spring of all activity. 
Our sages regard Yin and Yang and the five elements as acting 
and reacting on each other without ceasing, and this doctrine is all 
important, like as the hinge of a door. 

The incessant* production of all things depend on this as the 
tree does on the root. Even all human affairs and all good are also 
dependent on it; therefore it is called the Supreme, just as we 
speak of the extreme points of the earth, as the north and south 
poles. 

By Great Supreme is meant that there is nothing above it 
But Heaven is without sound or smell, therefore the ancients spoke 
of the Infinite and the Great Supreme. The Great Supreme pro- 
ducing Yin and Yang is law producing forces. When Yang and 
Yin unite they produce water, fire, wood, metal, earth. When these 
five forces operate in harmony the four seasons come to pass. The 
essences of the Infinite, of Yin and Yang, and of the five elements 
combine, and the Heavenly becomes male, and the earthly becomes 



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ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS. 339 

female. When these powers act on each other all things are pro- 
duced and reproduced and developed without end. 

As to man, he is the best and most intelligent of all. That is 
what is meant in the book of Chung Yung when it says that what 
Heaven has given is the spiritual nature. This nature is law. All 
men are thus bom and have this law. Therefore it is, Mencius 
says, that all children love the parents, and when grown up all 
respect their elder brethren. If men only followed the natural bent 
of this nature then all would go the right way; hence the Chung 
Yung says, "To follow nature is the right way." 

The choicest product of Yin Yang and the five elements in the 
world is man, the rest are refuse products. The choicest among 
the choice ones are the sages and worthies, and the refuse among 
them are the foolish and the bad. And as man's body comes 
from the Yin and and man's soul from the Yang he cannot be per- 
fect. This is what the Lung philosophers called the material nature. 
Although all men have at birth a nature for goodness, still if there 
is nothing to fix it then desires arise and passions rule, and men 
are not far from being like beasts; hence, Confucius says, "Men's 
nature is originally alike, but in practice men become very differ- 
ent" The sages knowing this sought to fix the nature with the 
principles of moderation, uprightness, benevolence, and righteous- 
ness. Heaven appointed rulers and teachers, who in turn estab- 
lished worship and music to improve men's disposition, and set up 
governments and penalties in order to check men's wickedness. The 
best among the people are taken into schools where they study wis- 
dom, virtue, benevolence and righteousness, so that they may know 
beforehand how to conduct themselves as rulers or ruled. And, 
unless after many generations there should be degeneration and 
difficulty in finding the truth, the principles of Heaven and earth, 
of men and of all things have been recorded in the book of Odes 
for the use of after generations. The Chung Yung calls the prac- 
tice of wisdom religion. Our religion well knows Heaven's will, it 
looks on all under Heaven as one family, great rulers as elder 
branches in their parents' clan, great ministers as chief officers of 
this clan, and the people at large, as brothers of the same parents; 
and it holds that aJl things should be enjoyed in common, because 
it regards Heaven and earth as the parents of all alike. 



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340 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

And the commandment of the Confucian is to ^Tear greatly 
lest you offend against Heaven/' 

But what Confucians lay great stress on is human affairs. 
What are these? These are the five relations and the five constants. 
What are the five relations? They are those of sovereign and min- 
ister, father and son, elder and younger brother, husband and wife, 
and that between friend and friend. Now the ruler is the son of 
Heaven, to be honored above all others; therefore in serving him 
there has to be loyalty. The parents' goodness to their children is 
boundless, like Heaven's, therefore the parents should be served 
faithfully. Brothers are branches from the same root, therefore 
mutual respect is important. The marriage relation is the origin 
of all human relations, therefore mutual gentleness is important 
As to friends, though, as if strangers to our homes it is important 
to be very affectionate. 

When one desires to make progress in the practice of virtue as 
ruler or minister, as parent or child, as elder or younger brother, 
or as husband and wife, if any one wishes to be perfect in any rela- 
tion, how can it be done without a friend to exhort one to good 
and check one in evil? Therefore one should seek to increase his 
friends. Among the five relations there are also three bands. The 
ruler is the band of the minister, the father is that of the son, and 
the husband is that of the wife. And the book of the Ta Hsioh 
says, ''From the Emperor down to the common people the funda- 
mental thing for all to do is to cultivate virtue. If this fundamen- 
tal foundation is not laid, then there cannot be order in the world. 
Therefore great responsibility lies on the leaders. That is what 
Confucius means when he says: "When a ruler is upright he is 
obeyed without commands." 

Now to cause the doctrine of the five relations to be carried 
out everywhere by all under Heaven, the ruler must be intelligent 
and the minister good, then the government will be just; the father 
must be loving and the son filial, the elder brother friendly, the 
younger brother respectful, the husband kind, and the wife obedi- 
ent, then the home will be right; in our relation with our friends 
there must be confidence, then customs will be reformed, and the 
order will not be difficult for the whole world, simply because the 
rulers lay the foundation for it in virtue. 



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ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS. 341 

What are the five constants? Benevolence, righteousness, 
worship, wisdom, faithfulness. Benevolence is love, righteous- 
ness is fitness, worship is principle, wisdom is thorough knowledge, 
faithfulness is what one can depend upon. 

He who is able to restore the original good nature and to hold 
fast to it is called a Worthy. He who has got hold of the spiritual 
nature and is at peace and rest is called a Sa^e. He who sends 
forth unseen and infinite influences thoroughout all things is called 
Divine. The influence of the five constants is very great, and all 
living things are subject to them. 

Mencius says, ''He who has no pity is not a man, he who has 
no sense of shame for wrong is not a man, he who has no yielding 
disposition is not a man, and he who has not the sense of right and 
wrong is not a man." The sense of pity is the beginning of benevo- 
lence, the sense of shame for wrong is the beginning of righteous- 
ness, a yielding disposition is the beginning of religion, the sense 
of right and wrong is the beginning of wisdom. Faithfulness is 
not spoken of, as it is what makes the other four real, like the 
earth element among the five elements; without it the other four 
manifestly cannot be placed. 

The Chung Yung says, ''Sincerity or reality is the beginning 
and end of things. There is no such thing as supreme sincerity 
without action. This is the use of faithfulness.'' 

As to benevolence, it also includes righteousness, religion and 
wisdom; therefore the sages consider that the most important 
thing is to get benevolence. The idea of benevolence is gentleness 
and liberal mind6dness, that of righteousness is clear duty, that of 
religion is showing forth, that of wisdom is to gather silently. 
When there is gentleness, clear duty, showing forth and silent 
gathering constantly going on, then everything naturally falls to 
its proper place, just like the four seasons; e. g., the spring influ- 
ences are gentle and liberal and are life-giving ones; in summer 
life-giving things grow, in autumn these show themselves in harvest, 
and in winter they are stored up. If there were no spring the 
other three seasons would have nothing; so it is said the benevo- 
lent man is the life. Extend and develop this benevolence, and all 
under heaven may be benefitted thereby. This is how to observe 
human relations. 



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342 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

As to the doctrine of future life, Confucianism speaks of it 
most minutely. Cheng Tsze says the spirits are the forces or ser- 
vants of Heaven and earth, and the signs of creative power. Chn 
Fu Tze says, ''Speaking of two powers, the demons are the intelli- 
gent ones of Yin, the gods are the intelligent ones of Yang; speak- 
ing of one power, the supreme and originating is called God; the 
reverse and the returning is Demon.'' 

Space cannot be without force, and force cannot but produce 
results, which is creation; therefore where things are fast pro- 
duced the living force increases daily and there is growth. 

The things produced cannot but return to space again. There- 
fore after all things are fully matured, the living force begins daily 
to recede and be dissipated; just like the coming and going of the 
sun and moon, cold and heat — all inevitable. The book of changes 
says, ''The essence of things from nothing produces something, and 
wandering ghosts again change from something into nothing." 
Confucius, replying to Tsai Wo, says: "When flesh and bones die 
below in the dust the material Yin becomes dust, but the imma- 
terial rises above the grave in great light, has odor and is very 
pitiable. This is the immaterial essence." The Chung Yung, 
quoting Confucius, says, "The power of the spirits is very great! 
You look and cannot see them, you listen and cannot hear them, 
but they are embodied in all things without missing any, caasmg 
all men to reverence them and be purified, and be well adorned in 
order to sacrifice unto them." All things are alive as if the gods 
were right above our heads, or on our right hand and the left 
Such being the gods, therefore Yih King makes inuch of divinmg 
to get decision from the gods, knowing that the gods are the forces 
of Heaven and earth in operation. Although unseen, still they 
influence; if diflBcult to prove, yet easily known. The great sages 
and great worthies, the loyal ministers, the righteous scholars, tiie 
filial sons, the pure women of the world, having received the purest 
influences of the divinest forces of Heaven and earth, when on 
earth were heroes, when dead are the gods. Their influences con- 
tinue for many generations to affect the world for good, therefore, 
many venerate and sacrifice unto them. 

As to evil men, they arise from the evil forces of nature; when 



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ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS. 343 

dead they also infiueiice for evil, and we must get holy influences 
to destroy the evil ones. 

As to rewards and punishments, the ancient sages also spoke 
of them. The great Yu, B. C. 2,255, said, "Follow what is right 
and you will be fortunate; do not follow it and you will be unfortu- 
nate. The results are only shadows and echoes of our acts." Tang, 
B. C. 1766, said, **Heaven's way is to bless the good and bring 
calamity on the evil." His minister Yi Yin, said, ''It is only God 
who is perfectly just; good actions are blessed with a hundred 
favors, evil actions are cursed with a hundred evils." Confucius, 
speaking of the Book of Changes (Yih King) said: ''Those who 
multiply good deeds will have joys to overflowing; those who 
multiply evil deeds will have calamities running over." 

But this is different from Taoism, which says that there are 
angels from heaven examining into men's good and evil deeds, and 
from Buddhism, which says that there is a purgatory or hell 
according to one's deeds. Rewards and punishments arise from 
our different actions, just as water flows to the ocean, and as 
fire seizes what is dry; without expecting certain consequences 
they come inevitably. When these consequences do not appear, 
they are like cold in summer or heat in winter, or like both happen- 
ing the same day; but this we say is unnatural. Therefore it is 
said: Sincerity is the way to Heaven. If we say that the Gods 
serve Heaven exactly as mandarins do on earth, bringing quick 
retribution on every little thing, this is really to make them appear 
very slow. At present men say, "Thunder killed the bad man.** 
But it is not so, either. The Han philosopher, Tung Chung Shu 
(second cetury B. C.) says: "Vapors, when they clash above, make 
rain; when they clash below, make fog. Wind is nature's breath- 
ing. Thunder is the sound of clouds clashing against each other. 
Lightning is light emitted by their collision. Thus we see that 
when a man is killed it is by the collision of these clouds." 

As to becoming genii and transmigration of souls, these are 
still more beside the mark. If we become like genii then we would 
live on without dying; how could the world hold so many? If we 
transmigrate, then so many would transmigrate from the human 
life and ghosts would be so numerous. 

Besides when the lamp goes out, and is lit again, it is not the 



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844 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

former flame that is lit. When the cloud has a rainbow it rains, 
but it is not the same rainbow as when the rainbow appeared before. 
From this we know also that these doctrines of transmigration 
should not be believed in. So much on the virtue of the unseen 
and hereafter. 

As to the great aim and broad basis of Confucianism, we may 
say it searches into things, it extends knowledge, it has a sincere 
aim, i. e.: to have a right heart, a virtuous life, so as to regulate 
the home, to govern the nation and give peace to all under Heaven. 
The book of Great Learning, Ja Hsigh, has ahready clearly spoken 
of these, and the least thing is to govern the country and give 
peace to all under Heaven. The foundation is laid in illustrating 
virtue; for our religion in discussing government regards virtue as 
the foundation, and wealth as the superstructure. Mencius says: 
''When the rulers and ministers are only seeking gain the nation is 
in danger." He also says: ''There is no benevolent man who 
neglects his parents, there is no righteous man who helps himself 
before his ruler." From this it is apparent what is most impor 
tant. 

Not that we do not speak of gain; the Great Learning says: 
"There is a right to get gain. Let the producers be many and the 
consumers few. Let there be activity in production, and economy 
in the expenditure. Then the wealth will always be sufficient. But 
it is important that the high and low shall share it alike. 

As to how to govern the country and give peace to all under 
Heaven the nine paths are most important. The nine paths are: 
(1) cultivate a good character, (2) honor the good, (3) love your 
parents, (4) respect great officers, (5) carry out the wishes of the 
ruler and ministers, (6) regard the common people as your children, 
(7) invite all kinds of skillful workmen, (8) be kind to strangers, 
(9) have consideration for all the feudal chiefs. These are the 
great principles. 

Their orign and history may also be stated. Far up in mythi- 
cal ancient times before literature was know Fu Hi arose and drew 
the eight diagrams in order to understand the superhuman powers 
and the nature of all things. At the time of Tang Yao (B. G. 2,356) 
they were able to illustrate noble virtue. Nine generations lived 
together in one home in love and peace, and the people were firm 



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ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS. 345 

and intelligent. Yao handed down to Shun a saying: ''Sincerely 
hold fast to the 'Mean/" Shun transmitted it to Yu and said: 
'The mind of man is restless — prone to err; its aflSnity for the 
right way is small. Be discriminating, be undivided that you may 
sincerely hold fast to the "Mean." Yu transmitted this to Tang 
of the Siang dynasty (B. C. 1766.) Tang transmitted it to Kings 
Wen and Wu of the Chow dynasty (B. C. 1122.) These transmit- 
ted it to Duke Rung. And these were all able to observe this rule 
of the heart by which they held fast to the "Mean." The Chow 
dynasty later degenerated, then there arose Confucius who trans- 
mitted the doctrines of Yao and Shun as if they had been his 
ancestors, elegantly displayed the doctrines of Wen and Woo^ 
edited the Odes, and the History, reformed religion, made notes on 
the Book of Changes, wrote the Annals of Spring and Autumn, and 
spoke of governing the nation, saying, "Treat matters seriously 
and be faithful, be temperate and love men, employ men according 
to proper times, and in teaching your pupils you must do so with 
love." He said to Yen Tsze: "Self-sacrifice and truth is benevo- 
lence. If you can for one whole day entirely sacrifice self and be 
true, then all under Heaven will become benevolent." Speaking of 
being able to put away selfishness and attaining to the truth of 
Heaven, ever3rthing is possible to such a heart. Alas! He was not 
able to get his virtues put into practice, but his disciples recorded 
his words and deeds and wrote the Confucian Analects, His disci- 
ple Jseng Tsze composed the Great Learning. His proud son Tsze 
Sze composed the doctrine of the Mean (Chung Yung.) When the 
contending states were quarreling, Mencius, with a loving heart 
that could not endure wrong arose to save the times. The rulers 
of the time would not use him, so he composed a book in seven 
chapters. After this, although the ages changed, this religion 
flourished. In the Han dynasty Tung Chung Shu (twentieth century 
B. C.) in the Sui dynasty Wang Tung (A. D. 573-617); in the Tang 
dynasty Han Yo (A. D. 768-824) each made some part of this 
doctrine better known. In the Sung dynasty (A. D. 960-1260) these 
were the disciples of the philosophers Cheng, Chow, and Chang, 
searching into the spiritual natue of man, and Chu Fu-Tsze collected 
their works and this religion shone with great brightness. Our 
present dynasty, respecting scholarship and considering truth im- 



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346 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

portant, placed the philosopher Chow in Confucian temples to be 
reverenced and sacrificed to; Confucianists all follow GhnFu-Tsze's 
comments. From ancient times till now those who followed the 
doctrines of CJonfucius were able to govern the country; whenever 
these were not followed there was disorder. 



THE SWORD. 



Twas the battle field, and the cold, pale moon 

Looked down on the dead and dying, 
And the wind passed o'er with a dirge and a wail, 

Where the young and the brave were lying. 
With his father's sword in his red, right hand, 

And the hostile dead around him. 
Lay a youthful chief; but his bed was the ground, 

And the grave's icy sleep had bound him. 
A reckless rover, 'mid death and doom, 

Pass'd, a soldier, his plunder seeking; 
Careless he stopped where friend and foe 

Lay alike in their life-blood reeking. 
Drawn by the shine of the warrior's sword. 

The soldier paused beside it; 
He wrenched the hand with a giant's strength. 

But the grasp of the dead defied it. 
He loosed his hold, and his English heart 

Took part with the dead before him. 
And he honor'd the brave who died sword in hand, 

As with sof ten'd brow he leaned o'er him. 
"A soldier's death thou hast boldly died, 

A soldier's grave won by it; 
Before I would take that sword from thine hand 

My own life's blood should dye it. 
''Thou shalt not be left for the carrion crow. 

Or the wolf to batten o'er thee; 
Or the coward insult the gallant dead, 

Who in life had trembled before thee." 
Then dug he a grave in the crimson earth 

Where the warrior foe was sleeping; 
And he laid him there in honor and rest. 

With his sword in his own brave keeping. 

Miss Landon 



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EARLY SCENES AND INCIDENTS IN THE 

CHURCH 

BY OLIVEE COWDEEY. 



LETTER m. 

Deae Beothee. — After a silence of another month, agree- 
ably to my promise, I proceed upon the subject I proposed in the 
first number of the Advocate. Perhaps an apology for brevity may 
not be improper, here, as many important incidents consequently 
transpiring in the organization and establishing of a society like 
the one whose history I am about to give to the world, are over- 
looked or lost, and soon buried with those who were the actors, 
will prevent my giving those minute and particular reflections 
which I have so often wished might have characterized the "Acts 
of the Apostles,'' and the ancient saints. But such facts as are 
within my knowledge will be given, without any reference to incon- 
sistencies, in the minds of others, or impossibilities, in the feel- 
ings of such as do not give credence to the system of salvation 
and redemption so clearly set forth and so plainly written over 
the face of the sacred scriptures. 

Upon the propriety of a narrative of this kind, I have 
briefly to remark: it is known to you that this church has suffered 
reproach and persecution, from a majority of mankind who heard 
but a rumor, since its first organization. And further, you are 
also conversant with the fact, that no sooner had the messengers 
of the fullness of the Gospel began to proclaim its heavenly pre- 
cepts and call upon men to embrace the same, than they were 
vilified and slandered by thousands who never saw their faces. 



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348 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

and much less knew aught derogatory of their characters moral or 
religious—upon this unfair and unsaint-like manner of procedure 
they have been giving in large sheets their own opinions of the 
incorrectness of our system and attested volumes of our lives and 
characters. 

Since, then, our opposers have been thus kind to introduce 
our cause before the public, it is no more than just that a correct 
account should be given; and since they have invariably sought to 
cast a shade over the truth, and hinder its influence from gaining 
ascendency, it is also proper that it should be vindicated, by laying 
before the world a correct statement of events as they have 
transpired from time to time. 

Whether I shall succeed so far in my purpose as to convince 
the public of the incorrectness of those scurrilous reports which 
have inundated our land, or even but a small portion of them, will 
be better ascertained when I close than when I commence; and I 
am content to submit it before the candid for perusal, and before 
the Judge of all for inspection, as I most assuredly believe that 
before him I must stand and answer for the deeds transacted in 
this life. 

Should I, however, be instrumental in causing a few to hear 
before they judge, and understand both sides of this matter before 
they condemn, I shall have the satisfaction of seeing them embrace 
it, as I am certain that one is the inevitable fruit of the other. 
But to proceed. 

You will recollect that I informed you, in my letter published 
in the first number of the Messenger and Advocate, that this histoiy 
would necessarily embrace the life and character of our esteemed 
friend and brother, Joseph Smith, Jr., one of the presidents of this 
church, and for information on that part of the subject, I refer 
you to his communication of the same, published in this paper.* I 
shall, therefore, pass over that, till I come to the seventeenth year 
of his life. 

It is necessary to premise this account by relating the 
situation of the public mind relative to religion, at this time: One 
Mr. Lane, a presiding Elder of the Methodist Church, visited 



*See Joseph Smith's letter, preceding the letters of 0. Cowdery. 



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EARLY SCENES AND INCIDENTS IN THE CHURCH. 349 

Palmyra^ and vicinity. Elder Lane was a talented man possessing 
a good share of literary endowments and apparent humility. There 
was a great awakening, or excitement raised on the subject of 
religion, and much inquiry for the word of life. Large additions 
were made to the Methodist, Presbyterian, and Baptist churches. 
Mr. Lane's manner of communication was peculiarly calculated to 
awaken the intellect of the hearer, and arouse the sinner to look 
about him for safety — ^much good instruction was always drawn 
from his discourses on the scripture, and in common with others, 
our brother's mind became awakened. 

For a length of time the reformation seemed to move in a 
harmonious manner, but, as the excitement ceased or those who 
had expressed anxieties, had professed a belief in the pardoning 
influence and condescension of the Savior, a general struggle was 
made by the leading characters of the different sects, for pro- 
selytes. Then strife seemed to take the place of that apparent 
union and harmony which had previously characterized the moods 
and exhortations of the old professors, and a cry — I am right — 
you are wrong — ^was introduced in their stead. 

In this general strife for followers his mother, one sister, and 
two of his natural brothers, were persuaded to unite with the 
Presbyterians. This gave opportunity for further reflection; and 
as will be seen in the sequel, laid a foundation, or was one means 
of laying a foundation for the attestations of the truth, or profes- 
sions of truths, contained in that record called the word of God. 

After strong solicitations to unite with one of those different 
societies, and seeing the apparent proselyting dispositions mani- 
fested with equal warmth from each, his mind was led to more 
seriously contemplate the importance of a move of this kind. To 
profess ficodliness without its benign influence upon the heart, was 
a thing so foreign from his» feelings, that his spirit was not at rest 
day nor night. To unite with a society professing to be built 
upon the only sure foundation, and that profession be a vain one, 
was calculated in its very nature, the more it was contemplated, 
the more to arouse the mind to the serious consequences of moving 
hastily, in a course fraught with eternal realities. To say he was 
right, and still be wrong, could not profit; and amid so many, 
some must be built upon the sand. 



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350 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

In this situation where conld he go? If he went to one he 
was told they were right, and all others were wrong. If to 
another, the same was heard from those. All professed to be the 
true church; and if not, they were certainly hypocritical, because, 
if I am presented with a system of religion, and enquire of my 
teacher whether it is correct, and he informs me that he is not 
certain, he acknowledges at once that he is teaching without 
authority and acting without a commission! 

If one professed a degree of authority or preference in con- 
sequence of age or right, and that superiority was without 
evidence, it was insufficient to convince a mind once aroused to 
that degree of determination which at that time operated upon 
him. And upon further reflection, that the Savior had said that 
the gate was straight and the way narrow that leads to life eternal, 
and that few entered there; and that the way was broad, 
and the gate wide which leadeth to destruction, and that many 
crowded its current, a proof from some source was wanting to 
settle the mind and give peace to the agitated bosom. It is not 
frequent that the minds of men are exercised with proper deter- 
mination relative to obtaining a certainty of the things of God. 
They are too apt to rest short of that assurance which the Lord 
Jesus has so freely offered in his word to man, and which so 
beautifully characterizes his whole plan of salvation, as 
revealed to us. 



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LIVES OF THE APOSTLES- 

IIL 
PAUL. 

BY PROFESSOR WILLARD DONE, PRESIDENT OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS' 
COLLEGE, SALT LAKE CITY. 



In the southern part of Asia Minor was a Roman province 
known as Cilicia. The chief city of this province was called Tarsus. 
As a centre of culture and learning this city was a rival of Athens 
and Alexandria. From the regions round about the youth flocked 
to Tarsus to sit under the voices of its numerous teachers and 
philosophers. It had a mixed population, one of the strongest 
elements being the Jews, some of those who had left Palestine 
and who lived in all the chief cities of the Roman empire. Some 
of the Jews who lived at Tarsus were Roman citizens, doubtless on 
account of services they had rendered the emperor. To one of 
these families was bom a son whom the parents named Saul, the 
name meaning ''asked for." From this we are led to infer that he 
was the oldest son, and that such a gift had been eagerly hoped 
for by the parents. 

Saul was by birth, therefore, a Jew, and heir to the traditions 
of that race, and a free Roman citizen, entitled to all the privileges 
and inmiunities belonging to that condition. A reading of his his- 
tory shows how the latter fact was of value to him in certain crit- 
ical circumstances. We also know that Saul was of the sect of 
the Pharisees, and educated in all the ideas and prejudices of that 



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352 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

class. (Acts xxiii: 6; 26: 5.) We are left entirely in the daric 
as to the age of Saul. His early life isalso unknown to ns, except 
as it is revealed to ns in occasional glimpses throughout his dis- 
courses and epistles. From these brief references we learn of his 
birthplace, of his being bom a Pharisee and a Roman citizen, of his 
learning the tradeof a tent-maker, and of his being taught at Jeru- 
salem by the great Jewish teacher, Gamaliel. As to the amount of 
learning he acquired in Greek philosophy, we are uncertain, as the 
quotations and allusions of this character which appear in his 
talking and writing, may have been the outgrowth of a profound 
or a limited knowledge of this philosophy. 

Saul first comes into New Testament history in connection 
with the stoning of Stephen, the first Christian martyr. This event 
occurred about the year 34, A.D. Saul, we would judge from the words 
of the historian, took rather more than the part of merely nega- 
tive consent in this tragedy, for the witnesses laid their cloaks at 
his feet while they were engaged in the stoning. After this, Sanl 
drops out of notice until the accoxmt of his conversion is given. 
But we know that during the period of one or two years between 
the atoning of Stephen and his own conversion, Saul was prominent 
in the vast system of persecution which was instituted agamst the 
Christians throughout Palestine and Syria. It was while he was 
on the way to Damascus, the chief city of Syria, with a commis- 
sion from the high priest to arrest all Christians and bring them 
bound to Jerusalem, that he was smitten with blindness and con- 
verted by the power and the Voice of Jesus. (Acts 9: 1-6.) 

I am not one of those who believe that during this journey 
Paul had gradually become prepared for this conversion by his own 
musings on the course he was pursuing. Apparently he was just 
as obdurate and determined in his i^erspcution of the Christians 
when he approached Damascus, as when he left Jerusalem. As a 
devout Jew, he considered that he was doing God's service in thus 
persecuting those who openly accused the Jews of having slain 
the Son of God. And it required the personal appearance and 
annoxmcement of the resurrected Messiah, to show him that his 
course was wrong. All his training from youth to manhood had 
been such as to convince him of its rightfulness. When the voice 
from heaven called to him, ''Saul, Saul, why persecuteet thou mer 



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LIVES OF THE APOSTLES. 353 

he had to ask the question, "Who art thou, Lord?" and received the 
answer, '1 am Jesus, whom thou persecutest; it is hard for thee 
to kick against the pricks," before he was fully convinced of the 
Messiahship of Jesus. But so thoroughly was he converted then 
that he never doubted it from that day until he was called to lay 
down his life in testimony of it. 

Saul was led into the city of Damascus by his attendants and 
there, in obedience to the commandment of the Lord, Ananias 
came to him and laid hands on him for the restoration of his sight. 
Immediately afterward he was baptized. According to his own 
statement (Gal. 1: 17) Saul went from Damascus to Arabia and 
spent the next three years there. We do not know his purpose 
in going to Arabia, but it may have been to prepare himself by 
solitary meditation, study and prayer for the great work required 
of him. After his sojourn in Arabia he returned to Damascus, but 
he met with such harsh treatment at the hands of the Jews there, 
that he barely escaped with his life, by being let down in a basket 
from the window of a house built on the wall of the city. 

This was the occasion of his first visit to Jerusalem after his 
conversion. He was looked upon at Jerusalem with a certain 
degree of suspicion on account of the remembrance of his bitter 
persecutions of the disciples. Barnabas came to his assistance 
and vouched for the sincerity of his conversion. Saul also allayed 
the fears of the disciples by publicly preaching the Messiahship of 
Jesus, and disputing with the unbelievers, both Jews and Greeks. 
This so incensed his enemies in the city that they attempted his 
life. The other disciples spirited him away to Csesarea and sent 
him thence to Tarsus, his native city, xmtil the anger of his ene- 
mies should have abated. This event occurred about the year 38, 
A. D. 

Not long afterward Barnabas was sent down to Antioch for a 
ministerial purpose, and he went over to Tarsus and brought Saul 
back to Antioch with him. Here they established their head- 
quarters for a year, preaching and ministering among the people. 
At the end of that time Saul and Barnabas went up to Jerusalem with 
donations which had been given by the saints in Antioch for the 
worthy poor in Judea. Returning to Antioch shortly afterward, 
they two, with John, sumamed Mark, set out upon their first great 



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854 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

missionary journey. They first crossed over to Cyprus, and trav- 
eled through that island preaching the Grospel and doing many mighty 
works. It was here that Saul was first called Paul by the historian 
Luke. This may have been a softened form of the name Saul, or 
his Roman name, Saul being his Jewish one, or it may have been a 
surname applied to him on account of his short stature {PaviiUf 
"little"). At any rate, he is best known to us by this title. 

From Cyprus they went to the southern coast of Asia Minor, 
traveling through those regions, preaching, exhorting, performing 
miracles, and suffering persecution; Paul being worshiped as a 
god in Lystra, and afterward stoned almost to death in the same 
city. During this journey, for some unknown cause, John Mark 
left them and went to Jerusalem. Returning through the regions 
where they had established churches, Paul and Barnabas confirmed 
them, and then sailed directly from Asia Minor to Antioch in Syria, 
where their headquarters were. Here they reported their mis- 
sionary labors, and dwelt with the Saints for some time. 

About the year 53 A.D. Paul and Barnabas went up to Jerusalem, 
the occasion of their visit being the dispute which had arisen 
regarding the circumcision of converted gentiles. Happily for 
the peace of the church this question was decided wisely, and then 
Paul and Barnabas, with Silas and Judas Barsabas, returned to 
Antioch. Here they remained for a time and preached the word 
of the Lord concerning circumcision. Paul then suggested to 
Barnabas that they visit the cities where they had previously 
established branches of the church, and they made preparations for 
the journey. A contention arose between them as to their com- 
panions, Barnabas desiring John Mark, his nephew, and Paul being 
of opinion that on account of his having deserted them previously, 
he was unworthy of the sacred responsibility. The dispute ended 
by Barnabas choosing Mark, and Paul Silas, and separating never 
to meet again. 

Paul and Silas traveled through the regions of Asia Minor 
where churches had been established, finding Timothy at Lystra 
and taking him as a companion. Passing through the western 
portion of Asia Minor they crossed the Hellespont into Macedonia, 
this being, so far as we know, the first introduction of the Gospel 
into Europe. At Philippi, the first city of importance visited by 



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LIVES OF THE APOSTLES. 355 

them in Macedonia, occurred the well-known incidents of the con- 
version of Lydia, the healing of the Greek divining girl and the 
conversion of the jailor and his family. Here the Roman citizen- 
ship of Paul stood him in good stead, and secured for him and 
Silas an honorable release from the prison and escort from the 
city. Thessalonica and Berea were next visited, and some success 
was met with; but the continued enmity and opposition of the Jews 
forced Paid to precede the other two brethren to Athens. Here^ 
on the Areopagus or Mars hill, he preached his famous sermon 
which was brought out by his seeing an altar inscribed, 'To the 
Unknown God." C!orinth, "the eye of Greece," was next visited 
by him, and here he gained so large a following that he remained 
a year and a half. Thence he crossed the Aegean sea to Ephesus^ 
and went from there to Jerusalem, af ter^'ard returning to Antioch. 
This completed his second missionary journey. 

After a stay in Antioch, he commenced his third missionary 
journey passing through Galatia, Phrygia and other portions of 
Asia Minor, to Ephesus. Here he found certain disciples who 
claimed to have been baptized by a disciple of John the Baptist; 
but as they had not heard of the Holy Ghost, Paul doubted the 
validity of their claim and baptized them anew, conferring upon 
them the Holy Ghost. Great miracles were performed by Paul at 
Ephesus and a number of important events occurred there, some 
of the most prominent being the disgrace of the seven Jews who 
attempted without authority to cast out an evil spirit, and the 
uproar caused by the silversmiths under Demetrius. The patron 
goddess of Ephesus was Diana, and a great temple was erected 
there in her honor. The silversmiths gained great profit from the 
manufacture and sale of small silver shrines, supposed to be min- 
iature copies of this temple. But as Paul was converting so many 
of these worshipers of Diana, the silversmiths saw that their 
'•craft was in danger;" therefore they raised a commotion which 
was quelled by the good sense of the town clerk. 

From Ephesus, after he had stayed there two years, Paul 
passed through Macedonia into Greece and back to Asia Minor, 
visiting the churches in those cities, for the last time. In this 
town he was accompanied by a number of the brethren, including 
Luke, the writer of the Acts of the Apostles. 



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356 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

At Troas, on the return jonrney^ Paul preached his all-night 
sennon, in the course of which Eutychus fell f rom a window, in his 
sleep, and was taken up dead to be restored to life through Paul's 
administration. Paul's farewell to the disciples in the variouB 
cities was very touching and shows the great esteem in which he 
was held. 

Going up to Jerusalem he reported his mission to James and 
the other brethren, and on their advice attempted to gain the 
favor of the Jews by entering into the temple. But they accused 
him of taking gentiles into the holy house and polluting it; and so 
great was the indignation that Paul was thrown out of the temple 
and would have been killed if he had not been rescued by Roman 
soldiers. Paul was then permitted to speak in his own defense. 
The Jews listened in patience until he spoke of his ministry to 
the gentiles; then they broke into such a violent uproar and made 
such threats that the Homan officers determined t6 scourge him in 
order to force him to confess his fault. He escaped this torture 
by appealing to his Roman citizenship. Upon his defending him- 
self before the Sanhedrim, another tumult was created, from 
which he was rescued and then confined in the castle. A con- 
spiracy of the Jews to kill him was revealed by his sister's son, 
and he was sent under an escort of Roman soldiers to Csesarea. 
Here he was kept upwards of two years, being vehemently accused 
by his enemies, the Jews, and defending himself with great skill 
and successfully before Felix, Pestus and Agrippa. 

Finding that his imprisonment at Csesarea was likely to be 
interminable, Paul appealed his case to Caesar in order that he 
might be carried to Rome; for the Lord had promised that Paul 
should bear witness of him in the great city. Accordingly he 
embarked with a guard and in company with other prisoners, sailed 
from Gsesarea. They touched at Crete, and Paul tried to per- 
suade them to pass the winter in port at Fair Havens. Thinking 
however that they could find a more suitable place they set sail, 
and encountered a great tempest, which drove them to shipwreck 
on the island of Melita. Through the coolness and faith of Paul, 
the lives of all were saved and they remained on the island until 
spring. Here occurred the healing of one of the chief men of the 
island, and the incident of the viper biting Paul's hand, the poison 



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LIVES OF THE APOSTLES. 357 

being neutralized through the power of Grod. In the spring they 
fonnd a ship which was sailing to Italy, and completed their voy- 
age to Rome. Here Paul remained for two years, enjoying a con- 
siderable degree of freedom, through the kind consideration of 
his custodian. Here Luke's account suddenly closes, leaving us 
in the dark even with reference to the result of his appeal to the 
emperor. 

We are equally in doubt regarding his later life. He is sup- 
posed to have arrived in Rome about the year 62 or 63 A. D. ; his mar- 
tyrdom occurred presumably in the year 66 or 67 A. D. Half of this 
period is accounted for in his two-years' residence "in his own 
hired house." It is supposed that he afterwards made visits to 
various regions in Europe, including France, Spain and possibly 
Britain. Thus a portion of the time from 65 to 67 A. D. may have been 
spent; and during the latter year Paul is supposed to have returned 
to his imprisonment and ultimate martyrdom at Rome, though the 
date of this event is very uncertain. The tradition of his death 
recites that he was "slain* with the sword," from which it is 
inferred that he was beheaded. 

These are the details of his life as they are related in the Acts 
and referred to in some of his epistles. Some important incidents 
spoken of in other epistles have been omitted on account of diffi- 
culty in determining their place and date. These incidents are 
referred to chiefly in portions of first and second Corinthians, and 
include the suffering of "hxmger, thirst, shame, contempt, scourg- 
ings, buffetings, fighting with wild beasts in the arena, and the 
incident of Paul's being saved from death by Aquilla and Priscilla, 
who ** for his life laid down their own necks." We are led to 
believe that these events occurred at Ephesus during Paul's two 
years' residence there. 

In his personal appearance, Paul was short, somewhat stout, 
bald in front, with a slightly prominent nose; full of grace, and 
assuming at times an angelic sweetness of countenance. He had 
a rather shrill voice, but in his impassioned oratory, it resembled 
the roaring of a lion. His intellect was very active, and his writ- 
ings show a tendency toward impetuosity, as well as closeness of 
reasoning. Considering the scope of the present article it would 
be impolitic to treat the different elements of Paul's theology as 



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358 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

set forth in his discourses and epistles. It is enough to say that 
the alleged and exaggerated ''differences'' between his teachings 
and those of the so-called ''Judaists,'' (James and others) are not 
fundamental, and are assumed through a lack of understanding of 
the spirit of these writers. 

Bagster says of Paul and his epistles: 'The style of these 
letters shows a man of an eager and impetuous temper. * * ^ 
The theme is a pressing one, and the writer is too intent to gain 
his end to study his steps. * * * He has no time to 
adjust himself to any formula: he must make his way at any 
expense. All forms are alike to him, and he will use any or use 
none, if only he can thereby gain his point. In his zeal for the 
issue, he became a Jew to the Jew, and a Greek to the Greek and 
'all things to all men,' if so be he might win some. He appears 
in these epistles as a man who had a work to do, and who in the 
doing of it casts aside every weight." 



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MORAL QUALITIES OF MILTON. 



In these days, when much time is devoted to the consideration 
of the great characters of past centuries — especially those of 
them who may be regarded as among the giants who devoted 
themselves to making way for the liberty of thought and action 
which is enjoyed in our present century— a few pages may well be 
devoted to the consideration of the moral qualities and grandeur 
of the poet Milton. The man who approached his inmiortal task of 
writing Paradise Lost with the prayer — 

"Thou, Spirit, that dost prefer 
Before all Temples the upright heart and pure, 
Instruct me, for thou knowest! — 

* ♦ ♦ * what in me is dark 
niumine, what is low raise and support: 
That to the heighth of this great argument, 
I may assert Eternal Providence, 
And justify the ways of God to man.'' 

The man, we repeat, who approached his inmiortal task with 
such a prayer may well be possessed of moral qualities profit- 
able to consider. Hence the following from Dr. Ghanning: 

The moral character of Milton was as strongly marked as his 
intellectual, and it may be expressed in one word, magnanimity. It 
was in harmony with his poetry. He had a passionate love of the 
higher, more commanding, and majestic virtues, and fed his youth- 
ful mind with meditations on the perfection of a human being. In 
a letter written to an Italian friend before his thirtieth year, and 
translated by Hayley, we have this vivid picture of his aspirations 
after virtue: 



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360 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

"As to the other points, what God may have determined for me, 
I know not; but this I know, that if he ever instilled an intense 
love of moral beauty into the breast of any man, he instilled it into 
mine. Ceres, in the fable, pursued not her daughter with a greater 
keenness of inquiry, than I day and night the idea of perfection. 
Hence, wherever I find a man despising the false estimates of the 
vulgar, and daring to aspire in sentiment, language, and conduct 
to what the highest wisdom, through every age, has taught us as 
most excellent, to him I unite myself by a sort of necessary attach- 
ment; and if I am so influenced by nature or destiny, that by no 
exertion or labors of my own I may exalt myself to this summit of 
worth and honor, yet no powers of heaven or earth will hinder me 
from looking with reverence and affection upon those who have 
thoroughly attained this glory, or appeared engaged in the success- 
ful pursuit of it." 

His Comus was written in his twenty-sixth year, and on read- 
ing this exquisite work, our admiration is awakened, not so much 
by observing how the whole spirit of poetry had descended on him 
at that early age, as by witnessing, how his whole youthful soul 
was penetrated, awed, and lifted up by the austere charms, ''the 
radiant light," the invincible power, the celestial peace of saintly 
virtue. He reverenced moral purity and elevation, not only for its 
own sake, but as the inspirer of intellect, and especially of the 
higher efforts of poetry. In his usual noble style, he says, 

"I was confirmed in this opinion, that he who would not be 
frustrate of his hope to write well hereafter in laudable things, 
ought himself to be a true poem; that is, a composition and pattern 
of the best and honorablest things, not presuming to sing of higher 
praises of heroic men, or famous cities, unless he have in himself 
the experience and the practice of all that which is praise- 
worthy." 

We learn from his works, that he used his multifarious read- 
ing, to build up within himself this reverence for virtue. Ancient 
history, the sublime musings of Plato, and the heroic self-abandon- 
ment of chivalry, joined their influences with prophets and apostles, 
in binding him "everlastingly in willing homage" to the great, the 
honorable, and the lovely in character. A remarkable passage to 
this effect, we quote from his account of his youth: 



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MORAL QUALITIES OF MILTON. 361 

*'l betook me among those lofty fables and romances, which 
recount in solemn cantos, the deeds of knighthood founded by our 
victorious kings, and from hence had in renown over all Christen- ' 
dom. There I read it in the oath of every knight, that he should 
defend to the expense of his best blood, or of his life, if it so 
befell him, the honor and chastity of virgin or matron; from 
whence even then I learned what a noble virtue chastity sure must 
be, to the defense of which so many worthies, by such a dear 
adventure of themselves, had sworn." ♦ ♦ ♦ "go that even 
these books, which to many others have been the fuel of wanton- 
ness and loose living, I cannot think how, unless by divine indulg- 
ence, proved to me so many incitements, as you have heard to the 
love and steadfast observation of virtue." 

All Milton's habits were expressive of a refined and self-deny- 
ing character. When charged by his unprincipled slanderers with 
licentious habits, he thus gives an account of his morning hours: 

'Those morning haunts are where they should be, at home; 
not sleeping or concocting the surfeits of an irregular feast, but 
up and stirring, in winter often ere the sound of any bell awake 
men to labor, or to devotion, in summer as oft with the bird that 
first rouses, or not much tardier, to read good authors, or cause 
them to be read, till the attention be weary, or memory have its 
full fraught: then with usual and generous labors preserving the 
body's health and hardiness to render lightsome, clear, and not 
lumpish obedience to the mind, to the cause of religion, and our 
country's liberty, when it shall require firm hearts in sound bodies 
to stand and cover their stations, rather than to see the ruin of 
our protestation, and the enforcement of a slavish life." 

We have enlarged on the strictness and loftiness of Milton's 
virtue, not only from our interest in the subject, but that we may 
put to shame and silence those men who make genius an apology 
for vice, and take the sacred fire, kindled by God within them, to 
inflame men's passions, and to minister to a vile sensuality. 

We see Milton's greatness of mind, in his fervent and constant 
attachment to liberty. Freedom in all its forms and branches was 
dear to him, but especially freedom of thought and speech, of 
conscience and worship, freedom to seek, profess, and propagate 
truth. The liberty of ordinary politicians, which protects men's 



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362 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

outward rights, and removes restraints to the pursuit of prop- 
erty and outward good, fell very short of that for which Milton 
lived and was ready to die. The tyranny which he hated most, was 
that which broke the intellectual and moral power of the com- 
munity. The worst feature of the institutions which he assailed, 
was, that they fettered the mind. He felt withm himself, that 
the human mind had a principle of perpetual growth, that it was 
essentially diffusive and made for progress, and he wished eveiy 
claim broken, that it might run the race of truth and virtue with 
increasing ardor and success. This attachment to a spiritual and 
refined freedom, which never forsook him in the hottest contro- 
versies, contributed greatly to protect his genius, imagination, 
taste, and sensibility, from the withering and polluting influences 
of public station, and of the rage of parties. It threw a hue of 
poetry over politics, and gave a sublime reference to his service of 
the commonwealth. The fact that Milton, in that stormy day, and 
amidst the trials of public office, kept his high faculties unde- 
praved, was a proof of no common greatness. Politics, however 
they make the intellect active, sagacious, and inventive, within a 
certain sphere, generally extinguish its thirst for universal troth, 
paralyse sentiment and imagination, corrupt the simplicity of the 
mind, destroy that confidence in human virtue, which lies at the 
foundation of philanthropy and generous sacrifices, and end in cold 
and prudent selfishness. Milton passed through a revolution, which 
in its last stages and issue, was peculiarly fitted to damp enthu- 
siasm, to scatter the visions of hope, and to infuse doubts of the 
reality of virtuous principles; and yet the ardor, and moral feeling; 
and enthusiasm of his youth came forth unhurt, and even exalted 
from the trial. 



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ACTS OF SPECIAL PROVIDENCE IN MIS- 
SIONARY EXPERIENCE. 

BY W. W. CLUPP, PEESroENT OP SUMMIT STAKE OP ZION. 



As an enconragemeiit to the young Elders on missions and 
readers of the Era, I send you an account of a remarkable pre- 
sentiment or vision I had while on my second mission in the Sand- 
wich Islands, in 1864. 

Complaints had been made by some of the native Elders, con- 
cerning Sandwich Island mission affairs, accusing Walter M. Gibson 
— afterwards and for many years the Prime Minister of the King- 
dom of Hawaii — of teachmg false doctrine, and defrauding the 
native saints. The result was that Apostles E2ara T. Benson, Lorenzo 
Snow, with Elders Joseph F. Smith, Alma L. Smith and myself were 
sent to the Islands to investigate those charges. 

The charges against Mr. Gibson were all sustained. The Elders 
who preceded Mr. Gibson in that mission had leased a large tract 
of land from a native chief, with the privilege of purchasing it as 
a temporary gathering place for the Saints. Gibson collected 
sufficient money from the native Saints to purchase the land in 
trust for them, but had the deeds made out to himself and his 
heirs. Gibson was excommunicated from the Church. The Apostles, 
having filled their mission, appointed Elder Joseph F. Smith presi- 
dent of the mission, and returned home. We who remained were 
to make a tour of the several islands and reorganize and set in order 
the branches of the Church. Having lost possession of the gather- 
ing place on Lanai, through Gibson's rascality, we examined in our 
travels many localities with a view of recommending to the Presi- 
dency the leasing or purchasing of another place for that purpose. 



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364 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

We had made the entire tour of the island of Kauai and had 
visited most of the branches on the island of Oahn. We were stop- 
ping for a few days at a small branch at Laeie, on the northeast 
side of thie island last named, some thirty-five miles from Honolulu, 
the capital city. At this place a white man (whose name I do not 
now remember) owned about five thousand acres of land, which he 
was then using as a stock ranch: it was very pleasantly situated, 
having about thr^e miles front on the sea shore, and running inland 
to a point on the top of a high range of mountains, several miles 
distant. The side of this mountain was covered with timber and 
owing to the moist and tropical climate was perpetually green. 
Between the foot-hills and the sea, was a level plain of several hun- 
dred acres, covered over with luxuriant grass, interspersed here 
and there with dense thickets of haw brush. 

We were stopping at the house of a native family who were 
tenants of the white rancher. 

One day, feeling somewhat lonely and depressed in spirits^ I 
retired to one of the thickets and knelt down in secret prayer, after 
which I strolled along a path winding through grass plots and haw 
thickets, more or less in a listless mood or reverie, when suddenly— 
and to my. astonishment — President Brigham Young came walking 
up the path and met me face to face. After the ordinary greetings 
were exchanged, we sat down on the grass beside the path, and a 
brief conversation about the work on the Islands passed between 
us. He then referred to the beautiful landscape before us, comment- 
ing on the beautiful plain, the rich alluvial soil, the verdure covered 
and timbered mountain in the distance and of the beach washed by 
the gentle waves of the Pacific Ocean, '^is,'' he said, ''is a most 
delightful place!'' He then arose to his feet and silently casting 
his eyes over the surrounding country, turned to me, and in his 
pleasant and familiar manner, said: ''Brother William, this is the 
place we want to secure as headquarters for this mission.'' The 
interview then terminated and I was alone. 

The meeting and the interview had all seemed so real and mat- 
ter of fact, that when I found myself alone I was filled with wonder and 
amazement. Had I suddenly awoke from a dream in which I had 
had such a conversation, it could not have seemed more real. Had 
I really been dreaming? Had I been in vision, or what had hap- 



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ACTS OF SPECIAL PROVIDENCE. 365 

pened that so agitated my mind, and filled me with amazement? I 
knew I had not been dreaming. 

Hastening back to the house I related the strange incident 
to the brethren, who thought with me thi^tit was most remarkable. 

That same day we made a friendly call on the gentleman who 
owned the property, he received us very kindly and during the con- 
versation gave us to understand that he might be induced to sell 
the property. 

In November Elder Joseph F. Smith and myself were released 
to return home. In San Francisco we met three Elders on their 
way to the Sandwich Islands with instructions from President Young 
to purchase some suitable place to establish headquarters for the 
mission on those Islands. 

We told the brethren they might go and examine all the places 
that might be offered for sale on any of the Islands, but if the 
Laeie Estate could be purchased, we were confident they would buy 
that property. After examining more than a score of other places, 
some quite as good no doubt, they at last purchased the Laeie 
Estate. 

This property is still occupied as the headquarters and gather- 
ing place for the Saints of those Islands. 



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AN INCIDENT OF THE BLACK FOREST 

AND THE APACHE INDIANS 

OF ARIZONA. 



BY ANDREW L. RODGERS. 



The Black Forest of the MogoUon (Mokeane) mountams, is 
situated near the eastern boundary of Arizona, running north and 
south some hundred miles, and perhaps fifty miles east and west. 
It extends from the San Francisco Peak on the north to the White 
Mountains on the south. 

This section of the forest in places is so dense with evergreen 
trees that the eye cannot penetrate it to any great distance, and 
in getting on a high eminence or butte, nothing can be seen but a 
black mass of trees as far as the eye can reach. 

At the time of which I write (twenty years ago) I had charge 
of a large flock of sheep, and had penetrated this forest some 
thirty-five or forty miles from civilization. We pitched our camp— 
I say we because my wife was with me — on a small stream called 
Quakenasp Greek; and there I built a small cabin, intending to make 
a permanent encampment there as the grass was good and water 
plentiful. But no sooner had I got the cabin nearly completed 
than a feeling came over me to take the back track and leave the 
place as soon as possible. I mentioned the matter to my wife, who 
tried to talk me out of the idea, saying how unwise it seemed after 
working so hard to make her comfortable and then pick right up 
and leave without even staying in the house one night! But her 
remonstrance was of no avail. The feeling to leave grew stronger, 
so that acting on the impression I had received we took our scanty 



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AN INCIDENT OF THE BLACK FOREST. 367 

belongings and made all possible haste to the yicinity of the colon- 
ists that were then located at what is now known as the Mormon 
Dairy — ^here we stopped with a feeling of relief. 

A few days afterwards we learned to our horror what our fate 
might have been had I not heeded the premonition to move. For 
just a day or two after we had left the cabin of the dense and 
lonely pinewoods, a skirmish took place between the United States 
soldiers and a band of Apache Indians on or near the place where 
our cabin stood; and being routed from there the Indians followed 
our trail some twenty-fiv6 miles to a place called Antelope Tank, 
and left some of their wounded to die in a cabin I had built on our 
way out. The Indians had gone on the war path and had been fol- 
lowed and overtaken by the troops; several were killed and wounded^ 
and some soldiers were shot. And the trouble only ended when the 
Indians were run down and taken back to their reservation where 
Fort Apache now stands. What would have been our fate had it 
not been for the impression I had received to move is plainly fore- 
shadowed by the fate of a number of ranchers over in Toreto Basin, 
whom this same band of renegade savages surprised and shot down 
before they could get out of the way; for what could I have done, 
a lone man against a horde, even though I was armed with a good 
rifle? And the Indians made doubly wicked, if that be possible, 
because some of their number had been killed and others wounded, 
would have known no such thing as mercy in this case, and our 
fate would doubtless have been worse than death. 

So call that impression to move out of the forest what you 
may, but my wife and I have ever since thought it was nothing but 
a kind Providence that warned us to escape from what would most 
likely have been a horrible death at the hands of the Indians. 



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BIGOTRY OPPOSED TO PROGRESS- 

BY A. WOOTTON. . 



It is beyond the power of man to estimate to what extent the 
progress of the world has been retarded by the practice of judgmg 
a matter before hearing both sides, as instanced by the many cases 
daring the past ages, where men have been forced by the alterna- 
tive of death to deny troths that now are universally accepted : while 
others, possessing more moral as well as physical courage, have 
suffered imprisonment or death rather than deny the truths they 
had discovered. 

Many scientific truths that are understood by every school-boy 
of today, were rejected by the medieval Christians because, for- 
sooth, they were taught in the schools of the despised Jews or the 
heretical Saracens. This spirit of intolerance and bigotry, some- 
what modified, has been transmitted as a heritage to many of the 
present age, so that instead of following the injunction of the Savior 
to "love your enemies," many are ready to revile and persecute 
even those whose religious opinions differ from their own. It seems 
hard for men to give up dogmas that have been instilled in their 
minds by early teaching and the traditions of their forefathers for 
generations, but men of this age ought to know that the antiquity 
of a doctrine does not prove it true; that many of the greater truths 
are those of recent discovery. This certainly is true of discoveries 
in the sciences, aild may it not be just possible that religious prin- 
ciples that appear new to this generation may be the truths of 
heaven? Although we may speak of a truth as being newly dis- 
covered, we cannot consistently speak of a new truth, for all truth 
is as old as the heavens and as eternal as God himself; while error 
never was and never can be truth. 



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BIGOTRY OPPOSED TO PROGRESS. 369 

Men may cling tenaciously to erroneous doctrines like a ship- 
wrecked mariner to the wreck, but eventually the waves of truth 
will overwhelm them, and, unless they give up their hold, they will 
perish with the wreck. 

Who would be content in this age of railways, to travel with 
the old slow-going stage-coach, or to light his home with the anti- 
quated tallow candle when the electric lights are blazing in the 
homes of his neighbors? 

This is exactly the condition of the man who shuts himself in 
his narrow creed and refuses to investigate the doctrines of those 
who differ from him, no matter how far that difference may extend. 



SONNET. 



Below, the sea lies blue and cold as steel, 
And smooth as satin stretched from shore to shore, 
Save where a shimmering fish leaps, or an oar 

Reeking with crimson rises, or the keel 

Of some ship lets a rough path backward reel; 
The sun — a flaming thing — sinks low and lower 
And beats upon the West's unclosing door; 

The shadows downward creep and reach to feel. 

With long black fingers, if the day be dead; 
Above, the sky glows like a pearl alight 

With a rose-diamond's shifting gold and red; 
And o'er the eastern mountains, soft and white. 

The moon steps, trembling, from her silver bed — 
A virgin bride— to meet the lips of night. 

Ella Higginson. 



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THE BIBLE AS A FACTOR IN EDUCATION. 



It is to be feared that notwithstanding our age is boasted of 
as pre-eminently the age of education, in its cold neglect of the 
Bible it is abandoning one of the prime factors in education, '^ot 
long ago," says an eastern writer, '' An instructor of youth tried 
an experiment. 

He wanted to find out how much (or how little) the average 
American college student of these days knows about the Bible. To 
ninety-six such students he gave nine simple questions, to be 
answered off-hand and in writing. He explained to them his object 
and promised not to show their answers to anybody. This was 
the question paper: 

1. What is the Pentateuch? 

2. What is the higher criticism of the Scriptures? 

8. Does the book of Jade belong to the New Testament or to 
the Old? 

4. Name one of the patriarchs of the Old Testament. 

5. Name one of the judges of the Old Testament. 

6. Name three of the kings of Israel. 

7. Name three prophets. 

8. Give one of the beatitudes. 

9. Quote a verse from the letter to the Romans. 

In a letter to the Christian Advocate he reports the result of 
the experiment. Eight of the ninety-six students answered all the 
questions correctly; thirteen answered eight of them, eleven 
answered seven, five answered six, nine answered five, twelve 
answered four, eleven answered three, thirteen answered two, 



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THE BIBLE AS A FACTOR IN EDUCATION. 371 

eleven answered one, and three "flunked" completely. "Most of 
these persons, I have no doubt, were brought up in Christian 
homes," remarks the experimenter, "and had enjoyed such instruc- 
tion as the average Sunday School and pulpit of our day afford." 
We believe it to be a fact that a good deal more of the Bible 
is read aloud at public worship in the non-liturgical churches of 
the country nowadays than at any previous time. This is certainly 
the case in the Congregational churches of New England. But we 
fear it is also a fact that in New England and in other parts of the 
country boys and girls are growing up without that intimate, first- 
hand knowledge of the Bible that was possessed by their grand- 
fathers and grandmothers. It is a great pity; there must be a 
great fault somewhere. The Bible ought always to be, as it once 
was, the comer-stone of the American child's education. Leaving 
the religious side entirely out of the account, the study of no other 
literature is so intellectually stimulating to the child, nor can he 
anywhere else find such a model of sturdy, sinewy English as be- 
tween the covers of the old King James' version. The greatest 
orators of England and of this country have been assiduous stu- 
dents of this wonderful model. Rufus Choate's case was in nowise 
exceptional, and of him his nephew has just told us in a com- 
memorative discourse: 

^ This book, so early absorbed and never forgotten, saturated his mind 
and spirit more than any other, more than all other books combined. It 
was at his tongue's end, at his finger's end — always close at hand until 
those last languid hours at Halifax, when it solaced his dying medi- 
tations. You can hardly find speech, argument or lecture of his from 
first to last that is not sprinkled and studded with Biblical ideas and 
pictures, and Biblical words and phrases. To him the book of Job was a 
sublime poem; he knew the Psalms by heart, and dearly loved the proph- 
ets, and above all Isaiah, upon whose gorgeous imagery he made copious 
drafts. He pondered every word, read with most subtle keenness, and 
applied with happiest effect. One day coming into the Crawford House, 
cold and shivering — and you remember how he could shiver — he caught 
sight of the blaze in the 'great fireplace, and was instantly warm before 
the rays could reach him, exclaiming, 'Do you remember that verse in 
Isaiah, 'Aha! I am warm. I have seen the fire'?" And so his daily con- 
versation was marked. 



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;^ 



372 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

It is not merely Christian men who feel that English or Ameri- 
can childhood Ki'owing up without a knowledge of the Bible is de- 
frauded of its birthright. Professor Huxley was not a Christian man, 
in the accepted sense of the words. He was classed as an agnos- 
tic. His controversial tilts with Mr. Gladstone are well-remem- 
bered. To the average orthodox Briton he was a veritable bogey 
man. But he is said to have brought up his own children on the 
Bible, nevertheless, and he prescribed it as the best mental diet 
for all English children. Twenty-eight years ago in the Con- 
temporary Review, Thomas Henry Huxley wrote: 

Take the Bible as a whole; make the severest deductions which fair 
criticism can dictate for shortcomings and positive errors; eliminate, as 
a sensible lay-teacher would do if left to himself, all that is not desirable 
for children to occupy themselves with; and there still remains m this 
old literature a vast residuum of moral beauty and grandeur. And then 
consider that, for three centuries, this book has been woven into the life 
of all that is best and noblest in English history; that it has become the 
national epic of Britain, and is familiar to noble and simple, from John- 
o'-Goat's House to Land's End, as Dante and Tasso once were to the 
Italians; that it is written in noblest and purest English, and abounds in 
exquisite beauties of mere literary form; and, finally, that it forbids the 
veriest hind who never left his village to be ignorant of the existence of 
other countries and other civilizations, and of a great past — stretching 
back to the furthest limits of the oldest nations in the world. By the 
study of what other book could children be so much humanized and made 
to feel that each figure in that vast historical procession fills, like them- 
selves, but a momentary space in the interval between two eternities; 
and earns the blessings or the curses of all time, according to its effort 
to do good and hate evil, even as they also are earning their payment for 
their work? * 



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A STORY OF EDISON, THE INVENTOR- 



stories of the eariy life of Thomas A. Edison, the great 
American inventor, are very numerous and always interesting, but 
we have seen nothing that for humor surpasses the following, told 
recently by himself to a friend, who, when a boy, had followed the 
same occupation as that in which Edison may be said to have 
started in life. Edison was a train boy, that is, he sold papers, 
fruit and candies on a division of the Grand Trunk Line running 
out of Port Huron. 

"Curious how these things come back to you," said the now 
great inventor. "I remember a funny thing that occurred on one 
of the old three-car trains. In my day, you know, they used to 
run trains made up of three coaches — a baggage car, a smoking 
car and what we called the ladies' car. The ladies' car was always 
last in the string. Well, one day I was carrying my basket of nuts and 
apples through the ladies' car — I hadn't sold a thing so far — when 
I noticed two young fellows sitting near the rear end of the car. 
They were dandies, what might be called dudes now, but we called 
them 'stifles' in those days. They were young southerners up 
north on a lark, as I found out afterward. Behind them sat a 
negro valet, who had a large, iron-bound box beside him on the 
seat. Probably he was an old family slave. He was dressed in as 
many colors as an English flunky. 

"The young men were complaining of the dullness of things. 
They stopped when they saw me. I came along wabbling my 
basket from side to side as T asked each passenger if he wanted 



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374 IMPRO VEMENT ERA. 

to buy anything. When I reached the southerners I asked them 
if they wanted some. 

"*No!' replied the fellow nearest to me, Ve do not, and 
furthermore we are not going to have any,' whereupon be grabbed 
the basket out of my hands and dumped the nuts and apples out 
of the window. 'Here's your basket,' he said, handing it to me. 

"For a moment I was too surprised to speak. Then I yelled 
at him in a way that made everybody jump around. I did not say 
anything. I just yelled at him on general principles. 

'' ' Whafs the matter, boy?' he said when I stopped. Some 
of the passengers laughed; others were indignant, and some who 
had not seen his action simply looked at me in amazement. Then 
I protested. 

" 'Look here, boy,' said the young man, 'how much were they 
worth?' 

" 'Oh, about a dollar, I guess,' said I. 

"He turned to the negro on the next seat. 'Nicodemus,' he 
said, 'give this boy a dollar.' 

"The negro grinned, and turning to the box beside him he 
opened it. It was really full of money and valuables. He took 
out a dollar and gave it to me. I took it and walked up the car. 
I was still surprised. At the door I looked back at them, and 
everybody laughed at me for some reason — all except the young 
men, that is; they never even smiled during the whole per- 
formance. 

"Well, I filled up my basket with prize packages and came 
back through the train. Nobody bought any of them. When I 
reached the southerner, however, he said, 'Excuse me, sir/ and 
grabbing the basket again he sent the prize packages after the 
peanuts. He handed me my basket and sat back without a smile, 
but everybody else laughed again. I did not yell this time. I 
simply said, 'Look here. Mister, do you know how much those are 
worth?" 

"'No,' said he; how much?' 

" 'Well, there were three dozen and four at ten cents for each 
one, not to mention the prizes in some of them.' 

" 'Oh,' he said; 'Nicodemus, count up how much the boy ought 
to have and give it to him.' 



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A STORY OF EDISOh, THE INVENTOR. 875 

'^e negro opened his box and gave me four dollars, and 
again I went away with the empty basket, while the passengers 
laughed. 

''Next I brought in some morning papers, and nobody bought 
these either. Somehow the passengers had caught the spirit of 
the thing, and as it cost them nothing they apparently did not wish 
to deprive those southerners of their fun. I was watchful when 
I came to the young bloods this time, and carried the papers so 
they could grab them easily. Sure enough the nearest one threw 
them out of the window after the other things. I sat on the edge 
of a seat and laughed myself. 'Oh, you settle with Nicodemus,' 
he said, and Nicodemus settled up. 

'Then I had an idea. I went into the baggage car and got every 
paper I could find. I had a lot of that day's stock, and over a hundred 
returns of the day before, which I was going to turn in at the end 
of the run. The whole lot was so heavy that I could just manage 
to carry it on my shoulder. When I staggered into the ladies' 
car and called 'paper!' in the usual drawling way the passengers 
fairly shrieked with laughter. I thought the southerner would 
back down, but he never flinched. He just grabbed those papers 
and hurled them out of the window by the armful. We could see 
them flying behind the train like great white birds — ^you know we 
had blanket sheets then — and they spread themselves out over the 
landscape in a way that must have startled the rural population of 
the district. I got over ten dollars for all my papers. 

"That dandy was game. Iiook here, boy,' he said, when the 
passengers had seen the last of those papers float around a curve; 
'have you anything else on board? 

" 'Nothing except the basket and my box,' I replied. 

" 'Well, bring in those, too.' 

"You remember the big three-by-four boxes they used to give 
us to keep our goods in? Well, I put the basket in the box and 
turned it over and over down the aisle of the car to where the 
fellow sat. He threw the basket out of the window, but the box 
was too big to go that way. So he ordered Nicodemus to throw 
it off the rear platform. I charged him three dollars for that 
box. When it had gone he turned to me and said: 

" 'How much money have you made today? 



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876 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

"I counted up over twenty-five dollars Nicodemus had given 
me. 

" *Now/ he said, *are you sure you have nothing more to sellf 

'1 would have brought in the smoking car stove if it had not 
been hot. But I was compelled to say there was really nothing 
more. 

" 'Very well ! ' and then with a change in his tone he turned 
to the negro and said: 'Nicodemus, throw this boy out of the 
window.' 

'The passengers shrieked with laughter; but I got out of that 
car pretty quick, I can tell you. That fellow was a thorougbred, 
and I believe he would have done it, even if his nigger had refused, 
which was not likely." 

And the face of the great inventor wore a half-amused, half- 
regretful smile at this vision of his train-boy days. 



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WHAT IS MAN? 

BY S. W. RICHARDS. 



He is a being wonderfully constracted and endowed, affording 
in himself the evidence of great wisdom and intelligence in the 
Creator who formed him, and gave him being on the earth. The 
creation of the earth also demonstrates a corresponding intelli- 
gence, in perfectly adapting the one to fully supply the wants of 
the other in all that could contribute to the development and hap- 
piness of man. 

The body of man when quickened by his living spirit 
became a living soul. The body was first formed, into which the 
spirit of man entered, giving life and power to act. By reason of 
these facts man is declared to be a dual being; made of two separate 
and distinct elements — the one being called temporal or material, 
the other spirit or spiritual. The one visible, the other invisible 
to human sight. 

In the study of humanity, or man, we must consider him in 
relation to both of these fundamental principles by virtue of which 
he exists as an intelligent being, capable of development and dura- 
tion; or in other words capable of acquiring a knowledge of things 
that are, and of that which is to be. 

To man was given dominion over the earth, and all things 
upon the face thereof. It is quite proper and reasonable that he 
should seek to become acquainted with what constitutes his domin- 
ion, and over which he was made ruler. Indeed it becomes the 
duty of man to study all that comes under the observation of his 
perceptive faculties, — of seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling and 



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378 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

feeling; for it is through and by the exercise of his senses that 
man obtains knowledge of material things, created to make hnn 
happy by satisfying every possible desire that could come to him 
by reason of his senses. 

Man's legitimate field of study is to comprehend all the sciences 
and powers that belong to the earth in its creation and preserva- 
tion for man; not only the effects of cold and heat, the change of 
the season so necessary to earth's endurance in its productive 
powers, but also the laws of attraction, gravitation, cohesion and 
repulsion by virtue of which it maintains its proper relation to 
other worlds and spheres in the midst of which it moves with the 
utmost precision and harmony. 

All this belongs to man's dominion, and all the knowledge he 
may acquire in this direction will be needed by him when he shall, 
like God his Father, do as he has done, enter upon the creative 
work necessary to provide for the wants of an endless posterity, 
such as worlds have been and yet must be created for, to the glory 
of God, and the immortality and eternal life of man who shall 
inhabit them. 

No student ever studied and appreciated the science of astron- 
omy, no eye ever gazed upon the starry heavens, and witnessed the 
evolution of the worlds all in harmony, each moving in the circuit 
of their sphere as allotted to them by him who ordereth all things 
well, but has abundant evidence of a Creator-God, who is above all, 
in all and through all, that should satisfy the most ardent searcher 
of the eternal truwh. 

Like one of old, every soul may well exclaim, '^e heavens 
declare his glory and the firmament showeth forth his handy 
work." 

Intelligence is the glory of God, and the intelligence displayed 
in all his works is so far above the comprehension of .man that man 
readily discerns the fact that God is an intelligent being, and that 
his children, though mortal here on earth, have a legal, undeniable 
right to aspire to become like him. 

It is perfectly in keeping with his eternal law, that intelli- 
gence should cleave to intelligence, light to light, and truth to 
truth, in all the relations that exist between man and Deity-— or 
verified man. 



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WHAT IS MAN? 379 

In that which is visible man has sufficient evidence to demand 
of him faith in God, and he is left without excuse; and none the 
less in that which is spiritual or invisible as we will attempt to 
show. 

Man became alienated from his maker by transgression of law. 
Failing to comply with his Father's demands he was banished from 
his presence. This banishment or alienation came to all the pos- 
terity of Adam, but means were provided for man's recovery of that 
which he had lost. 

A law of adoption was provided, by obedience to which he 
might become entitled to all blessings of the Father's kingdom, 
necessary for his spiritual welfare here, and a return to his pres- 
ence hereafter. This law provided for the cleansing of man from 
sin, by being buried in water for the washing away of sin, or cleans- 
ing of the person to that degree that the Spirit of God could dwell 
with him, for it will not dwell in unholy temples. As water is the 
element ordained of God for cleansing, as manifested in the cleans- 
ing of the earth from sin by a flood of water that covered it, 
so man must submit to a like cleansing from his sins that the 
Spirit of God may abide with him — be his companion and comforter. 

We may now ask what is the province of this Spirit while 
dwelling with man. Jesus said it should not only be a comforter 
to those who had it while he was absent from them, but it should 
do to them as he had done — should take the things of God and 
show unto them — bring all things to their remembrance of which 
he had spoken to them, and show them things to come — ^what things 
— ^why? — whatsoever ye shall ask the Father in my name it shall 
be done unto you. The gifts and blessings secured to those who 
had this comforter were dreams, visions and manifestations, by 
which they might learn to know God and Jesus Christ whom he had 
sent. 

This promise was verified to the disciples, by being caught up 
to the third heavens, where was seen and heard things unlawful to 
be uttered after the return of the spirit to the body upon the earth; 
others had the visitation of angels with whom they conversed and 
learned of the mysteries of Godliness, while others spake in tongues 
and prophesied, because of what the Spirit had shown to them. 

But we need not go to the ancient saints for verification of 



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380 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

like facts and manifestations. Many in our day testify that like 
facts have been demonstrated in their experience — that while the 
body has been slumbering upon the bed, the spirit has traversed 
the regions of space and beheld the grandeur of earth and heaven 
as in all their excellence they came forth from the hand of their 
Creator; that they have gazed upon the Redeemer in the Father's 
presence and glory, and know of a truth that all promises made hj 
Jesus to his disciples may be realized even in our day. 

That God has in his good pleasure and economy provided as 
amply for man to obtain spiritual knowledge of Him while here in 
his mortal state of banishment, as he has to obtain knowledge of 
Him by that which is visible to the human eye, or perceptive facul- 
ties, is demonstrated by many living witnesses in our day as well 
as by those who have lived in days gone by. 

Facts thus established by both the living and the dead deter- 
mine man to be the child of God — ^that no earthly parent can be 
more interested for his own child than our Heavenly Father is for 
all his children. This is in accord with the truth of another scrip- 
tural statement — ''that the earthly is in likeness of the heavenly" 
— that the spiritual relation of man to his Father (God) is as real 
as the earthly relation with which we are bound together in the 
brotherhood of man. 

Man, then, is indeed a child of God, and by obedience to the 
Father's conmaand, given for the regulation of his great family, may 
and shall inherit of the Father's possessions of glory, immortality 
and eternal lives; to which end are all his words and all his works 
as declared by revelation to his servant Moses. 

Thus, man, in both his natural and spiritual life may learn of 
his Father (God); whom to know aright is eternal life— the greatest 
gift of God to man. To fail to know Him is banishment from His 
presence — an everlasting punishment. 



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EDITOR^S TABLR 



THE PHILIPPINE PROBLEM. 



If the American people a few months ago could have seen 
as clearly as they now see the effects of taking possession of the 
PhUippine Islands, it is doubtful if the event would have been 
hailed with such universal joy as it was. Not that we would 
detract from the glory of Admiral Dewey's achievement on that 
memorable 1st day of May, 1898. The glory of that victory will 
never fade. It will be a matter of pride [and an inspiration to 
Americans through all tthe throng of the ages. But it is quite 
likely that there will always be a deep regret that after completely 
destroying the Spanish fleet the American Admiral did not sail 
away without so much as looking [back. Of course it is to be 
admitted that we do not yet know all the obligations Admiral 
Dewey felt himself under to the Insurgents on the Philippine 
Islands; but if there^'were no obligations directly entered into or 
that could be reasonably implied on the part of the Insurgents — 
then it is truly to be regretted that Manila Bay was not as sud- 
denly deserted by our war ships as it had been entered by them. 
By taking that course surely we would have been rid of many per- 
plexing problems which will now doubtless exist to plague us for 
some time to come. 

As matters now stand, the American fleet remaining and with 
the co-operation of the land forces having taking possession of the 
city of Manila, and dispossessing the Spaniards of the government of 
the islands — our government unquestionably stands responsible to 



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382 IMPitOVEMENT ERA. 

the civilized world for the maintenance of order and good govern- 
ment in the Philippines. And this responsibility is emphasized by 
the United States Senate's ratification of the treaty of peace formn- 
lated at Paris by the American and Spanish Commissioners. That 
treaty was ratified by the Senate on the 6th of Febroary by a 
vote of fifty-seven to twenty-seven; and by that act —provided the 
Spanish C!ortes also ratifies the treaty on the part of the Spanish 
government, concerning which no doubts can be entertained — the 
government of the United States becomes still more directly 
responsible for the preservation of order and good government in 
the Philippines; for now — that is as soon as the Spanish govern- 
ment gets through with the formality of ratifying the treaty — the 
Philippines are the possessions of the United States, and future 
American statesmanship must of necessity provide either for their 
permanent retention as part of the territory of the United States, 
or else make some suitable disposition of them. 

It is just this that will perplex our people and very likely 
divide them on the question of policy to be pursued with refer- 
ence to these new possessions. The most likely disposition of 
them will be the formation of a Philippine Republic under the 
protectorate of the United States, to be followed by indemnifica- 
tion to our government for the expense incurred in coming into 
possession of the islands; but ultimate and absolute independence 
of the Philippine Republic, with no further ties connecting it with 
the United States of America than those dictated by a grateful 
remembrance of the part we took in bringing to pass their freedom 
and independence. 



THE PROMPTER. 



Apropos the articles on agnosticism which have appeared 
of late in the Era we chance to remember that some years ago, at 
a banquet, we believe, CJolonel Robert G. IngersoU in speaking of 
the late Lawrence Barrett, said: 

''In the drama of life we are all actors, and no one knows his part. 
No prompter's voice is heard and none knows what the next scene is to 



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EDITORS TABLE. 383 

be. Will the curtain rise on another stage? Reason says perhaps I 
Hope whisper yesP 

This is the very ecstacy of agnosticism, the poetry of doubt, 
the music of melancholy — ^half hope, half fear. Poetry? Yes, it 
is; it is sad poetry, though; agnostic poetry must be sad, but is 
poetry, nevertheless; and it is that which, as we believe, constitutes 
its chief attraction for agnostics in general and for C!olonel Inger- 
soll in particular. Strange, is it not, that one should be in love 
with doubt — ^with death? Yet some spirits there are who love to 
dwell in darkness — wrapt in the solitude of their own gloom, and 
to whom light-stepping Joy yields not so much as a poor fraction 
of the pleasure that darkest Melancholy gives them. So with Col- 
onel Ingersoll; that same sad "perhaps," which stands beside him 
at his brother's grave, or at a friend's dying bed, seems to have a 
charm for him which certainty could never produce. There is 
something awe-inspiring in uncertainty, in mystery; it is that 
which attracts men to agnostic tendencies of thought. But what 
a sad commentary on the wisdom which brought into existence 
this glorious world of ours if Colonel IngersolFs statements were 
true! 'In the drama of life we are all actors, and no one knows 
his part. No prompter's voice is heard ! " What an absurd drama 
indeed, this life would be if this were true ! Truly, if none knows 
his part and there is no prompter, then indeed are we fools on a fool's 
errand. 

But enough of negative exclamation. We may know our 
parts if we but learn them; and if there are moments of doubt 
and uncertainty we may hear the Prompter's voice if only we open 
our ears to hear and our hearts to understand. Why, the very 
heathen comes to a better conclusion than the agnostic. The wild, 
free spirits of Scandinavia, curbing their passions somewhat and 
bowing at the shrine of Odin, in the main knew their parts and 
wherein they failed Odin prompted them. The still wilder spirits 
of Arabia heard their Prompter in the shrill voice of Mohammed, 
and in Islam learned their parts. It would be a sad mistake to 
suppose that it was a miserable piece of spiritual legerdemain this 
Mohammedan faith, which so many creatures of the Almighty have 
lived by and died by. Time would fail us to speak of Socrates, of 
Confucius, of Plato, of Moses, of Christ and the prophets, who all. 



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384 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

with more or less clearness, taught men their parts and prompted 
them when they forgot. Then what of the voice divine within 
each man's breast teaching him constantly his'part and reproving 
him when he fails to enact it well? 

Is there no Prompter? The Colonel was so pleased with the 
sound of his poetic words that he must have .forgotten their rela- 
tion to facts. 

"Will the curtain rise on another scene?" Can reason only 
whisper a faint ''perhaps?" and hope a fainter but a fonder "yes?' 
Are there no better prospects than this? May it be, to paraphrase 
slightly the words of a great poet^ that the proud wealth flnng 
back upon the heart must canker in its coffers? May it be that 
the links which falsehood hath broken will unite no more? Is it pos- 
sible that the deep yearning love that hath not found its like in the 
cold world must waste in tears? — that truth and fervor and devot- 
edness, finding no worthy altar, must return and die of their own 
fullness? Can it be that beyond the grave there is no heaven in 
whose wide air the spirit may find room, and in the love of whose 
bright habitants the lavish heart may spend itself? If so, then 
what fools — ^yea, "what thrice mocked fools are we! " 

But we need not doubt with the agnostic. Humanity does 
not doubt that the curtain will rise on another scene. The voice 
of Gk>d has declared it to the humblest. The poor savage in 
darkest Africa knows it, and does his best to recognize the 
"Prompter," though his benighted state enables him to do no better 
than to honor him by worship through monstrous idols. The 
aborigines of America,though separated from Europe, knew it as wdl 
as the tribes of men on the eastern hemisphere. Celestial voices 
hynm it into the souls of all men. Reason says "y^" emphatically 
yes, and not "perhaps;" Revelation, though the agnostic may deny 
it, says "yes,*" and the human Soul triumphantly above them all 
says, "I know it will." 



WHERE VIRTUE IS. 



One would naturally suppose that as a people or a nation 
increased in wealth the standard of morality would become more 



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EDITORS TABLE. 385 

exalted, and society throughout more pure. That conchision would 
be arrived at from the fact that as people increased in wealth their 
opportunities for culture are improved; they have more leisure to 
devote to self-improvement, to reading, to music, to conversation, 
to travel; to all those exercises which are supposed to beget a refine- 
ment in people, and ennoble the mind and heart. A wealthy people 
can afford better schools for their children, more beautiful homes, 
filled with everything that can please the eye and cultivate the 
taste. From wealthy nations, or perhaps to a better purpose we 
could say from the wealthy classes in any nation we may naturally 
expect the truest refinement, the purest morality; from those classes 
we may expect will come our profoundest philosophers, our most 
sagacious statesmen, our ablest writers, the most astute lawyers, 
the finest artists and sculptors, and those who will shine in every ele- 
vated department of human existence. Yet with all the advantage 
that wealth brings, the wealthy classes turn out comparatively few 
of the men who build empires, direct human thought^ and adorn 
those professions where brain power and character are the motive 
forces which gain the positions and hold them. 

A greater amount of that which passes current in the world 
for refinement and politeness will doubtless be found among the 
wealthy classes. The young men in those circles, usually denomi- 
nated the higher ones, may know how to talk nonsense to simper- 
ing women in a ball-room, and go through the mazes of a waltz 
with the utmost grace. They may be most pleasing in all their 
outer deportment and, as we say, may be regarded as having 
monopolized that which passes for refinement; but they do not 
furnish the men who become noted for the wealth of their mental 
attainments, strength of character, or those whose lives are the 
noblest and purest. 

There is a reason, of course, for this, and this it is: side by 
side with the increased opportunities that wealth brings for mental, 
moral and social improvements, are the multiplied pleasures, allure- 
:anents and temptations which luxury brings with it, and 

'Their joints unknit, their sinews melt apace; 

As lithe they grow as any willow wand. 
And of their banished force remains no trace.'' 



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386 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

If there is one truth that the Gods have made more emphatic 
than another, it is this: "There is no excellence without labor;" 
and if wealth is possessed, so that every want may be supplied by 
merely making it known, the chief incentive to earnest work is 
removed, and with that removed the exertions of men who work, 
not out of necessity but merely from the pleasure they derive from 
it, will not be sufficient to develop the character, and call out the 
whole strength of the man. Had it not been for the business mis- 
fortunes of Sir Walter Scott, we can hardly think that he would 
have left us those sublime pictures of moral grandeur and chivabic 
honor that we find in his noble works. Had not Washington 
Irving met with his business disasters he never would have enriched 
American literature with his thoughts, or elevated it above the 
scorn of English writers. So in nearly all the walks of life. On 
examination it will be seen that the wants of men are the secret 
forces that drive mankind to those exertions which develop the 
nobility of their manhood. And as the wealthy can supply 
their wants from their wealth without either mental or physical 
struggle, they pass through life without that development which 
the exertions named above bring. | 

Being free from the necessity of labor to supply thefar wants, 
they sink without reluctance into Pleasure's lap and draw their life 
from her voluptuous breast: 

''And then, those joys which plenty leads, 
With tip-toe step vice silently succeeds.'' 

With wealth has come new temptations, and improved oppor- 
tunities for gratifying every whim and passion, and men with their 
fallen natures become easy victims of opportunity. 

Speaking of the sexual purity of classes, Gibbon, the historian, 
says of the wealthy classes who have leisure to cultivate the graces 
of politeness: 

"The refinements of life corrupt while they polish the intercourse 
of the sexes. The gross appetite of love becomes most dangerous when 
it is elevated, or rather disguised by sentimental passion. The elegance 
of dress, of motion, and of manners gives a lustre to beauty and inflames 
the senses through the imagination.'' 



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EDITORS TABLE. 387 

We believe this to be true, and perhaps this very elegance 
coupled with tmbonnded opportunity of gratification is the reason 
that the aristocratic circles of the old world, and the wealthy classes 
of the new, are the most corrupt. 

We do not make these remarks for the purpose of saying unkind 
things about those who are wealthy; nor for the purpose of making 
invidious distinctions between classes; nor to deny virtue to all 
who are wealthy. But we make them for the purpose of saying a 
word of encouragement to the young men who may be deprived of 
those seeming advantages which the possession of wealth would 
apparently give. To them we would say: Be not dismayed — let 
not your spirits be cast down. The possession of wealth might not 
contribute either to your moral or intellectual advancement. Your 
very struggle against the disadvantages of lowly estate and iron 
fortune may be the means ordained by a kind Providence for your 
development of character. The possession of wealth and the temp- 
tations which accompany it might destroy you. And if it did not 
destroy, the very great probability is that the opportunity it would 
afford you for gratifying the natural human desire for ease and 
enjoyment would lead you into the pursuit of pleasure merely, and 
away from a life of earnest effort in some direction useful to your 
fellow-men and soul-upUf ting to yourself. C!omplain not, but with 
patience run the race. A kind Providence who has in his keepmg 
his children's welfare, may be trusted to have ordained all things 
for their ultimate good. 



NOTES. 



Great occasions do not make heroes of cowards; they simply unveil 
them. Silently and imperceptibly we grow strong, or we grow weak; 
and at last some crisis shows what we have become. 

One of the worst effects of the habit of comparing ourselves with 
those whom we imagine to be happier because of superior advantages is 



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388 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

the loss of individuality which it incurs. We learn to imitate, to con- 
form, to merge our own identity in that of a crowd; we lose our sdf- 
reepect, grow timid and dare not trust ourselves. In this way we fail to 
cultivate the peculiar powers which belong to us, and which alone can 
enable us to do our part in the world, a part which can be done by no 
other. 

Intelligent planning does as much for the day's work as for {he 
building of a house. It is all very well to say, 'Doe the next thynget" 
but in most cases the ^'next thynge" is in our control, just as the brick 
is when it is ready for the bricklayer's hand. No accomplishment of 
endeavors is possible unless there is an orderly marshalling of forces. 

The only kind of hope that is worthless is that which languidly waits 
for some good thing to drop from the skies into the lap of the idler. 
There are some people who are forever expecting, like Micawber, that 
something will turn up, hoping for some lucky stroke of fortune which 
shall render their own labors unnecessary. But that is a mean and flabby 
state of mind, quite unworthy the name of hope. When gratified it is 
not really benefited, and such seeming advantages soon lose all their 
flavor and power. 

"Live so as to be missed," was the message a great man once sent 
to some young people. He knew that most lives are not of that sort 
Many of us will not leave a very big gap in the world when we dq)art 
from it. Our lives have not been put into other lives. We have not 
spent our energies in touching other people in helpful ways. The beat 
that can be said over many of our biers will be, 'lie never harmed any- 
body." And that is a poor eulogy. 

There are some who contend that man is wholly selfish, and that 
the apparent difference is due only to different stages of intelligence. 
If he perform acts of justice and kindness, if he recognises the claims of 
others and hasten to satisfy them, it is only to gratify himself, or because 
he knows that such conduct will react in some direct or indirect way to 
benefit himself. Happily we have no faith in b6 low an estimate of 
liumanity. There is certainly an inherent self-love in every one which 
is his preservation. Without it all improvement, all happiness, health, 
safety, and even life itself, would be forfeited. But tiiere is also an 
inherent sympathy with others more or less clearly manifested. Witness 
the evident distress of the very young child when he thinks his mother or 



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NOTES, 389 

his nurse is in pain. Certainly no thought of self intrudes there; it is 
natural, sincere, and instinctive. The reason why the former impulse is 
generally so strong and the latter comparatively so weak is chiefly 
because the one is called so continually into action, and the latter so 
seldom. It is true that even at birth the tendency to one or the other 
may be extremely disproportionate. One child will be naturally warm 
and loving, another cold and self-centered. But if the sympathetic 
impulse exist ever so faintly it is capable of cultivation, and will richly 
reward the effort by its growth. 



IN LIGHTER MOOD. 



It is not always safe or wise to rebuke too strictly or too openly the 
shortcomings of others. The danger of such procedure is well illustrated 
by the following incident: 

A Catholic priest was displeased with what he considered the back- 
sliding of a young girl in his parish. He met her one day in a crowd, 
and thought it well to rebuke her for neglected duty. Looking at her 
severely, he said: 

**Good morning, child of the evil one." 

"Good morning, father," she answered sweetly. 
mm* 

Here is a good story of Mark Twain's first and second meetings with 
President Grant. At their first interview Mr. Clemens was a negligeable 
literary quantity, and, when the introducing senator said, '*Mr. President, 
may I have the privilege of introducing Mr. Clemens?" "the President," 
relates Mr. Clemens, "gave my hand an unsympathetic wag and dropped 
it. He did not say a word, but just stood. In my trouble I could not 
think of anything to say; I merely wanted to resign. There was an 
awkward pause, a dreary pause, a horrible pause. Then I thought of 
something, and looked up into that unyielding face and said timidly, 
*Mr. President, I — I am embarrassed. Are you?' 

"His face broke, just a little — a wee glimmer — the momentary flicker 
of a summer-lightning smile seven years ahead of time; and I was out 
and gone as soon as it was." 



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890 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

After the lapse of ten years, when Mr. Clemens had '^arrived" and 
was indeed the best-known author in America, ''Mr. Harrison came over 
and led me,** relates the humorist, ''to the General, and formally intro- 
duced me. Before I could put together the proper remark, General 
Grant said, 'Mr. Clemens, I am not embarrassed. Are youf — and that 
little seven-year smile twinkled across his face again." 



An itinerant preacher of more zeal than discretion, passing along a 
country road, met a simple looking countryman driving a cart of peat, 
and asked him, "Do you believe in Godf 

"Yes, sir," he answered. 

"Do you read your Bible, pray to your Maker, and attend chorch 
regularly r 

On these questions being answered in the affirmative, the preacher 
said: "Go on your way rejoicing; you are on the high road to heaTen." 
The peasant flourished his whip, giving it an extra crack, and drove on, 
greatly pleased at the intelligence. 

Shortly afterwards, the preacher met another person, and put the 
first question to him. The man with a look of surprise, said, "What 
is your business what I believe?" 

"Alas," replied the preacher, '*you are in the gall of bittemess and 
the bond of iniquity; look at that poor fellow whistling so pleasantly 
along the road; he is on the high road to heaven." 

"It may be sae, sir," said the man, "but, if he's gaun there, to my 
certain knowledge he's gaun wi' a cairt o' stolen peat." 
* * * 

A cotemporary recalls the story of Fred Archer, the great English 
jockey and a distinguished surgeon. Archer was one day severdy 
"savaged" by a bad-tempered horse, who happened to catch the great 
jockey napping, and got his toes between his teeth. Archer went to 
consult a leading surgeon, a gentleman whose skill had won for him the 
title of baronet, sent in his card, and hobbled into the great man's con- 
sulting room. The surgeon examined the injury, which he pronounced 
to be of a grave character, and one necessitating a long period of com- 
plete rest. 

"How long must I lay up r asked Archer. 

'^e interview, it should be stated, took place early in April 

"Three months' rest, with careful treatment and proper diet, would 
be sufficient." 

"But what about the Derby?" asked the patient. 



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LIGHTER MOOD. 391 

**The Derby?" repeated the surgeon. 

**! must be there," said Archer — "I absolutely must !" 

"Well, well," said the surgeon soothingly, ''take great care of your- 
self, and if you make satisfactory progress you may go." 

"Go — ^yes; but can I ride?" 

"Well," said the surgeon, "you had better drive, I think." 

He had read the name upon his patient's card, but it had meant 
to him nothing more than a name. 

'Tou mustn't think me rude, Mr. Archer," he said, when his guest 
had explained his identity and calling, but I take no interest in any 
branch of sport, and I had never heard your name." 

"Well," said Archer, I hope you won't think me rude either; but, till 
a friend advised me to consult you, I had never heard your name either. 
And when I asked my friend who you were, he said, 'He is the Fred 
Archer of the surgical profession.' " 

* * * 

Mr. Laurence Hutton tells a story of Edwin Booth that reveals the 
kindly heart of the man whom the world knew as a famous actor. 
Mr. Hutton called upon Mr. Booth one afternoon at the Albemarle Hotel, 
in New York, and found him in an easy-chair, with a pipe in his mouth. 
The long chat which ensued was not undisturbed. Mr. Booth was in 
great request, and before long a waiter entered and put a card into his 
hand. 'ITell the lady that Mr. Booth is engaged," was the quiet answer; 
and an influential leader in New York society went away disappointed. 
A few minutes later a second caller — a man honorably known through- 
out the country — turned away without seeing Mr. Booth. Yet another 
card was sent down, with the statement that "Mr. Booth was engaged," 
and a gentleman and his wife, whom few people would have refused to 
receive, became convinced that the actor was an exception to the rule; 
but at last came a name that met with a different fate. "Show the lady 
up," said the now interested actor, and Mr. Hutton put on his overcoat to 
leave the room. He was not allowed to depart. The lady was a friend 
of his, and would be glad to see him, he was assured. Therefore he 
waited, curious to discover the identity of the person who could obtain 
an audience with the man who had been too tired to see the daughter of 
one of the most distinguished men of science in the country, or a judge 
of the Supreme Court of the United States, or a bishop and his wife. The 
door opened and in walked black Betty, the old negro servant who had 
nursed Mr. Booth's daughter when she was a baby, had taken the most 
tender care of his wife when she was slowly dying, and been a life-long 
friend to them all. She had left Mr. Booth's service after his daughter's 



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892 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

marriage, and had been recently married herself. She kissed *%»» 
Edwin's'' hand, shook hands cordially with Mr. Hntton, and let herself be 
placed in the most comfortable rocking-chair. Then she began to talk 
familiarly aboat her own affairs and Mr. Booth's. She conld not afford to 
go to the theatre ''no mo'," she said, but she wanted her husband to see 
''Massa Edwin play." Could she have a pass for two that night? He 
wrote the pass at once, and put it into her hand. She read it^ and returned 
it with a shake of her head. 'They was only niggers," she said. 'The 
do'keeper wouldn't let no niggers into the orchestra seats; a pass to the 
gallery was good enough for them." A second paper she received silentl j, 
but with another and more decided shake of her head. Glancing oyer 
her shoulder, Mr. Button read, "Pass my friend Betty Blank and party to 
my box this evening. Edwin Booth." And Betty occupied the box. 
* * * 

An excellent story is told of Lord Russell of Killowen, Lord Chief 
Justice of England. When a 'young man. Lord Russell was extremely 
fond of the stage, and frequently spent his evenings at one or other of 
the theatres. One evening he was forced to stand, there being no vacant 
seats in the pit. Just as the curtain was raised, an old gentleman who 
was standing in the passage shouted out, "My watch has been stolen, 
and one of these four men has it ! " — pointing to a small group, among 
whom Russell was standing, close to the comer of the stage. Of coorse 
there was a tremendous hubbub, every one in the pit standing up to have 
a look at the daring gang. A policeman was soon on the spot, and the 
whole four were led out to be examined. It immediately occurred to 
young Russell that the real thief, on the alarm being raised, might have 
slipped the watch into his — Russell's — pocket. Sure enough, on placing 
his hand upon his tail-coat pocket, he could feel the outline and hard 
surface of the watch quite distinctly. Visions of a career blasted on its 
threshold by a sordid charge of pocket-picking rose before him. Just as 
he was about to place his hand in his pocket land take out the "watch," 
in the hope that his explanation might be believed, a couple of detectives 
came in. They immediately seized one of the men, and, going up to 
Russell and his two fellow-suspects, said, "It's all right, gentlemen, yon 
can go. We've got our man here; he's one of the best-known pick- 
pockets in London." The "bulgy" thing in the future Lord Chief 
Justice's pocket was — his snuff-box! 



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OUR WORK^ 



FINISH THE COURSjE OP STUDY. 



Before the next issue of the Era the season's Matual Improvement 
work for 1898-9 will have nearly drawn to a clc^e. In our agricultural com- 
munities members of the associations will be called away to the pursuits 
of the agriculturist and stock raiser, and the association meetings will 
have adjourned. It is therefore opportune at this time to call attention 
to the approaching close of the seascn's work and urge earnest effort to 
complete the Manual course for this year, that the way may be prepared 
for taking up a new course when the active work of the associations 
shall be again resumed. It is to be hoped that this winter's course of 
studies has resulted in the members of our associations making them- 
selves pretty thoroughly acquainted with the New Testament outside of 
the four Gospels; that is, with the Acts of the Apostles and the various 
Epistles which, with the biographies of Christ, called the Gospels, make 
up the New Testament. That indeed was the chief object of the Manual 
course this year, and it is to be hoped that the efforts of this winter 
have not failed in their chief object. 

This year's course of study coupled with last ought, therefore, to 
make our young men fairly well acquainted with that very important 
volume of scripture, the New Testament. 

It has not yet been decided by the General Board what subject 
will be taken up in the next Manual, but when the importance and 
desirability of instructing our young men in the things pertaining to 
the Dispensation of the Fullness of Times is taken into account, in all 
probability the next Manual will treat directly some phase of that dis- 
pensation; and we shall in all probability begin the study of those great 
events and those great principles which are immediately connected with 
the dispensation in which we are called upon to work. We urge again, 



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894 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

therefore, that the present Manual course be completed; if possible, even 
though associations should find it necessary to hold special meetings during 
the closing weeks of the season's work, and where this exertion fails to 
complete the course, that members be urged upon to complete it during 
the summer by private study ; and it may be, as was the case in some of the 
associations in completing the Manual on the Life of Christ, that the 
monthly conjoint sessions held during the summer months can be «n- 
ployed for this purpose. In any event get through — ^by the employment 
of some one or other or all of the means here suggested — with the preset 
year's Manual and be prepared for the next. 



A WORD ABOITT THE ERA. 



The Improvebcent Era has been received with very general f8V(ff 
by members of the associations, and many hundreds of Latter-day Saints 
not immediately connected with active association work; and high words 
of commendation especially have been received from our missionary Eldos 
to whom the magazine this year, as last, has been sent free. We have 
refrained from making any mention of these words of commendation as 
we certainly have no disposition to indulge in what would amount to self- 
praise, but the reception that has been accorded our Mutual Improvement 
Organ is evidence of the favor with which it has been accepted. In a 
few instances, however, we have heard complaint made from a few of 
our younger members in the associations to the effect that the matter in 
our magazine was too serious, and treats of subjects which are far be- 
yond the comprehension of many of our readers. In some respects we 
are inclined to admit the reasonableness of this criticism, and int^ to 
do what can reasonably be done to remove the occasion for such com- 
plaint; but at the same time we desire to call the attention of our young 
men to the fact that from the commencement it was intended that the 
Improvement Era should be a serious publication; one devoted tea 
treatment, first of all, to religous topics, especially those having direct 
relation to the great work of God in the last days; and after that to the 
consideration of all great and important subjects of general interest as 
they might arise; certainly reading that would be merely entoiaining 
and amusing was the least of the objects we had in view. Our purpose 
was to publish a magazine that would be instructive, especially on the 



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OUR WORK. 395 

lines that we have indicated, and we feel that in the pnrsnit of that 
object we have not failed. A review of the articles published in Vol. I., 
and thus far in yd. II., will easily demonstrate to those who shall make 
it that a valoable collection of matter on important snbjects has been 
presented to the readers of the Era; and instead of catering too much to 
this demand for lighter reading matter, the object of which is chiefly to 
amnse and pass an idle hour, we urge our young men, and ask the friends 
of the Ear to call the attention of their associates to the necessity of 
themselves rising to the consideration of important subjects. 

We would further remark that it is not possible to publish a maga- 
zine every article of which will be entirely satisfactory to every reader. 
We shall account ourselves exceptionally successful if we succeed in pro- 
ducing an article which now and then to every reader will be worth to 
him more than the price of the magazine, and that this has been done in 
the course of our publication of the Era we have abundance of reasons 
to believe, because of the numerous expressions from our patrons to that 
effect. 

To our Mutual Improvement members, therefore, we say: brethren 
view this matter from the standpoint that we now present it to you, and 
remember that the Latter-day Saints, of all people, must be an earn- 
est people; we have a serious and important message to deliver to the 
world; we have other objects to attain in life besides amusement and the 
pleasant passing away of time. Whatever other people may do, however 
they may dispose of their time, upon us rests the responsibility of making 
known to the children of men the important message that God has con- 
veyed, through the Prophets of the Church of Christ, to mankind; and to 
be equipped for the maintenance of the truthfulness of this message is a 
part of the duty that devolves upon us, and that duty cannot be dis- 
eharged by considering life as merely a hugh joke and the main object 
therein pleasure and social enjoyment. 



REPORT OP M. I. MISSIONARY WORK. 



The Mutual Improvement missionary work for the winter of 1898-9 
closed on the last of February. Elders of the Church laboring under the 
direction of the committee appointed by the General Board have been sent 
into every Stake of Zion, and nearly every settlement has been visited. 



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396 IMPROVEMENT ERA^ 

About one hundred and fifty Elders participated in this work, and 
that great good has resulted from their efforts cannot be questioned, and 
especially is this the case in a number of the frontier stakes. In one of 
those stakes twenty-six baptisms are reported as the result of the work 
there. Concerning the work in another the following is reported to the 
committee: 
Bdoved Brethren: 

Inclosed please find our report from January 24th to February 14th. 

The brethren conclude in this Stake today; will start for Emery to- 
morrow. 

I wish I could express to you, in words, the real condition of affairs 
as a result of our missionary work. Stake Conference has just been 
held and all the Bishops and the Stake Presidency were so favorably 
impressed with the Improvement Mission work that it was the prind- 
pal theme of the Conference in all of their speaking. The Stake with 
all its organizations and associations is in a better condition than it has 
been for years, which I attribute to the mission work done in our midst 
Eifi^hty-five baptisms have followed the work of the brethren, a spirit of 
reformation is felt everywhere. Everybody seems interested, ^le 
Gospel has been preached in power and plainness, as we seldom hear it 

The enrollment in a large number of instances has been increased,, 
though the work in this respect is not to be compared with the achieve- 
ments of last year, and largely for the reason that so much was accom- 
plished in that direction last year, that not nearly so much was left to 
be done this year. Quite a large number of individual reformations, 
which promise to be permanent, have been brought to pass through this 
work, and that beyond question is the chief thing. 

The Elders as a rule have been earnest and energetic, and are 
deserving of all praise for their unselfish efforts in behalf of this canse. 
We suppose that by this time they have all returned home from their 
fields of labor and in behalf of the General Board and the Missionary 
Committee who have directed their efforts we express appreciation of 
what they have done, thank them and pray that God will bless and pros- 
per them for all time to come. 

As a general thing also the Presidents of stakes and Bishops of 
wards and the Saints everywhere have received these missionary brethren 
with great kindness and rendered them every aid that could be expected. 
To all such we wish to say God bless you for your interest in this cause ; 
and may that interest grow until it shall be universally recognized that 
there is a perfect unity of effort between the parents in Israel and the 
officers of the Mutual Improvement Associations in bringing to pass the 
reformation and perpetual progress of the youth of the Church. 

In some instances it is reported that officers of associations have 
complained of the results of this missionary work, because, forsooth, of tiie 



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OUR WORK. 397 

great increase in the enrollment of members, many of whom do not, at 
least immediately, become active in association work — and perhaps not 
regular in their attendance. Thd complaint is that the membership is 
increased but not the average attendance, and it gives the association 
apparently a bad record. To snch officers, however, we say: Do not com- 
plain, bnt bend all your energies to making these newly bronght-in 
members active factors in yonr association work as fast as possible. 
Look not so much to your record of average attendance as to whether 
you do not have more young men actually in attendance by reason of the 
larger enrollment, brought to pass through the missionary labor than 
you would have had without it. That is the thing to have in mind rather 
than whether or not your attendance relative to your enrollment is more 
or less. Our effort should be to reach with the influence of our work 
the largest possible number of young men; and whatever plans will 
result in that should be followed irrespective of what seeming effect it 
may have upon the record of our associations. 

A more detailed statement of M. I. missionary work may be looked 
for in a later issue, when the returns shall have been completed. 



A THffiD EDITION OP MANUAL FOR 1897-8. 



Such has been the demand for the M. I. A. Manual of 1897-8 which, 
it will be remembered, treats of ''The Life of Jesus,** that already two 
editions have been published and disposed of, and still there is a demand 
for this excellent Manual. Soon after the Improvement Associations 
commenced using it as* a text-book it found its way into the Sunday 
School theological classes, and then into such classes in the Elder's and 
Seventy's quorums until the demand for it was and continues to be very 
general. The fir^t and second edition having been exhausted the Gen- 
eral Board has detendined upon the publication of a third edition, and 
accordingly it is now in the press, and will soon be on sale at the Era 
office. We trust that M. I. A. officers will note this fact and give it as 
wide publicity as possible. Of the merits of the 1897-8 Manual it is 
not necessary to speak as it is now well known, and the publishing of 
three editions within two years is sufficient evidence that its merits are 
appreciated. 

The price will be the same as heretofore — twenty-five cents per 
copy. Send your orders to Thomas Hull, Era Office, Templeton Building, 
Salt Uke City. 



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EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 

BY THOMAS HULL, SBCRBTARY OF THE GENERAL BOARD OP T. M. M. L A. 



January 2Atk, 1899: The second annual convention of the National 
Live Stock Association convenes at Denver. * * * The debate on the 
anny reorganization bill is opened in the House of Representatives 
♦ ♦ ♦ Wm. M. Stewart is re-elected Senator from Nevada. ♦ • • 
Senor Lopez, secretary to Agoncillo, the Washington representative of 
Aquinaldo, files with the State Department a demand for the official recog- 
nition by the United States of the Filipinos' representative. 

26th: Former Attorney-General Augustus H. Garland is stricken 
with apoplexy while addressing the United States Supreme Court, and 
expires almost immediately. 

27th: The situation in the Philippines is regarded as critical by the 
officials at Washington. 

30th: Agoncillo, the Philippine representative at Washington files 
another protest against the attitude of the United States government 
towards the Filipino "republic." 

31st: The army reorganization bill passes the House. The bill as 
passed provides, in addition to the general officers and staff departmttitB, 
for twelve regiments of cavalry of twelve troops e^h, one hundred and 
forty-four coast batteries, twenty-four field batteries, thirty regiments 
of infantry of twelve companies each, a corps of engineers and one regi- 
ment of engineers, an ordnance department, a signal corps, the latter 
with six hundred and twenty-five enlisted men. It also gives the Presi- 
dent discretion to recruit the organizations serving in Cuba, Porto 
Rico and the islands of the Pacific, in whole or in part from the inhabit- 
ants thereof. 

February Ist: General Gomez, Commander-in-Chief of the Cuban 
army, telegraphs President McKinley assuring him of his cooperation in 



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EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 399 

disbanding the Cuban anny and in distributing among the soldiers the 
$3,000,000 appropriated to enable them to return to their homes. 

4th: The insurgents make an attack upon the city of Manila and a 
fierce battle is fought. ♦ ♦ ♦ The old war cry of "No Popery," so 
long silent in England, is being raised again. The people are fiercely 
wrought up. The issue is overriding party programs and forcing leaders 
to declare themselves on the question of the separation of the church 
from parliamentary strife. 

5th : The following dispatch is received in Washington from Admiral 
Dewey: 

Manila, Feb. 5, 1899. 
To the Secretary of the Navy, Washington: 

Insurgents here inaugurated general engagement 
yesterday night, which has continued today. The 
American army and navy is generally successful. 
Insurgents have been driven back and our line is ad- 
vancing. No casualties to the navy. 

Dbwby. 

Other reports state that the insurgents were repulsed with great loss. 

6th: The treaty of peace, negotiated by the commissioners of the 
United States and Spain, at Paris, was today ratified by the United States 
Senate, the vote being fifty-seven ayes and twenty-seven nays, or three 
votes more than the two-thirds majority necessary to secure Senatorial 
concurrence in a treaty document. * * * Another fierce battle is 
fought at Manila and the insurgents are again badly punished. The Utah 
batteries in both engagements render important service in the very front 
of the battles. Dr. Harry Young, Ck)rporal John G. Young and Private 
Wilhelm Groodman of the Utah batteries are killed and Corporal Geo. B. 
Wardlaw, Private P. Anderson and Isaac Russell wounded. Dr. Harry 
Young was a son of the late Lorenzo D. Young, brother of President 
Brigham Young. All dispatches received speak of the splendid work of 
the Utah Artillerymen whose guns did most effective service and the dis- 
cipline of the command was perfect. 

8th: Aguinaldo applies to General Otis for a cessation of hostilities 
and a conference. General Otis declines to answer. * * * The Utah 
batteries are assigned to the most advanced post on the American line at 
Manila. * * * * The commission appointed by President McKinley to 
investigate the conduct of the war, submits its report to the Pesident. 
The report is a voluminous document and handles every department of 
the service and makes many suggestions. No intelligent synopsis can be 
made in the space available in these ^'Events." 



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400 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

10th: The American forces attack the town of Caloocan near 
Manila and drive the Filipinos oat. The attack is begun by the monitor 
Monadnoek and gunboat Concord throwing a shower of shells into the 
town. The Sixth Artillery and the Utah Battery then opened fire and 
the Utahns did very fine work. Captain Hall of the British warship 
Narcissus, British Consul Ramsden, and other foreigners who witnessed 
the fight bestow the highest encomiums on our troops and especially com- 
mend the excellent work done by the Utah artillery. 

12th: An insane asylum bums at Yankton, South Dakota, and seven- 
teen lives are lost. 

13th: The most severe blizzard in its history visits Washington 
D. C. Snow three feet deep blocks the streets and all traffic is suspended 
and business at a standstill. The storm also reached New York City 
and Philadelphia, in both of which places business is practically suspended. 
* * * Word reaches Washington that Lieutenant Geo. A. Seaman, of 
Utah Battery B was wounded in the engagement at Caloocan. * * * 
The following dispatch is received in Washington from General Otis: 

Manila, Feb. 13, 1899. 
General Miller reports fromlloilo that the town was 
taken on the 11th inst. and held by troops. Insurgents 
given until evening of the 13th to surrender, but their 
hostile actions brought on engagement during the morn- 
ing. Insurgents fired the native portion of town. But 
little losses to property of foreign inhabitants. No 
casualties among the troops reported. Ons. 

15th: Over $1,000,000 worth of government property is destroyed 
by fire in the Brooklyn navy yard. ♦ ♦ ♦ The National Council of 
Women elects Mrs. Emeline B. Wells second recording secretary. * * * 
President McKinley conveys assurances to some of the party leaders in 
Congress, in addition to those given last week, that he will certainly call 
Congress together in extra session if it fails to pass the army reorgani^ 
ation bill at the present session. 

16th: M. Felix Faure, president of the Republic of France dies at 
10 o'clock p. m. of apoplexy. 



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IMPROVEMENT ERA. 



Vol. n. APRIL, 1899. No. 6. 



ORIENTAL REUGIOUS FAITHS- 



BRAHMO-SOMAJ. 

BY PROTAB CHUNDER MOZOOMDAR. 
From the Daily ReporU qf the Parliament of Rdtgiofu, Chicago, 1898. 



[The Editors of the Era are of the opinion that the following arti- 
cle detailing a great reform movement in India will be interesting to 
the yonng men of the Church not only on account of the light it throws 
upon religious affairs in India, but especially because it describes a move- 
ment in India that may be said to be contemporaneous with that of "Mor- 
monism'' in the western world, and, moreover, was a movement began 
by a mere lad. Raja Ram Mohan Roy, who, after completing the organi- 
lation of the Braluno^maj, died yoTing.— Editors. 

Sixty-three years ago the whole land of India— the whole 
country of Bengal— was full of mighty clamor. The great jarring 
noise of a heterogeneous polytheism rent the stillness of the sky. 
The cry of widows; nay, far more lamentable, the cry of those 



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402 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

miserable women, who had to be burned on the funeral pyre of 
their dead husbands^ desecrated the holiness of God's earth. 

We had the Buddhist goddess of the country, the mother of 
the people, ten handed, holding in each hand the weapons for the 
defense of her children. We had the white goddess of learning, 
playing on her vena, a stringed instrument of music, the strings 
of wisdom, because, my friends, all wisdom is musical, where there 
is a discord there is no deep wisdom. The goddess of good fortune 
holding in her arms, not the horn, but the basket of plenty, blessing 
the nations of India, was there, and the god with the head of an 
elephant, and the god who rides on a peacock — ^martial men are 
always fashionable* you know — and the thirty-three million of gods 
and goddesses besides. 

Amid the din and clash of this polytheism and so-called evil, 
amid all the darkness of the times, there arose a man, a Brahman, 
pure bred and pure bom, whose name was Raja Ram Mohan Roy. 
In his boyhood he had studied the Arabic and Persian; he had 
studied Sanskrit, and his own mother was a Bengalee. Before he 
was out of his teens he made a journey to Thibet and learned the 
wisdom of the Lamas. 

Before he became a man he wrote a book proving the false- 
hood of all polytheism and the truth of the existence of the living 
God. This brought upon his head persecution, nay, even such 
serious displeasure of his own parents that he had to leave his 
home for awhile and live the life of a wanderer. In 1830 this 
man founded a society known as the Brahmo-Somaj; Brahma, as 
you know, means God. Brahmo means the worshiper of God, and 
Somaj means society; therefore Bahmo-Somaj means the society 
of the worshipers of the one living God. While on the one hand 
he established the Brahmo-Somaj, on the other hand he co-operated 
with the British Government to abolish the barbarous custom of 
suttee, or the burning of widows with their dead husbands. In 
1832 he traveled to England, the very first Hindu who ever went 
to Europe, and in 1833 he died, and his sacred bones are interred 
in Brisco, the place where every Hindu pilgrim goes to pay his 
tributes of honor and reverence. 

This monotheism, the one true living God — ^this society in the 



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ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS. 403 

name of this great God — ^what were the underlying principles upon 
which it was established? The principles were those of the old 
Hindu scriptures. The Brahmo-Somaj founded this monotheism 
upon the inspiration of the Vedas and the Upanishads. When 
Raja Ram Mohan Roy died his followers for awhile found it nearly 
impossible to maintain the infant association. But the Spirit of 
Ood was there. The movement sprang up in the fulhiess of tune. 
The seed of eternal truth was sown in it; how could it die? Hence 
in the course of time other men sprang up to preserve it and con- 
tribute toward its growth. Did I say the Spirit of God was there? 
Did I say the seed of eternal truth was there? There! Where? 

All societies, all churches, all religious movements have their 
foundation not without but within the depths of the human souL 
Where the basis of a church is outside the floods shall raise, the 
rain shall beat, and the storm shall blow, and like a heap of sand 
it will melt into the sea. Where the basis is within the heart, 
within the soul, the storm shall rise, and the rain shall beat, and 
the flood shall come, but like a rock it neither wavers nor falls. 
So that movement of the Brahmo-Somaj shall never fall. Think 
for yourselves, my brothers and sisters, upon what foundation 
your house is laid. 

In the course of time, as the movement grew, the members 
began to doubt whether the Hindu scriptures were really infalli- 
ble. In their souls, in the depth of their intelligence, they thought 
they heard a voice which here and there, at first in feeble accents, 
contradicted the deliverances of the Vedas and the Upanishads. 
What shall be our theological principles? Upon what principles 
shall our religion stand? The small accents in which the question 
first was asked became louder and louder and were more and more 
echoed in the rising religious society until it became the most 
practical of all problems — upon what book shall true religion 
stand? 

Briefly, they foimd that it was impossible that the Hindu 
scriptures should be the only records of true religion. They found 
that the spirit was the great source of confirmation, the voice of 
God was the great judge, the soul of the indweller was the revealer 
of truth, and, although there were truths in the Hindu scriptures. 



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404 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

they could not recognize them as the only infallible standard of 
spiritual reality. I^o twenty-one years after the foundation of ihe 
Brahmo-Somaj the doctrine of the infallibility of the Hindu scrip- 
tures was given up. 

Then a further question came. The Hindu scriptures only 
not infallible! Are there not other scriptures also? Did I not tdl 
you the other day, that on the imperial throne of India Christianity 
now sat with the Gospel of Peace in one hand and the sceptre 
of civilization in the other? The Bible had penetrated into India; 
its pages were unfolded, its truths were read and taught The 
Bible is the book which mankind shall not ignore. Recognizing, 
therefore, on the one hand the great inspiration of the l^ndu 
scriptures, we could not but on the other hand recognize the 
inspiration and the authority of the Bible. And in 1861 we pub- 
lished a book in which extracts from all scriptures were given as 
the book which was to be read in the course of our devotions. 

Our monotheism, therefore, stands upon all Scriptures. That 
is our theological principle, and that principle did not emanate 
from the depths of our own consciousness, as the donkey wasdeUr^ 
ered out of the depths of the German consciousness; it came out as 
the natural result of the indwelling of God's Spirit within our fel- 
low believers. No, it was not the Christian missionary that drew 
our attention to the Bible; it was not the Mohammedan priest who 
showed us the excellent passages in the Koran; it was no Zoroaa- 
trian who preached to us the greatness of his Zend-Avesta; but 
there was in our hearts the God of infinite reality, the source qf 
inspiration of all the books, of the Bible, of the "Koran, of the 
Zend-Avesta, who drew our attention to his excellences as revealed 
in the record of holy experience everywhere. By his leading and 
by his light it was that we recognized these facts, and upon the 
rock of everlasting and eternal reality our theological basis was laid. 

What is theology without morality? What is the inspiration 
of this book or the authority of that prophet without personal holi- 
ness — ^the cleanliness of this God-made temple and the cleanliness 
of the deeper temple within. Soon after we had got through our 
theology the question stared us in the face that we were not good 
men, pure-minded, holy men, and that there were innumerable evib 



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ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS. 405 

around 0% in onr honses, in onr national nsagea, in the organization 
of onr society. The Brahmo-Somaj, therefore, next laid its hand 
npon the reformation of society. In 1851 the first intermarriage 
was celebrated. Intermarriage in India means the marriage of per- 
sons belonging to different castes. Caste is a sort of Chinese wall 
that surrounds every household and every little community, and 
beyond the limits of which no audacious man or woman shall stray. 
In the Brahmo-Somaj we asked, ^'Shall this Chinese wall disgrace 
the freedom of God's children foreverr Break it down; down 
with it, and away! 

Next, my honored leader and'friend, Eeehub Chunder Sen, so 
arranged that marriage between different castes should take place. 
The Nrahmans were offended. Wiseacres shook their heads; even 
leaders of the Bramo-Somaj shrugged up their shoulders and put 
their hands into their pockets. ''These young firebrands,'' they 
said, ''are going to set fire to the whole of society." But inter- 
marriage took place, and the widow marriage took place. 

Do you know what the widows of India are? A little girl of 
ten or twelve years happens to lose her husband before she knows 
his features very well, and from that tender age to her dying day 
she shall go through penances and austerities and miseries and 
loneliness and disgrace which you tremble to hear of. I do not 
approve of or understand the conduct of a woman who marries a 
&r8t time and then a second time and then a third time and a fourth 
time — ^who marries as many times as there are seasons in the year. 
I do not understand the conduct of such men and women. But I 
do think that when a little girl of eleven loses what man called her 
husband, and who has never been a wife for a single day of her life, 
to put her to the wretchedness of a live-long widowhood, and inflict 
upon her miseries which would disgrace a criminal, is a piece of 
inhumanity which cannot too soon be done away witL Hence inter- 
marriages and widow marriages. Our hands were thus laid upon 
the problem of social and domestic improvement, and the result of 
that was that very soon a rupture took place in the Brahmo-Somaj. 
We young men had to go — ^we, with all our social reform — and 
shift for ourselves as best we might When these social reforms 
were partially completed there came another question. 



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406 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

We had married the widow; we had prevented the btimmg of 
widows; what about our personal pnrity, the sanctification of otit 
own consciences, the regeneration of our own souls? What about 
onr acceptance before the awful tribunal of the God of infinite jus- 
tice? Social reform and the doing of public good is itself only 
legitimate when it develops into the all-embracing principle of 
personal purity and the holiness of the soul. 

My friends, I am often afraid, I confess, when I contemplate 
the condition of European and American society, where your activ- 
ities are so manifold, your work is so extensive, that you are 
drowned in it and you have little time to consider the great ques- 
tions of regeneration, of personal sanctification, of trial and jadg- 
ment, and of acceptance before God. That is the question of all 
questions. A right theological basis may lead to social reform but 
a right line of public activity and the doing of good is bound to 
lead to the salvation of the doer's soul and the regeneration of 
public men. 

After the end of the work of our social reform we were there- 
fore led into this great subject. How shall this unregenerate nature 
be regenerated; this defiled temple, what waters shall wash it into 
a new and pure condition? All these motives and desires and evfl 
impulses, the animal inspirations, what will put an end to them dl, 
and make man what he was, the immaculate child of God, as Christ 
was, as all regenerated men were? Theological principle firsts 
moral principle next, and in the third place the spiritual of the 
Brahmo-Somaj. 

Devotions, repentance, prayer, praise, faith; throwing our- 
selves entirely and absolutely upon the Spirit of God and upon his 
saving love. Moral aspirations do not mean holiness; a desire of 
being good does not mean to be good. The bullock that carries on 
his back hundredweights of sugar does not taste a grain of sweet- 
ness because of its unbearable load. And all our aspirations, and 
all our fine wishes, and all our fine dreams, and &ie sermons, either 
hearing or speaking them — going to sleep over them or listening 
to them intently — ^these will never make a life perfect. Devotion 
only, prayer, direct perception of God's Spirit, conmmnion with 
him, absolute self-abasement before his majesty; devotional fervor 



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ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS FAITHS, 407 

devotional excitement, spiritual absorption, living and moving in 
God — ^that is the secret of personal holiness. 

And in the third stage of our career, therefore, spiritual 
excitement, long devotions, intense fervor, contemplation, endless 
self-abasement, not merely before God but before man, became the 
rule of our lives. God is unseen; it does not harm anybody or 
make him appear less respectable if he says to God: '1 am a 
sinner; forgive me." But to make your confessions before man, 
to abase yourselves before your brothers and sisters, to take the 
dust off the feet of holy men, to feel that you are a miserable 
wretched object in God's holy congregation — ^that requires a little 
self-humiliation, a little moral courage. Our devotional life, 
therefore, is twofold, bearing reverence and trust for God and 
reverence and trust for man, and in our infant and apostolical 
church we have, therefore, often immersed ourselves into spiritual 
practices which would seem absurd to you if I were to relate them 
in your hearing. . ^^ 

The last principle I have to take up is the progressiveness of 
the Brahmo-Somaj. Theology is good; moral resolutions are good; 
devotional fervor is good. The problem is, how shall we go on 
ever and ever in an onward way, in the upward path of progress 
and approach toward divine perfection? God is infinite; what 
limit is there to his goodness, or his wisdom, or his righteousness? 
All the scriptures sing his glory; all the prophets in the heaven 
declare his majesty; all the martyrs have reddened the world with 
their blood in order that his holiness might be known. God is the 
one infinite good; and, after we have made our three attempts of 
theological, moral and spiritual principle, the question came that 
God is the one eternal and infinite, the inspirer of all human kind. 
The part of our progress then lay toward allying ourselves, toward 
affiliating ourselves with the faith and the righteousness and the 
wisdom of all religions and all mankind. 

Christianity declares the glory of God; Hinduism speaks about 
his infinite and eternal excellence; Mohammedanism, with fire and 
sword, proves the almightiness of his will; Buddhism says how 
joyful and peaceful he is. He is the God of all religions, of all 
denominations, of all lands, of all scriptures, and our progress lay 



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406 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

in hannoiuzing these varioas syBt^nfly these yarions prophecies 
and developments into one great CQrstem. Hence the new system 
of religion in the Brahmo-Somaj is called ''new dispensation.^ The 
Christian speaks in terms of admiration of Christianity; so does 
the Hebrew of Judaism; so does the Mohammedan of the Koran, 
so does the Zoroastrian of the Zend-Avesta. The Christian admires 
his principles of spiritual culture; the Hindu does the same; tiie 
Mohammedan does the same. 

But the Brahmo-Somaj accepts and harmonizes all these pre- 
cepts, systems, principles, teachiogs, and disciplines, and makes 
them into one system, and that is his religion. For a whole decade 
my friend, Eeshub Chunder Sen, myself and other apostles of the 
Brahmo-Somaj have traveled from village to village, from province 
to province, from continent to continent, declaring this new dis- 
pensation and the harmony of all religious prophesies and qrstems 
into the glory of the one true, living God. But we are a subject 
race; we are uneducated; we are incapable; we have not the 
resources of money to get men to listen to our message. In the 
fullness of time you have called this august parliament of religions, 
and the message that we could not propagate you have taken into 
your hands to propagate. We have made that the gospel of our 
lives, the ideal of our very being. 

I do not come to the sessions of this Parliament as a more 
student, not as one who has to justify his own system. I come as 
a disciple, as a follower, as a brother. May your labors be 
blessed with prosperity, and not only shall your Christianity and 
your America be exalted, but the Brahmo-Somaj will feel most 
exalted; and this poor man who has come such a long distance to 
crave your sympathy and your kindness shall feel himself amply 
rewarded. 

May the spread of the new dispensation rest with you and 
make you our brothers and sisters. Representatives of all rdi- 
gions, may all your religions merge into the Fatherhood of God 
and in the brotherhood of man, that Christ's prophecy may be 
fulfilled, the world's hope may be fulfilled and mankind may become 
one kingdom with God our Father. 



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A MYSTERIOUS VISITOR 



A TALE FOR THE TWILIGHT. 



As far as I am myself concerned with the following facts, I 
am folly prepared to vouch for their authenticity; but the reliance 
to be placed on the other parts of the recital must be at the option 
of the reader, or his conviction of their apparent truth. I am 
neither over credulous nor sceptic in matters of a superhuman 
nature; I would neither implicitly confide in unsupported assertions, 
nor dissent from well attested truths; but at the same time I must 
confess, that although rather inclined to be a non-believer in the 
supernatural, I have sometimes listened to details of supernatural 
occurrences so borne out by concurring testimony as almost to fix 
, my wavering faith. It is now nearly thirty years since I was a 
partial witness to the following circumstance, at my father's house 
in Edinburgh; and though, during that period, time and foreign 
climates may have thinned my locks and furrowed my brow a little, 
they have never effaced one item of its details from my memory, 
nor warped the vivid impression which it left upon my recollection. 
It was in the winter of 18 — the occurrence took place. I 
remember the time distinctly, by the circumstance of my father 
being absent with his regiment, which had been ordered to Ireland 
to reinforce the troops then engaged in quelling the insurgents, 
who had risen in rebellion in the summer of that year. There was 
an old retainer of our house, who used at that time to be very 
frequently about us; she had nursed my younger brother and my- 
self, and the family felt for her all the attachment due to an old 



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410 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

and faithful inmate. I remember distinctly her appearance; her 
neatly plaited cap and scarlet ribbon, her white fringed apron and 
purple quilted petticoat, are all as fresh in my memoiy as yester- 
day, and though nearly sixty at the period I speak of, she retamed 
all the activity and good humor of sixteen. Her strength was but 
little impaired, and as she was but slightly affected by fatigue or 
watching, she was in the habit of engaging herself as a nurse- 
tender in numerous respectable families, who were equally pre- 
possessed in her favor. 

The winter was drawing near a close, and we were begimung 
to be anxious for the return of my father, who was expected home 
about this time; when old Nurse, as we always called her, came to 
tell us of an engagement she had got to attend a young gentleman, 
who was lying dangerously ill in one of the streets of the Old Town; 
for at that time few of the fine palaces of the New Town had been 
even thought of, and many a splendid street now covers what was 
then green fields and waving meadows. She mentioned that a 
physician, who had always been very kind to her, had recommended 
her to this duty; but as the patient was in a most critical state, the 
manner of her attendance was to be very particular. She was to 
go every evening at eight o'clock, to relieve another who remained 
during the day, and to be extremely cautious not to speak to the 
young man, unless it was urgently necessary, nor make any motion 
which might in the slightest degree disturb the few intervals of 
rest which he was enabled to enjoy: but she knew neither the name 
nor the residence of the person she was to wait on. There seemed 
to be something past the common in all this, and I remember per- 
fectly well my mother desiring her to call soon, and let her know 
how she was coming on, and any further matter she might be aUe 
to learn, but nearly six weeks had elapsed, and we had never once 
seen or heard of her, when my mother at last resolved on sending 
to learn whether she was sick, and to say she was longing to see 
her again. 

The servant on his return, informed us that poor Nurse had 
been dangerously ill, and confined to her bed almost ever since she 
had been from us; but she was now some little better, and had pro- 
posed coming to see us the following day. She came accordingly; 



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A MYSTERIOUS VISITOR, 411 

but oh, so altered in so short a time, no one would have believed it! 
She was almost double, and could not walk without support; her 
flesh and cheeks were all shrunk away, and her dim lustreless eyes 
almost lost in their sockets. We were all startled at seeing her: 
it seemed that those six weeks had produced greater changes in 
her than years of disease in others; but our surprise at the effect 
was nothing, when compared to that which her recital of the 
cause excited; when she informed us of it, and as we had never 
known her to tell a falsehood, we could not avoid placing implicit 
confidence in her words. 

She told us that in the evening, according to appointment, the 
physician had conducted her to the residence of her charge, in one 
of the narrow streets near the abbey. It was one of those exten- 
sive old houses, which seem built for eternity rather than time, and 
in the constructing of which the founder had consulted convenience 
and comfort more than show or situation. A flight of high stone 
steps brought them to the door, and a dark staircase of immense 
width, fenced with balustres a foot broad, and supported by rail- 
ings of massy dimensions, led to the chamber of the patient. 
This was a lofty wainscoated room, with a window sunk a yard 
deep in the wall, and looking out upon what was once a garden at 
the rear, but now grown so wild that the weeds and rank grass 
almost reached the level of the wall which enclosed it. At one 
end stood an old-fashioned square bed, where the young gentleman 
lay. It was hung with faded Venetian tapestry, and seemed itself 
as large as a moderate-sized room. At the other end, and opposite 
to the foot of the bed, was a fire-place, supported by ponderous 
stone buttresses, but with no grate, and a few smoldering turf 
were merely piled on the spacious hearth. There was no door, 
except that by which she had entered, and no other furniture than 
a few low chairs, and a table covered with medicines and draughts 
beside the window. The oak which covered the walls and formed 
the panels of the ceiling, was as black as time coidd make it, and 
the whole apartment, which was kept dark at the suggestion of the 
physician, was so gloomy that the glimmering of the single candle 
in the shade of the fire-place could not penetrate it, and cast a 
faint gleam around, not sad, but absolutely sickening. 



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412 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

WhOst the doctor was speaking in a low tone to tbe invalid, 
Nnrse tried to find out some fartber particolars from the oth^ 
attendant, who was tying on her bonnet, and preparing to muffle 
herself in her plaid before going away; for, as I said before, it was 
winter and bitterly cold. She conld gain no information from her, 
however, although she had been in the situation for a considerable 
time. She could not tell the name of the gentleman; she only 
knew that he was an Oxford student; but no one save herself and 
the doctor, had ever crossed the threshold to inquire after him, 
nor had she ever seen any one in the rest of the house, which she 
believed to be uninhabited. The doctor and she soon went away, 
after leaving a few unimportant directions. 

Nurse closed the door behind them, and shivering with the cold, 
frosty gust of air from the spacious lobby, hastened to her duty, 
wrapped her cloak about her, drew her seat close to the hearth, 
replenished the fire, and conmienced reading a volume of Mr. Alex- 
ander Penden's Prophecies, which she had brought in her pocket 
There was no sound to disturb her, except now and then a blast of 
wind which shook the withered trees in the garden below, or the 
"'death-watch,'^ which ticked incessantly in the wainscoat of the 
room. In this manner an hour or two elapsed, when, concluding, 
from the motionless posture of the patient, that he must be asleep, 
she rose, and taking the light in her hand, moved on tiptoe across 
the polished oaken floor, to take a survey of his features and appear- 
ance. She gently opened the curtains, and bringmg the light to 
bear upon him, started to find that he was still awake; she attempted 
to apologize for her curiosity by an awkward tender of her services 
but apology and offer were equally useless; he moved neither limb 
nor muscle; he made not the faintest reply; he lay motionless on 
his back, his bright blue eyes glaring fixedly upon her, his under- 
lip fallen, and his mouth apart, his cheek a perfect hollow, and his 
long, white teeth projecting fearfully from his shrunken lips, whilst 
his bony hand, covered with wiiy sinews, was stretched upon the 
bed-clothes, and looked more like the claws of a bird than the 
fingers of a human being. She felt rather uneasy whilst looking 
at him; but when a slight motion of the eyelids, which the light 
was too strong for, assured her he was still living, which she was 



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A MYSTERIOUS VISITOR. 413 

half inclined to doubt, she returned to her seat and her book by 
the fire. 

As she was directed not to disturb him, and as his medicine 
was only to be administered in the morning, she had but little to 
do, and the succeeding two hours passed heavily away; she con- 
tinued, however, to lighten them by the assistance of Mr. Penden, 
and by now and then crooning and gazing over the silent flickering 
progress of her turf fire, till about midnight, as near as she could 
guess, the gentleman began to breathe heavily and appeared very 
uneasy; as, however, he spoke nothing, she thought perhaps he 
was asleep, and was rising to go toward him, when she was sur- 
prised to see a lady seated on a chaur near the head of the bed 
beside him. Though something startled at this, she was by no 
means alarmed, and, making a courtesy, was moving on as she had 
intended, when the lady raised her arm, and turning the palm of 
her hand, which was covered with a white glove towards her, 
motioned her silently to keep her seat. She accordingly sat down 
as before, but she now began to wonder within herself how and 
when this lady came in: it was true she had not been looking to- 
wards the door, and it might have been opened without her per- 
ceiving it; but then it was so cold a night, and so late an hour, it 
was this which made it so remarkable. 

She turned quietly round, and took a second view of her vis- 
itor. She wore a black veil over her bonnet, and, as her face was 
turned towards the bed of the invalid, she could not in that gloomy 
chamber perceive her features, but she saw that the shape and turn 
of her head and neck were graceful and elegant in the extreme; 
the rest of her person she could not so well discern, as it was 
enveloped in a green silk gown, and the fashion at that period was 
not so favorable to a display of figure as now. It occurred to her 
that it must be some intimate friend who had called in; but then 
the woman had told her that no visitors had ever come before; 
altogether, she could not well understand the matter, but she 
thought she would observe whether she went off as gently as she 
had entered; and for that purpose she altered the position of her 
chair so as to command a view of the door, and fixed herself with 
her book on her knees, but her eye intently set upon the lady in the 



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414 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

green gown. In this position she remained for a considerable time, 
but no alteration took place in the room; the stranger sat evidently 
gazing on the face of the sick gentleman, whilst he heaved and 
sighed and breathed in agony as if a night-mare was on him. Nurse 
a second time moved towards him in order to hold him up in bed, 
or give him some temporary relief; and a second time the myster- 
ious visitant motioned her to remain quiet; and unwillingly, but by 
a kind of fascination, she complied, and again commenced her 
watch. But her position was a painful one, and she sat so long 
and so quietly that at last her eyes closed for a moment, and when 
she opened them the lady was gone, and the young man was once 
more composed, and, after taking something to relieve his breath- 
ing he fell into a gentle sleep, from which he had not awakened 
when her colleague arrived in the morning to take her place, and 
Nurse returned to her own house about day-break. 

The following night she was again at her duty; she came 
rather beyond her time, and found her companion abready muffled 
and waiting impatiently to set out She lighted her to the stairs, 
and heard her close the hall door behind her; when, on returning 
to the room, the wind, as she shut the door, blew out her candle. 
She relighted it, however, from |the dying embers, roused up the 
fire, and resumed as before, her seat and her volume of propecies. 

The night was stormy, the dry crisp sleet hissed on the window, 
and the wind sighed in heavy gusts down the spacious chimney; 
whilst the rattling of the shutters, and the occasional clash of a 
door in some distant part of the house, came with a dim and hollow 
echo along the dreary, silent passages. She did not feel so com- 
fortable as the night before; the whistling of the wind through 
the trees made her flesh creep involuntarily; and sometimes the 
thundering clap of a distant door made her start and drop her book, 
with a sudden prayer for the protection of heaven. She was think- 
ing within herself of giving up the engagement, and was half re- 
solved to do so on the morrow; when all at once her ear was struck 
with the heavy throes and agonized breathing of her charge, and, 
on raising her head, she saw the same lady in the green gown seated 
in the same position as on the night before. Well, thought she, 
this is unusually strange; but it imme(liately struck her that it must 



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A MYSTERIOUS VISITOR. 415 

be some inmate of the house, for what human being could venture 
out in such a dreary night, and at such an hour? — but then her 
dress: it was neither such as one could wear in the streets on a 
wintry night, nor yet such as they would be likely to have on in 
the house at that hour; it was, in fact, the fashionable summer 
costume of that time. She rose and made her a courtesy and spoke 
to her politely, but got no reply save the waving of her hand, by 
which she had been silenced before. At length the agitation of 
the invalid was so increased, that she could not reconcile it to her 
duty to sit still whilst a stranger was attending him. She accord- 
ingly drew nearer to the bed, in spite of the repeated beckonings 
of the lady, who, as she advanced, drew her veil closer across her 
face, and retired to the table at the window. Nurse approached 
the bed, but was terrified on beholding the countenance of her 
patient: the big drops of cold sweat were rolling down his pale 
brow; his livid lips were quivering with agony; and, as he motioned 
her aside, his glaring eyes followed the retreating figure in the 
green gown. She soon saw that it was in vain to attempt assisting 
him; he impatiently repulsed every proffer of attention, and she 
again resumed her seat, while the silent visitor returned to her 
place by his bedside. Rather piqued at being thus baffled in her 
intention of kindness, but still putting from her the idea of a 
supernatural being, the old woman again determined to watch with 
attention the retreat of the lady, and observe whether she resided 
in the house, or took her departure by the main door. She almost 
refrained from winking in order to secure a scrutiny of her motions; 
but it was all in vain; she could not remember to have taken off 
her glance for a moment, but still the visitant was gone. It seemed 
as if she had only changed her thoughts for an instant, and not her 
eyes, but that change was enough; when she again reverted to the 
object of her anxiety, the mysterious lady had departed. As on 
the foregoing night, her patient now became composed, and en- 
joyed an uninterrupted slumber till the light of morning, now 
reflected from heaps of dazzling snow, brought with it the female 
who was to relieve guard at the bed of misery. The following 
morning Nurse went to the house of the physician who had 
engaged her, with the determination of giving up the task in which 



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416 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

she was employed. She felt uneasy at the thought of retahung it^ 
as she had never been similarly situated before; she always had 
some companion to speak to, or was at least employed in an m- 
habited house; but besides she was not by any means comfortable 
in the visits of the nightly stranger. She was disappointed; how- 
ever, by not finding him at home, and was directed to return at a 
certain hour; but as she lay down to rest in the meantime, she did 
not awake till that hour was long past. Nothing then remdned 
but to return for the night, and give warning of her intention on 
the morrow; and with a heavy, discontented heart she repaired to 
the gloomy apartment. The physician was already there when she 
arrived, and received her notice with regret; but was rather sor- 
prised when she informed him of the attentions of the strange lady, 
and the manner in which she had been prevented from performing 
her duty; he, however, treated it as a common-place occurraice, 
and suggested that it was some affectionate relative or friend of 
the patient, of whose connections he knew nothing. At last he 
took his leave, and Nurse arranged her chair and seated herself to 
watch, not merely the departure but the arrival of her fair frieni 
As she had not, however, appeared on the former occasions till the 
night was far advanced, she did not expect her sooner, and en- 
deavored to occupy her attention till that time by s(Hne other 
means. But it was all in vain, she could only think of the one 
mysterious circumstance, fix her dim gaze on the blackened trelis- 
work of the ceiling, and start at every trifling sound, which was 
now doubly audible, as all without was hushed by the noiseless 
snow in which the streets were imbedded. Again, however, her 
vigilance was eluded, and as, wearied with thought, she raised 
her head with a long-drawn sigh and a yawn of .fatigue, she 
encountered the green garments of her unsolicited companion. 
Angry with herself, and at the same time unwillmg to accuse her- 
self of remissness, she determined once again that she should not 
escape unnoticed. There hung a feeling of awe around her when- 
ever she approached this singular being, and when, as before, the 
lady retired to another quarter of the room as she approached the 
bed, she had not courage to follow her. Again the same distressing 
scene of suffering in her unfortunate charge ensued; he gaq»ed 



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A MYSTERIOUS VISITOR. 417 

and heaved till the noise of his agony made her heart sicken within 
her; when she drew near his bed his corpse-like features were con- 
vulsed with a feeling which seemed to twist their relaxed nerves 
into the most fearful expression, while his ghastly eyes were strain- 
ing from their sunken sockets. She spoke, but he answered not; 
she touched him, but he was cold with terror, and unconscious of 
any object save the one mysterious being whom his glance followed 
with steady, fixed intensity. I have often heard my mother say 
that Nurse was naturally a woman of very strong feelings, but 
here she was totally beside herself with anxiety. She thought 
that the young gentleman was just expiring, and was preparing to 
leave the room in search of further assistance, when she saw the 
lady again move toward the bed of the dying man; she bent above 
him for a moment, whilst his writhings were indescribable; she 
then moved stately towards the door. Now was the moment! 
Nurse advanced at the same time, laid her one hand on the latch, 
whilst with the other she attempted to raise the veil of the 
stranger, and in the next instant fell lifeless on the floor. As she 
glanced on the face of the lady, she saw that a lifeless head filled 
the bonnet; its vacant sockets and ghastly teeth were all that could 
be seen beneath the folds of the veil. Daylight was breaking the 
following morning when the other attendant arrived, and found 
the poor old woman cold and benumbed, stretched upon the floor 
beside the passage; and when she looked upon the bed of the 
invalid he lay stiffened and lifeless, as if many hours had elapsed 
since his spirit had shaken off its mortal coiL One hand was 
thrown across his eyes, as if to shade them from some object on 
which he feared to look; and the other grasped the coverlet with 
convulsive firmness. 

The remains of the mysterious student were interred in the 
old Galton burying ground, and I remember, before the new road 
was made through it, to have often seen his grave; but I never 
could learn his name, what connection the spirit had with his story, 
or how he came to be in that melancholy, deserted situation in 
Edinburgh. I have mentioned at the commencement of this nar- 
ration that I will vouch for its truth as far as regards myself, and 
that is merely that I heard the poor old woman herself tell all the 
extraordinary circumstances as I have recited them, and a very 



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418 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

few weeks before her death, with a fearful accuracy. Be it as it 
may, they cost her her life, as she never recovered from tiie 
effects of the terror, and pined and wasted away to the honr of her 
death, which followed in about two months after the fearful occur- 
rence. For my part, I firmly believe all she told us; and though 
my father, who came home the spring following, used to say it 
was all a dream or the effects of imagination, I always saw too 
many concurrent circumstances attending it to permit me to think 
so. 



THE AZIOLA. 



"Do you not hear the Aziola cry? 
Methinks she must be nigh.'' 

Said Mary, as we sate 
In dusk, ere stars were lit or candles brought; 

And I, who thought 
This Aziola was some tedious woman, 
Aflk*d, "Who is Aziolar— How elate 
I felt to know it was nothing human. 
No mockery of myself or fear, or hate: 

And Mary saw my soul. 
And laugh'd, and said, "Disquiet yourself not; 

^Tis nothing but a little downy owl." 

Sad Aziola! many an eventide 

Thy music I had heard 
By wood and stream, meadow and mountain side, 
And fields and marshes wide 
Such as nor voice, nor lute, nor wind, nor bird 

The soul ever stirred; 
Unlike — and far sweeter than them all. 
Sad Aziola! from that moment I 
Loved thee, and thy sad cry. 

Shelley. 



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EARLY SCENES AND INCIDENTS IN THE 

CHURCH. 



BY OUVBB COWDERY. 



LETTER IV. 

Dear Brother. — ^In my last, I apologized for the brief maimer 
in which I should be obliged to give, in many instances, the history 
of this church. Since then yours of Christmas has been received. 
It was not my wish to be understood that I coidd not give the 
leading items of every important occurrence, at least so far as 
would effect my duty to my fellow-men, in such as contained 
important information upon the subject of doctrine, and as woidd 
render it intelligbly plain; but as there are, in a great house, 
many vessels, so in the history of a work of this magnitude, many 
items which would be interesting to those who follow, are for- 
gotten. In fact, I deem every manifestation of the Holy Spirit, 
dictating the hearts of the saints in the way of righteousness to 
be of importance, and this is one reason why I plead an apology. 

You will recollect that I mentioned the time of a religious 
excitement in Palmyra and vicinity to have been in 17th year 
of our brother Joseph Smith, Jr.'s, age. This brings the date down 
to the year 1823. 

I do not deem it to be necessary to write further on the sub- 
ject of this excitement. It is doubted by many whether any real 
or essential good ever residted from such excitements, while 
others advocate their propriety with warmth. 

The mind is easily called up to reflection upon a matter of 



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420 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

snch deep importance, and it is just that it sbould be; but there 
is a regret occupying the heart when we consider the deep anxiety 
of thousands, who are lead away with a vain imagination, or a 
groundless hope, no better than the idle wind or the spider's web. 

But if others were not benefitted, our brother was urged 
forward and strengthened in the determination to know for him- 
self of the certainty and reality of pure and holy religion. And it 
is only necessary for me to say, that while this excitement con- 
tinued, he continued to call upon the Lord in secret for a full 
manifestation of divine approbation, and for, to him, the all 
important information, if a Supreme Being did exist, to have an 
assurance that he was accepted of him. This, most assuredly, 
was correct — it was right. The Lord has said long since, and his 
, word remains steadfast, that to him who knocks it shall be opened, 
and whosoever will, may come and partake of the waters of life 
freeiy. 

To grant a humble penitent sinner a refreshing draught from 
this most pure of all fountains, and most desirable of all refresh- 
ments to a thirsty soul, is a matter for the full performance of 
which the sacred record stands pledged. The Lord never said — 
''Gome unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will 
give you rest," to turn a deaf ear to those who were weary, 
when they call upon him. He never said by the mouth of the 
prophet, "Ho every one that thirsts, come ye to the watws,'' 
without passing it as a firm decree, at the same time, that he 
that should after come, should be filled with a joy unspeakable. 
Neither did he manifest by the spirit to John upon the isle — "Let him 
that is athirst, come,'' and command him to send the same abroad, 
under any other consideration, than that "whosoever would, might 
take the water of life freely," to the remotest ages of time, or 
while there was a sinner upon his footstool. 

These sacred and important promises are looked upon in our 
day as being given, either to another people, or in a figurative 
form, and consequently require spiritualizing, notwithstanding 
they are as conspicuously plain, and are meant to be understood 
according to their literal reading, as those passages which teach 
us of the creation of the world, and of the decree of its Maker to 



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EARLY SCENES AND INCIDENTS IN THE CHURCH. 421 

bring its inhabitants to judgment. But to proceed with my 
narrative: 

On the evening of the 21st of September, 1823, previous to 
retiring to rest our brother's mind was unusually wrought up on the 
subject which had so long agitated his mind — his heart was drawn 
out in fervent prayer, and his whole soul was lost to everything of 
a temporal nature that earth, to him, had lost its charms^ and all 
he desired was to be prepared in heart to commune with some 
kind messenger who would communicate to him the desired infor- 
mation of his acceptance with God. 

At length the family retired, and he, as usual, bent his way, 
though in silence, where others might have rested their weary 
frames 'locked fast in sleep's embrace," but repose had fled, and 
accustomed slumber had spread her refreshing hand over others 
beside him— he continued stiil to pray — his heart, though once 
hard and obdurate, was softened, and that mind which had often 
flitted, like the ''wild bird of passage," has settled upon a deter- 
mined basis not to be decoyed or driven from its purpose. 

In this situation hours passed unnumbered — how many or 
how few I know not, neither is he able to inform me; but suppose 
it must have been eleven or twelve and perhaps later, as the noise 
and bustle of the family, in retiring, had long since ceased. 
While continuing in prayer for a manifestation in some way that 
his sins were forgiven; endeavoring to exercise faith in the scrip- 
tures, on a sudden a light like that of day, only of a purer and far 
more glorious appearance and brightness burst into the room. 
Indeed, to use Ids own description, the first sight was as though 
the house was filled with consuming and unquenchable fire. This 
sudden appearance of a light so bright, as must naturally be 
expected, occasioned a shock or sensation, visible to the extremities 
of the body. It was, however, followed with a calmness and 
serenity of mind, and an overwhelming rapture of joy that sur- 
passed understanding, and in a moment a personage stood 
before him. 

Notwithstanding the room was previously filled with light 
above the brightness of the sun, as I have before described, yet 
there seemed to be an additional glory surrounding or accompany- 
ing this personage, which shone with an increased degree of 



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422 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

brilliancy, of which he was in the midst; and though his counte- 
nance was as lightning, yet it was of a pleasing, innocent and 
glorious appearance, so much so, that every fear was banished 
from the heart, and nothing but calmness prevaded the souL 

It is no easy task to describe the appearance of a messenger 
from the skies — indeed, I doubt there being an individual clothed 
with perishable clay, who is capable to do this work. To be sure, 
the Lord appeared to his apostles after his resurrection, and we 
do not learn as they were in the least difSculted to look upon him; 
but from John's description upon Patmos, we learn that he is 
there represented as most glorious in appearance; and from other 
items in the sacred scriptures we have the fact recorded where 
angels appeared and conversed with men, and there was no diffi- 
culty on the part of the individuals, to endure their presence; 
and others where their glory was so conspicuous that they could not 
endure. The last description or appearance is the one to which I 
refer, when I say that it is no easy task to describe their glory. 

But it may be well to relate particulars as far as given. 
The stature of this personage was a little above the common size 
of men in this age: his garment was perfectly white, and had 
the appearance of being without seam. 

Though fear was banished from his heart yet his surprise was 
no less when he heard him declare himself to be a messenger sent 
by commandment of the Lord, to deliver a special message, and to 
witness to him that his sins were forgiven, and that his prayers 
were heard; and that the scriptures might be fulfilled which say— 
'"God has chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the 
things which are mighty; and the base things of the world, and 
the things which are despised, has God chosen; yea, and the 
things which are not, to bring to naught things which are, that no 
flesh should glory in his presence. Therefore, says the Lord, I 
will proceed to do a marvelous work among this people, even a 
marvelous work and a wonder; the wisdom of theur wise shall 
perish, and the understanding of their prudent shall be hid; for 
according to his covenant which he made with his ancient saints, 
his people the house of Israel, must come to a knowledge of the 
gospel, and win that Messiah whom their fathers rejected, and 



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EARLY SCENES AND INCIDENTS IN THE CHURCH. 423 

with them the fullness of the Gentiles be gathered in, to rejoice in 
one fold under one Shepherd." 

'This cannot be brought about until first certain prepara- 
tory things are accomplished, for so has the Lord purposed in his 
own mind. He has therefore chosen you as an instrument in his 
hand to bring to light that which shall perform his act» his 
strange act» and bring to pass a marvelous work and a wonder. 
Where ever the sound shall go it shall cause the ears of men to 
tingle, and where ever it shall be proclaimed, the pure in heart 
shall rejoice, while those who draw near to God with their 
mouths, and honor him with their lips while hearts are far from 
him, will seek its overthrow, and the destruction of those by whose 
hands it is carried. Therefore, marvel not if your name is made a 
derision, and had as a by-word among such if you are the instrument 
in bringing it, by the gift of God, to the knowledge of the people." 

He then proceeded and gave a general account of the 
promise made to the fathers, and also gave a history of the aborig- 
ines of this country, and said they were literal descendants of 
Abraham. He represented them as once being an enlightened and 
intelligent people, possessing a correct knowledge of the gospel, 
and the plan of restoration and redemption. He said this history 
was written and deposited not far from that place, and that it was 
our brother's privilege, if obedient to the commandments of the 
Lord, to obtain, and translate the same by the means of the Urim 
and Thummim, which were deposited for that purpose with the 
record. 

'Tet," said he, ''the scripture must be fulfilled before it is 
translated, which says that the words of a book, which were sealed, 
were presented to the learned; for thus has God determined to 
leave men without excuse, and show to the meek that his arm is 
not shortened that it cannot save." 

A part of the book was sealed, and was not to be opened yet. 
The sealed part, said he, contains the same revelation which was 
given to John upon the isle of Patmos, and when the people of the 
Lord are prepared, and found worthy, then it will be unfolded 
unto them. 

On the subject of bringing to light the unsealed part of this 
record, it may be proper to say, that our brother was expressly 



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424 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

informed, that it must be done with an eye single to the glory of 
God; if this consideration did not wholly characterize all his pro- 
ceedings in relation to it, the adversary of truth would overcome 
him, or at least prevent his making that proficiency in this 
glorious work which he otherwise would. 

While describing the place where the record was deposited, 
he gave a minute relation of it, and the vision of his mind being 
opened at the same time, he was permitted to view it critically; and 
previously being acquainted with the place, he was able to follow 
the direction of the vision, afterward, according to the voice of 
the angel, and obtain the book. 

I close for the present by subscribing myself as ever, yonr 
brother in Christ. 



SPRING. 



Spring! of hope, and love and youth, and gladdness, 

Wind-winged emblem! brightest, beet, and fairest! 
Whence comest thou, when, with dark winter's sadness, 

The tears that fade in sunny smiles thou sharest? 
Sister of joy, thou art the child who wearest 

Thy mother's dying smile, tender and sweet; 
Thy mother Atumn, for whose grave thou bearest 

Fresh flowers, and beams like flowers, with gentle feet. 

Disturbing not the leaves which are her winding sheet 

Leigh Hunt. 



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TERRITORIAL EXPANSION- 



BY PROFESSOR J. M. TANNER, PRESIDENT AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, 

LOGAN, UTAH. ♦ 



*^ Westward the course of empire takes its way," was a perfect 
expression of the great historical tmth when the immense terri- 
torial expanse of this western country lay before the vision of the 
statesmen of a generation ago. That expression may now be 
enlarged, and be made to include an imperial empire whose domains 
extend beyond the confines of the nation and beyond the sea. 
National expansion was the dream of more than one of onr great 
statesmen. They saw onr flag floating in the breezes of the arctic 
circle and extending its authority from the Polar seas on the north 
to the equator on the south. They looked beyond the seas and 
beheld our civilization making its way to distant lands and estab- 
lishing its authority among the semi-barbarous. 

Among the speculative expansionists of a generation past» 
there was, perhaps, no one greater than Secretary Seward. Over 
forty years ago, Mr. Seward, speaking in the Senate of the United 
States upon the commerce of the Pacific coast, painted this glow- 
ing picture: 

'*Even the discovery of this continent and its islands, and the 
organization of society and government upon them, grand and important 
as these events have been, were but conditional, preliminary and 
auxiliary to the more sublime result, now in the act, the consummation — 
the reunion of the two civilizations, which, having parted on the plains 
of Asia four thousand years ago, and having traveled ever afterwards in 



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426 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

opposite directions aroand the world, now meet again on the coast asd 
the islands of the Pacific ocean. Certainly, no mere human event of 
equal dignity and importance has ever occurred upon the earth. It will 
be followed by the equalization of the conditions of society and the resto- 
ration of the unity of the human family. We see plainly enough why 
this event could not have come before, and why it has come now. A 
certain amount of human freedom, a certain amount of human intelli- 
gence, a certain extent of human control over the physical obstacles to 
such a reunion was necessary. All the conditions have happened and 
occurred; liberty has developed under the improved forms of govern- 
ment, and science has subjected nature in western Europe and in Ame^ 
ica. Navigation improved by steam enables man to outstrip the winds, 
and intelligence conveyed by electricity excels in velocity the light With 
these varying circumstances there has come also a sudden abundance of 
gold, that largely releases labor from its long subjection to realiied 
capital. Sir, this movement is no delusion.'' * 

The American people have been, next to their English ances- 
tors, the greatest expansionists of any people in the world. From 
a total area of 827,844 square miles in 1790, they have grown to 
3,681,236 square miles in 1898. This territorial expansion has 
been of the most fortunate character. In the first place, it began 
by the incorporation of contiguous territory until it extended from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific. At each step the expansionists were 
met by the most solemn warnings, by the fear of a surrender of 
constitutional liberty, and the warnings contained in Washington's 
farewell address, namely, that we should not complicate our affairs 
with foreign nations, has been constantly in the minds of those 
who felt that in this expansion, or national aggrandisement of terri- 
tory, there were to be found the gravest dangers. As long as we 
were dealing, however, with contiguous territory, the commercial 
advantages and the political safety of our country furnished the 
most decisive argument in favor of a policy in which we have 
engaged from the very beginning. A large number, however, of 
influential statesmen have always opposed territorial expansion that 
would lead us beyond our continental boundaries and carry us over 
the sea. Many efforts were made to annex Cuba. At one time 



North American Review, July, page 80. 



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TERRITORIAL EXPANSION. 427 

the President of the United States purchased St. Thomas of 
Denmark. 

But these efforts of territorial expansion by annexation of 
islands were overcome. In 1867 Alaska was purchased from Russia 
through the influence of Seward. However, both Polk and Buchan- 
nan had favored the purchase of Alaska, so that this idea of Alas- 
kan purchase was not new with Seward. There was a determined 
and strong opposition to this new policy. Its opponents said that 
it foreboded no good; that it incorporated into the American com- 
monwealth a foreign people whose habits and customs were so 
much at variance with our own; that they never could be assimil- 
ated to our people by any form of government or education. 
Besides it was regarded as a commercial burden upon the country. 
Its resources were then very few. Its fisheries and its furs were 
the only resources for which we could hope. Yet how suggestive 
the acquisition of Alaska has been in the disposition which has 
grown up in the last few years to continue our old habits of terri- 
torial expansion! Just about the time we were taking up arms 
against Spain its great gold fields opened, which gave promise of 
millions and millions of wealth. The friends of Alaskan annexation 
were more and more vindicated. They called the attention of their 
opponents to the fact that Alaska was now to prove a great benefit to 
the United States. It would not only open its great treasures of gold, 
but it was rich in iron and other minerals which gave promise of 
commercial advantages to that territory, and they further held that 
the day was not far distant when the American people would colo- 
nize the territory to such an extent that it would become a fitted 
applicant for statehood. 

The argument of history, therefore, in every instance up to 
the acquisition of this territory in 1867, has been in favor of terri- 
torial expansion from a commercial as well as a political point of 
view. It is at this point, however, that those who will willingly 
acknowledge the benefits of America's policy in the past, hesitate 
and declare that we have reached the end; that we dare not go 
beyond the limit of safety; that the dangeraof further annexation 
are so grave as to threaten the overthrow of free institutions in 
our country, without bringing any corresponding good to the nations 
with which we are likely to interfere. 



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428 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

It is remarkable that only a few years ago when the question 
of the annexation of the Hawaiian islands was up the popular senti- 
ment throughout the United States defeated the efforts of the 
President to make those islands a part of this country. Popular 
sentiment was strong, too strong, to afford any encouragement to 
the expansionists. Just at the time when they felt that their policy 
of acquiring this group of tropical islands must be abandoned, war 
was opened with Spain. This is unquestionably the turning point 
in the history of the American people. It is entitled to the distinc- 
tion of one of three great national epochs. Though not compre- 
hended in its fullest extent, it is not too much to say that it stands 
on a parallel with the establishment of the Constitution and the 
achievements of the civil war. It means a foreign policy, some- 
thing the American people know but little about. It means the 
growth of a militant spirit, something the American people have 
been jealous of and regarded as inconsistent with the professions 
of a free republic. It means commercial complications abroad. 
Yet the spirit is here. There is a general feeling that we cannot 
surrender what we have acquired. We may not always be able to 
analyze the logic of events. It is sometimes styled our ' Wnifest 
destiny," and the argument ceases there. Fortunately for the 
expansionists, the spirit has taken /oot in the heroic feeling that 
has been engendered by the recent war. Benjamin Kidd, an 
English writer of great ability on social questions, observes that 
'It is one of the deepest truths of philosophy that the mean- 
ing of living things cannot be put into logical formulas.*' Respect- 
ing our own constitutional government he observes: 

''The spirit behind the CJonstitution of the United States is probably 
one of the most vital and healthy influences in the world; and yet, under 
the Constitution itself there are already the most illogical results. One 
of the fundamental principles of govemmeat in the United States is the 
assumption of the right of every citizen to liberty and the pursuit of 
happiness. The negro is a citizen of the United States, and yet in some 
states of the Union he is forbidden to marry a citizen of a different 
color. The Indian is a ward of the United States and not a citizen, and the 
Chinaman is forbidden to vote. All this is illogical. But it is not there- 
fore wrong; and the fact remains that the spirit behind the American 
constitution is probably one of the healthiest forces in the world." * 

* Atlantie Monihly^ December, 1898, page 726. 

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TERRITORIAL EXPANSION. 429 

There has always been — and justly so — a strong disposition 
to measure the commercial progress and territorial expansion by 
constitutional formulas, and already American statesmen are 
crossing bridges which in time to come, they feel sure, must be 
constructed. The question is asked, how shall we govern these 
distant islands inhabited by mongrel populations, of whom the 
great majority are in dense ignorance? Can we place them on an 
equal with ourselves? Can they ultimately attain to statehood? 
Is that the purpose of their annexation? or, behind this claim of 
national expansionists, is there a disposition to adopt a colonial 
policy? Then again, the commercial interests of this country 
have been aroused. They evidently see that financial policy of dis- 
tant islands cannot prudently be assimilated to our own. The pro- 
ducts of tropical islands are as a rule unlike those of the United 
States. Louisiana, however, sees a menace in the annexation of 
Cuba, fearing that this country might suffer from the free imports 
of sugar from that island. The annexation of Hawaii has already 
increased these dangers, and that of Cuba would make them grave 
indeed. 

The constitutional aspect of the question of annexation, is 
the one question that is now most seriously discussed in the news- 
pape